East Asia

Sum of Measures 1—5 (Total Package)

Total Package in USD Million: 2,330,693.24
% of GDP (2019): 16.10%
% of Regional Total Package: 81.97%
Package Per Capita in USD: 1,667.50
Note: Measures 9 and 10 are added to the sum of Measures 1-5.
Measure Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Details Update Source
01 - Liquidity Support info_outline CNY3,000,000,000,000 USD427,467,784,473
01A - Short-term lending info_outline CNY3,000,000,000,000 USD427,467,784,473

(i) CNY1.8 trillion for the expansion of re-lending and re-discounting facilities to support manufacturers of medical supplies and daily necessities, micro-, small- and medium-sized firms and the agricultural sector at low interest rates; (ii) In order to keep the liquidity stable, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) conducts reverse repo operations with peak amounts (since February 3, 2020) of CNY900 billion (for 7-day maturity and CNY300 billion (for 14-day maturity). On 14 August, PBOC conducted reverse repos in the amount of CNY150 billion (for 7-day maturity) at an interest rate of 2.2 percent. On October 23, PBOC conducted reverse repos in the amount of CNY70 billion (for 7-day maturity) at an interest rate of 2.2 percent. On October 30, PBOC conducted reverse repos in the amount of CNY100 billion (for 7-day maturity) at an interest rate of 2.2 percent .

01B - Support policies for short-term lending info_outline

No amount/estimate: (i) Targeted reserve requirement ratio cuts by 50-100 bps for large- and medium-sized banks that meet inclusive financing criteria which benefit smaller firms, an additional 100 bps for eligible joint-stock banks, and 100 bps for small- and medium-sized banks in April and May to support SMEs; (ii) reduction of the 7-day and 14-day reverse repo rates by 30 and 10 basis points (bps), respectively; (iii) PRC will encourage its financial institutions to make interest concessions as appropriate to businesses to help keep economic fundamentals stable, and ensure that all fee-cutting measures are fully executed on the ground in an effort to ease corporate burdens.

01C - Forex operations info_outline

The exchange rate has been allowed to adjust flexibly. A ceiling on cross-border financing under the macroprudential assessment framework was raised by 25% for banks, non-banks and enterprises.

02 - Credit creation info_outline CNY3,123,500,000,000 USD445,065,208,267
02A - Financial sector lending/funding info_outline CNY1,410,000,000,000 USD200,909,858,702

(i) Liquidity injection into the banking system via medium-term lending facility totaling of CNY1 trillion since January of this year ; (ii) June 8, the PBOC, to start buying up to CNY400 billion (US$56.1 billion) of loans that local lenders have provided to small businesses, giving local banks the ability to increase small business lending by as much as CNY1 trillion yuan; (iii) July 30, PBOC conducted a central bank bills swap (CBS) operation on July 30, 2020 in order to improve the liquidity of bank-issued perpetual bonds, support banks to replenish capital through perpetual bond issuance, and enable the financial sector to better serve the real economy. The operation registered RMB5 billion, with a term of three months and a rate of 0.10 percent; (iv) August 27, PBOC conducted a CNY5 billion CBS operation with a term of three months at a rate of 0.10 percent; (v) No amount/estimate: March 24, The State Council extended until the end of 2021 two PBoC lending programs that benefit small businesses. One program paid commercial banks 1% of a loan's principal (to a small business) for which the commercial bank deferred interest and payments. The other provided 40% of the principal for loans commercial banks make to qualifying small businesses

02B - Support policies for long-term lending info_outline CNY1,713,500,000,000 USD244,155,349,565
02B1 - Interest rate adjustments CNY1,500,000,000,000 USD213,733,892,237

(i) No amount/estimate: Reduction of the 1-year medium-term lending facility (MLF) rate and targeted MLF rate by 30 and 20 bps, respectively; (ii) No amount estimate: Reduction of the interest on excess reserves from 72 to 35 bps; (iii) June 17, The State Council encouraged financial institutions to provide CNY1.5 trillion (about $212 billion) worth of benefits to firms through cuts in interest rates and other methods this year. In order to support such firms, government at all levels have adopted policies like conducting differentiated supervision, increasing credit availability and mitigating loan risks ; (iv) No amount/estimate: PBOC announced the Loan Prime Rate (LPR) on June 22, 2020 as follows: the one-year LPR is 3.85% and the above-five-year LPR is 4.65%. The rates are effective until the next release; (v) No amount/estimate: The one-year interest rate charged by the PBOC's lending to financial institutions that take deposits - called the re-lending rate - decreased by 0.25 percentage point to 2.25 percent (aimed especially at increasing cheaper credit for agricultural and small firms). The rediscount rate dropped by the same extent to 2 percent. The bank also lowered the interest rates of re-lending for financial stability purposes by 0.5 percentage point to 1.75 percent.

02B2 - Other policies to support long-term lending CNY213,500,000,000 USD30,421,457,328

(i) Flexibility in the implementation of the asset management reform; (ii) The PBOC and the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC) allows the sale of coronavirus-relief bonds by financial institutions. China Development Bank issued the first batch of special bonds to fight the virus, equivalent of CNY13.5 billion at 1.65% for the purpose of emergency funding for affected firms; (iii) No amount/estimate: tolerance for higher NPLs for loans by epidemic-hit sectors and SMEs and reduced NPL provision coverage requirements; (iv) May 15, The PBOC lowered the reserve requirement ratio (RRR) by 0.5 percentage points, for rural financial institutions and urban commercial banks operating solely within provincial-level administrative regions. This marks the second phase, of RRR reduction for these types of banks, releasing about RMB200 billion of long-term funds; vii) No amount/estimate: September 30, the PBOC and the and the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission (CBIRC) issued the Notice on Establishing Mechanism of Countercyclical Capital Buffer, which shall come into force as of September 30, 2020. It specifies the provision methods, coverage and evaluation mechanism of countercyclical capital buffer in PRC, on the basis of the country’s reality and by referring to international practices as well as the relevant requirements put forward by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). In the meantime, in line with current systemic financial risk assessments and pandemic containment needs, it is clarified that the ratio for countercyclical capital buffer shall be initially set at zero and banking financial institutions shall be free from extra capital management requirements; (viii) No amount/estimate: October 23, The central government has rolled out measures to level the playing field for private businesses, including steps to lower operating costs and facilitate their investment in a wide range of sectors. Among the measures is the expanding the financing channels for businesses such as manufacturers that lack tangible assets for collateral. Rather than simply pressuring banks to scale up credit supply to private businesses, the guideline has highlighted the importance of a credit financing mechanism that encourages government departments, public institutions and major internet platforms to share companies' credit information with financial institutions. The guideline also said the scope of collateral for private businesses will be greatly expanded; (ix) No amount/estimate: PRC has established a unified national financing registration system that uses movable property and rights as pledges, which is expected to increase loans for small and medium-sized enterprises and improve the overall business environment.

02C - Loan guarantees

No amount/estimate: Increased fiscal support for credit guarantees.

03 - Direct long-term lending info_outline CNY357,018,000,000 USD50,871,231,159
03A - Long-term lending info_outline CNY357,018,000,000 USD50,871,231,159

(i) CNY350 billion for policy banks’ credit extension to micro- and small enterprises. expansion of policy banks’ credit extension line to private and micro- and small enterprises; (ii) In July, the State Council, China’s cabinet, announced it would allow 18 provincial-level governments to use up to CNY200 billion ($28.9 billion) in total from this year’s CNY3.75 trillion quota of special-purpose bonds (SPBs) to inject funds into banks in their jurisdictions that need support. At the time, the government only specified one channel for investment - convertible bonds, which banks can use to replenish their core tier-one capital, the highest-quality capital that a bank has to absorb losses; (iii) 9 February 2021, The National Development and Reform Commission approved the Foreign Capital Utilization Plan for New Development Bank financial intermediaries’ on-lending project to support China’s economic recovery from COVID-19. The project utilizes USD1 billion from the New Development Bank and adopts financial intermediaries’ on-lending form, with the Export-Import Bank and the Agricultural Development Bank as the implementing agencies to undertake the transfer loans of USD 700 million and USD 300 million respectively. The implementing agencies will provide short-term working capital loans or medium/long-term fixed asset investment loans to eligible sub-projects in accordance with the principle of not profit-oriented, independent selection, independent evaluation and risk-assumed. The implementing agencies will also provide the necessary matching domestic loans according to the actual situation; (iv) No amount estimate: March 24, 2021, PRC will extend the preferential policies of credit loan support for small and micro-sized enterprises to the end of the year, according to the State Council executive meeting.

03B - Forbearance

(i) No amount/estimate: The government has also taken multiple steps to limit tightening in financial conditions, including measured forbearance to provide financial relief to affected households, corporates, and regions facing repayment difficulties including delay of loan payments and other credit support measures for eligible SMEs and households and tolerance for higher NPLs for loans by epidemic-hit sectors and SMEs; (ii) No amount/estimate: June 5, PBOC introduced a policy allowing small and micro businesses to apply for deferring their inclusive loan repayments, maturing by end-2020 to March 31, 2021, with penalty payment exempted by providing 1% of the capital of SMEs’ loan applying for deferring repayments as the incentives for the local small and medium-sized commercial banks who lent those loans. SMEs who benefit from this measure should keep effective guarantee or alternative arrangements, use the loans for production and business purposes, and promise to maintain employment stable; (iii) No amount/estimate: December 29, further postponement of SMEs' principal and interest repayments on inclusive loans beyond the first quarter of 2021. Also, inclusive loans granted to small and micro-sized businesses will be extended as much as possible in line with market principles and upon consultations between enterprises and banks. The government will offer incentives that are equivalent to 1 percent of the loan principal to local banks that provide inclusive loans for small and micro-sized enterprises with a deferred repayment period of no less than six months; (iv) No amount estimate: March 24, 2021, PRC will extend the preferential policies of loan repayment deferral for small and micro-sized enterprises to the end of the year, according to the State Council executive meeting.

04 - Equity support info_outline CNY200,000,000,000 USD28,497,852,298

Policymakers are planning to allow local governments to replenish the capital of certain small and midsize banks to the tune of about CNY200 billion ($28.2 billion) in an effort to defuse bad-debt risks.

05 - Health and income support CNY9,252,210,000,000 USD1,318,340,570,061
05A - Health support CNY45,660,000,000 USD6,506,059,680

(i) No amount/estimate: June 17, Increased the subsidy standard for basic public health services per capita to 74 yuan, for the prevention and control of the new coronary pneumonia epidemic situation, to strengthen the grass-roots epidemic prevention and control; (ii) July 13, China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) has allocated CNY45.66 billion to boost the capacity for the prevention, control and treatment of diseases; (iii) No amount/estimate: August 5, The State Council has pledged to bolster China's COVID-19 testing capacity and develop technologies that can produce more accurate results more quickly as the country braces for a possible spike in infections in autumn and winter. Improving testing capacity will be a key measure in coordinating epidemic containment and socioeconomic development; (iv) No amount/estimate: The Customs Tariff Commission of the State Council lowered tariffs on various medical products, such as borosilicate glass tubes required for producing new corona virus vaccines; (v) No amount/estimate: 11 June 2021, Over 845 million COVID-19 vaccine doses administered across PRC according to the National Health Commission (NHC). 25 June 2021, More than 1.1 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered in PRC. 23 July 2021, 1.5249 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered in PRC; (vi) No amount/estimate: 11 June 2021, A State Council executive meeting was held on 9 June 2021 to decide on measures to deepen reform of the salary system at public hospitals.

05B - Income support CNY7,206,550,000,000 USD1,026,855,987,399
05B1 - Tax and contribution deferrals and policy changes

No amount/estimate: Small enterprises and self-employed businesses may defer CIT payment for the period from 1 May 2020 to 31 December 2020 to the first filing period in 2021

05B2 - Tax and contribution rates reduction CNY1,500,000,000,000 USD213,733,892,237

August 8, State Taxation Administration announced PRC's tax and fee cuts totaled over CNY1.5 trillion. The orderly implementation of China's tax and fee cut policies has helped invigorate market entities and strengthen the sustainability of enterprises' development

05B3 - Subsidies to individuals and households CNY7,115,000,000 USD1,013,811,096

(i) By the end of April, local governments had given out more than CNY6.5 billion worth of consumer vouchers, essentially government subsidised coupons or discounts that can be spent at designated venues, according to data from 42 cities collated by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS); (ii) July 9, the Ministry of Emergency Management announced an allocation of a total of CNY615 million for disaster relief in regions hit by floods; (iii) No amount/estimate: July 30, PRC decided to hand out financial aid to jobless rural workers and other unemployed groups not covered by unemployment insurance, according to the Ministry of Civil Affairs

05B4 - Subsidies to businesses CNY76,335,000,000 USD10,876,917,776

(i) No amount/estimate: June 3, Logistics costs will be further reduced to improve the efficiency of logistics, accelerating the recovery of production and the return to normal life following the COVID-19 epidemic, according to a guideline from the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Transport; (iii) No amount/estimate: June 24, the State Council announced that government will work to further shorten the time required for starting a business and better regulate the charges on businesses from industry bodies and associations, in an effort to lessen corporate burdens and spur their vitality; (iv) No amount/estimate: October 23, PRC seeks to lower overall production costs and provide an even fairer environment for privately-owned companies in the country with 38 new measures. Six bureaus, including the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance and the People's Bank of China, have collaborated on the document. Specific measures and guidelines in the document include lowering production costs by reducing electric prices for high electric-usage industries by 5 percent. It also standardized and called for lowering the management and service fees at harbors, roads and airports. In addition, it sought to lower the barriers for privately-owned enterprises to move across cities; (v) February 11, 2021, The Export-Import Bank of China (China EximBank) released over CNY76.3 billion of special bailout funds to companies last year. The funding mechanism, established at the beginning of 2020, has aimed to support companies stricken by COVID-19 and trade frictions with a focus on sectors related to foreign trade and manufacturing. As one of the sectors bearing the brunt of the pandemic, the air transport industry saw ten of its major firms receive more than CNY17 billion of such funds in 2020 ; (vi) February 17, 2021, Announcement that last year, the People's Insurance Company Group of China donated more than CNY35 million in epidemic prevention funds and provided about 32,000 enterprises with comprehensive insurance for work and production resumption; (vii) No amount/estimate: March 17, 2021, The Ministry of Finance extended tax breaks for the film industry, businesses involved in pandemic relief, and for charitable donations mean to benefit pandemic relief goals; (viii) May 12, 2021, Government will continue to optimize tax and fee cuts, reduce financing, labor, energy, land costs and implement other measures necessary to create a better business environment. According to the document, the country will extend the duration of value-added tax relief measures for small-scale taxpayers and increase their monthly sales tax threshold from CNY 100,000 ($15,560) to CNY150,000. In addition to the preferential policies already in force, China will halve the income tax for micro and small enterprises and self-employed individuals with annual taxable income of below CNY 1 million. In terms of supporting advanced manufacturing enterprises, the country will continue to implement the policy of granting an extra tax deduction of 75 percent for the research and development costs of enterprises, and raise the same to 100 percent for manufacturing enterprises.

05B5 - Indirect income support CNY1,623,100,000,000 USD231,274,320,326

Ii) May 28, CNY1.60 trillion for local governments' infrastructure projects to boost investment amid slowing economic activity and trade headwinds with the United States funded by increase in the ceiling for special local government bonds of 1.3 percent of GDP. The main buyers of such bonds have been state-owned policy banks. The government said expenditure on investment projects will rise by CNY22.4 billion for 2020; (ii) No amount/estimate: June 9, The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security proposed to increase vocational skills training efforts to increase the number of free online training and open-line training to areas severely affected by the epidemic and to expand the scope of free courses; (iii) June 23, estimated at CNY700 million: China Banking Regulatory Commission issued a "Notice on Hubei Province Insurance Legal Institutions and Branches Exempted from Payment of the 2020 Insurance Security Fund." with this exemption, insurance institutions will be able to provide better risk protection and financial support for the economic and social development of Hubei;

05B6 - No breakdown (income support) CNY4,000,000,000,000 USD569,957,045,964

April 15, CNY4 trillion to cover payment relief for enterprises of their contributions to social security schemes, and taps into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, interest concessions made by state-owned commercial banks, and price reductions in natural monopoly industries to lower enterprises’ operating costs. This money will be primarily used to support jobs, people’s basic living needs and businesses, and sustain household income.

05C - No breakdown (health and income support) CNY2,000,000,000,000 USD284,978,522,982

(i) May 28, announced CNY2 trillion in increase in fiscal deficits and issuance of special treasury bonds worth of CNY1 trillion of which CNY300 billion will be used by local governments for COVID-19 prevention and while the rest to support local governments’ operations. The increase of budget deficits and funds raised from the issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control will all be channeled to primary-level governments. Companies, especially smaller firms, will truly benefit from these funds, and people who live on social security schemes, subsistence allowance, unemployment benefits, old-age support and those living in difficulties will be able to benefit. August 27, PRC released fiscal funds of CNY2 trillion that aim to directly benefit businesses and people, and consolidate the foundation of the country's restorative growth. Nearly CNY300 billion of the total funds had been used to support tax and fee cuts by mid-August, while CNY1.674 trillion or 98.5 percent of the remaining 1.7 trillion yuan have been allocated by the central government. Local governments have spent CNY509.7 billion, accounting for 30.5 percent of CNY1.674 trillion in funds

06 - Budget reallocation info_outline
07 - Central bank financing government
07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown
07B - Secondary purchase: government securities
08 - International Assistance Received CNY3,759,371,018 USD535,670,000
08A - Swaps info_outline
08B - International loans/grants CNY3,759,371,018 USD535,670,000
08B1 - Asian Development Bank CNY1,267,955,200 USD180,670,000

(i) 7 February 2021, USD1 million of additional financing for Strengthening Regional Health Cooperation in the Greater Mekong Subregion; (ii) 20 February 2021, USD18.6 million for the COVID-19 Emergency Response Project; (iii) 30 March 2021, USD20 million for the COVID-19 Emergency Energy Supply Project; (iv) 15 April 2021, USD3.6 million reallocated from the Chongqing Longxi River Basin Integrated Flood and Enviromental Risk Management Project to finance purchase of ambulances, medical equipment and personal protection equipment, linked to the broadened disaster risk responses capacity of the project components by extending from flood and pollution emergencies to include public health emergencies; (v) 3 June 2021, USD.07 million technical assistance on Developing a Disaster Risk Transfer Facility in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Region; (vi) 13 July 2021, USD0.13 million technical assistance on Addressing Health Threats in the Central, West and East Asia Region; (vii) April 2020 Approval date, January-August 2021 commitment, USD5.96 million in guarantee and USD20.31 million in loans under the Supply Chain Finance Program (As of 24 September 2021) [update]; (viii) 13 November 2021, USD35.4 million loan for the COVID-19 Pharmaceutical Distribution Expansion Project; (ix) November 23, USD75 million Health Care Finance in Rural Areas for COVID-19 Response Project ; (x) 8 December 2021, USD0.60 million for Supporting the High-Quality Growth Agenda Post COVID-19 through Institutional Reforms.

08B2 - Other CNY2,491,415,818 USD355,000,000

April 3, AIIB's USD355 million Emergency Assistance to PRC's Public Health Infrastructure Project .

09 - International Assistance Provided CNY424,246,687,636 USD60,450,597,211
09A - Swaps info_outline CNY410,000,000,000 USD58,420,597,211

(i) October 22, With the approval of the State Council, the PBOC and the Bank of Korea extended a bilateral currency swap agreement, with the amount increased from RMB360 billion (KRW64 trillion) to RMB400 billion (KRW70 trillion). The agreement will be valid for a five-year period and can be extended on mutual consent. The currency swap extension between the two central banks will help stabilize the financial markets, expand the use of local currencies, and facilitate trade and investment; (ii) March 22, 2021, The Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) and the People’s Bank of China (PBoC) entered into a bilateral currency swap agreement with a view to promoting bilateral trade and direct investment for economic development of the two countries, and to be used for other purposes agreed upon by both parties. Under this agreement, CBSL is entitled for a swap facility amounting to CNY 10 billion (approximately US$ 1.5 billion). The agreement is valid for a period of three (3) years.

09B - International loans/grants CNY14,246,687,636 USD2,030,000,000

(i) USD30 million to support World Health Organization's efforts in combating the global coronavirus pandemic; (ii) President Xi Jinping announced concrete measures to boost global fight against COVID-19 including providing international aid and making the country's COVID-19 vaccine a global public good when available. China will provide $2 billion over two years to help with COVID-19 response and with economic and social development in affected countries, especially developing countries; (iii) No amount/estimate: June 17, within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, PRC annonced that it will cancel the debt of relevant African countries in the form of interest-free government loans that are due to mature by the end of 2020 ; (iv) No amount/estimate: October 7, A group of Chinese medical experts, who worked in the front line of the fight against the COVID-19 in Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak in PRC, arrived in Angola to exchange experience with local professionals and aid the country's fight against the pandemic; (v) No amount/estimate: January 21, 2021, The embassy of PRC in Iraq on Thursday delivered donation to Iraq, helping the government of Iraq confront the COVID-19 pandemic and improve the livelihood of Iraqi people. The donation includes 56 ambulances with their spare parts, 266 generators, and motorcycles, computers, laptops, printers, etc; (vi) No amount/estimate: February 18, 2021, announcement that PRC will donate 30,000 anti-coronavirus vaccines doses to Montenegro; (vi) No amount/estimate: 13 June 2021, A batch of COVID-19 vaccines donated by the PRC government arrived in Afghanistan; (vii) No amount/estimate: 16 June 2021, PRC would contribute 500,000 doses of Sinovac vaccines to Malaysia; (viii) No amount/estimate: 23 June 2021, PRC's donated Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Papua New Guinea; (ix) No amount/estimate: 24 June 2021, PRC donates oxygen generators, cylinders, masks to Pakistan to help fight COVID-19.

10 - No breakdown

No amount/estimate: August 4, PBOC noting that its policies in the first half of the year facilitated a speedy recovery of the national economy amid COVID-19, the PBOC said it will pursue a more flexible and appropriate monetary policy, making it more targeted, and effectively implement policies aimed at helping enterprises tide over difficulties and ensuring employment in the second half. The central bank also pledged to use a variety of monetary-policy tools to enable M2 money supply and aggregate financing to grow at notably higher rates than last year, while promoting a substantial growth in the inclusive loans to small and micro businesses and medium- and long-term loans to the manufacturing industry. Efforts will be made to leverage a CNY1 trillion ($143 billion) re-lending and rediscount quota and the policy instruments introduced in June to directly channel funds into the real economy and extend support to as many virus-hit micro and small companies as possible.

11 - Other Economic Measures

(i) Restrictions on the investment quota of foreign institutional investors (QFII and RQFII) were removed; (ii) No amount/estimate: Additional financing support for corporates via increased bond issuance by corporates; (iii) Announced that it will make regulatory arrangements for the performance commitment requirements and adjustment of restructuring plans for listed companies that are indeed affected by the epidemic . encouraging lending to SMEs, including uncollateralized SME loans from local banks and raising the target for large banks’ lending growth to micro- and small enterprises from 30 percent to 40 percent; (iv) July 13, The State Council, China's cabinet, has decided to implement more reform measures experimented with at the pilot free trade zones (FTZs) across the nation. It is the sixth batch of measures tested by the pilot FTZs before being implemented in other areas. To be replicated nationwide are measures covering five areas: investment management, trade facilitation, financial openness and innovation, operational and post-operational oversight, and human resources; (v) July 14, The government encourages the private sector to fund transportation infrastructure, and no restrictive threshold shall be set for private investment in this aspect ; (vi) Juy 10, PRC will allow foreign banks to gain access to fund custody business in its market, as part of efforts to further open up the financial sector. Eligible Chinese branches of foreign banks will be able to apply for permits for fund custody business, according to the newly-revised fund custody rules jointly issued by the China Securities Regulatory Commission and the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission; (vii) July 17, The new regulation on ensuring timely payments to small and medium-sized enterprises, which will go into effect on September 1, which will safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of SMEs, reduce their operational costs and optimize the business environment; (viii) July 28, The State Council has adopted a package of measures to facilitate investment and widen market access to improve the business environment and help counter the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Key policies include the removal of unreasonable market access barriers in the construction, education, healthcare and sports sectors, improving the efficiency of customs clearance and encouraging the growth of new business models ; (ix) July 28, A new regulation on ensuring timely payments to small and medium-sized enterprises, which will go into effect on Sept 1, will better safeguard legal rights and interests of SMEs and private enterprises that are now having a hard time due to the COVID-19 pandemic and create a fairer business environment, said industry insiders; (x) April 16, 2021, The government has announced 24 measures to stimulate market vitality and ensure "six priorities" and stability in six areas for steady economic momentum, with a focus on creating jobs, boosting market entities, expanding effective investment, stabilizing foreign trade and investment and safeguarding people's well-being, according to a document released by the general office of the State Council.

12 - Non-Economic Measures
12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international)

(i) In January 2020, the government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility restrictions, prioritizing regions and and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in new hotspots, including in the northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang province, and more recently in Beijing, Xinjiang, and Dalian. As of August 27, all these regions (except certain areas in Xinjiang) have lowered their emergency response level to Level III (low risk); (ii) 8 August 2021, Trips to Beijing from areas with high- or medium-risk for COVID-19 have been temporarily suspended. Its two airports have also suspended flights from more than a dozen cities nationwide.

12B - Measures affecting business and workplace

(i) In January 2020, the government imposed strict containment measures including the lockdown of Hubei province and large scale mobility restrictions at the national level. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases; (ii) As of August 27, 2020, all these regions (except certain areas in Xinjiang) have lowered their emergency response level to Level III (low risk). Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks. With normalizing economic activity, real GDP growth rebounded by 3.2 percent (yoy) in Q2; (ii) 5 August 2021, 1,152 tourist attractions with A ratings, the country's highest rating for scenic spots, had been temporarily closed to visitors. Tourist spots and cultural venues were also asked to fully implement epidemic-prevention measures, including limiting tourist numbers, adopting staggered visiting hours, taking visitors' temperature before allowing them in, and sterilizing public facilities regularly. Movie theaters in medium and high-risk areas should be closed and that the attendance rate for those in low-risk areas should remain under 75%.

12C - Others