South Asia

Sum of Measures 1—5 (Total Package)

Total Package in USD Million: 3,867.70
% of GDP (2019): 11.18%
% of Regional Total Package: 0.88%
Package Per Capita in USD: 135.19
Note: Measures 9 and 10 are added to the sum of Measures 1-5.
Measure Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Details Update Source
01 - Liquidity Support info_outline
01A - Short-term lending info_outline

No amount/estimate: (i) 29 March 2020, Nepal Rastra Bank (NRB) instructed banks to provide short-term loan of up to a certain limit to tourism and transport businesses within 5 days of their loan application;(ii) No amount/estimate: 28 April 2020, Businesses in affected sectors, if they can show the need, can qualify for additional working capital loans of up to 10% of the approved amount of their existing working capital loans, to be repaid within a year at most; (iii) No amount/estimate: 8 March 2021, Eligibility for the NRB Refinance Facility was amended to include hydropower projects less than 10 MW. Qualified projects can avail of NRP50 million loan at 3% interest rate.

01B - Support policies for short-term lending info_outline

(i) No amount/estimate: 29 March 2020, NRB lowered its cash reserve ratio from 4% to 3%; (ii) No amount/estimate: 3 December 2020, The NRB announced the collateral auction process will be deferred for some time for borrowers impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic who have outstanding interest payment of less than six months.

01C - Forex operations info_outline

No amount/estimate: 1 April 2020: (i) Import of gold limited to 10 kilograms per day to mitigate the pressure on foreign exchange reserves; (ii) Foreign exchange facility shall not be provided for the import of alcohol and vehicles worth over USD50 thousand; (iii) Foreign exchange facility via draft/TT for the import of COVID-related medical supplies and equipment increased from USD30 thousand to USD100 thousand; (iv) No amount/estimate: 3 December 2020, The NRB announced that provisions will be made to allow repayment of foreign currency loans in local currency.

02 - Credit creation info_outline NPR200,000,000,000 USD1,754,693,806
02A - Financial sector lending/funding info_outline NPR200,000,000,000 USD1,754,693,806

29 March 2020: (i) NRB announced a refinancing fund of NPR60 billion to provide subsidized credit for banks willing to lend at a concessional rate to priority sectors including small and mid-size enterprises affected by the pandemic. Banks were instructed to approve loans within 5 days pertaining to import and distribution of medical supplies and equipment, food, and other essential items to combat COVID-19 pandemic. 17 July 2020, NRB released the Monetary Policy for this fiscal year 2021 (ending 15 July 2021). The bank has increased the refinancing fund to NPR200 billion (USD1.7 billion); (ii) No amount/estimate: Banks were asked to provide subsidized credit to migrant workers to initiate their own enterprises, who could not depart for foreign employment due to this pandemic, within 7 days of their loan application; (iii) No amount/estimate: 28 May 2020, The budget speech for fiscal 2020/21 includes a provision for commercial banks to lend subsidized credit to at least 10 individuals per branch and development banks to at least 5 individuals per branch; (iv) 26 May 2021, The NRB has increased the limits of the refinance amount to five folds citing uplifting of the small and medium industries and has simplified the procedure for refinance facilities to increase access of small and medium industries .

02B - Support policies for long-term lending info_outline
02B1 - Interest rate adjustments

(i) 29 March 2020, The NRB reduced interest rate on the standing liquidity facility from 6% to 5%; (ii) 29 April 2020, The NRB directed banks to apply lower interest rates (up to 2 percentage points) when calculating the interest due for the period of mid-April to mid-July, applicable to borrowers from affected sectors; (iii) The policy rate or repo rate was cut by 100 basis points to 3.5%. 17 July 2020, The repo rate was further cut by 50 basis points to 3%.

02B2 - Other policies to support long-term lending

No amount/estimate: 29 March 2020: (i) The NRB is no longer requiring banks to build up the 2% countercyclical capital buffer as provisioned under Capital Adequacy Framework 2015 that was due in July 2020; (ii) The NRB temporarily relaxed reporting norms and announced that bank and financial institutions will not be charged or penalized for their non-compliance with regulatory and supervisory requirements in April; (iii) 17 July 2020, The limit on the loan-to-value ratio for personal residential home loans was raised to 60% and margin natured loans to 70% from 65%. The limit on banks’ total loans was raised to 85% of the sum of core credit and deposits from 80%. The NRB requires banks to increase their loans to priority sectors, such as agriculture, energy, tourism, and micro, small and mid-size enterprises, to 40% from 25% by 2024; (iv) 26 May 2021, The NRB has increased the limits of the refinance amount to five folds citing uplifting of the small and medium industries and has simplified the procedure for refinance facilities to increase access of small and medium industries .

02C - Loan guarantees
03 - Direct long-term lending info_outline NPR50,000,000,000 USD438,673,451
03A - Long-term lending info_outline NPR50,000,000,000 USD438,673,451

(i) No amount/estimate: 28 May 2020, The budget speech for fiscal year 2020/21 includes additional measures in the area of business support (a lending program for cottage, small and medium-sized enterprises and those in the tourism sector); (ii) 26 May 2021, The NRB has formed a NPR50 billion fund to support providing payments to the workers in tourism, cottage, small and medium size industries that are largely affected by COVID-19 .

03B - Forbearance

No amount/estimate: (i) 29 April 2020, The NRB announced that banks will defer loan repayments due in April and May until mid-July. The loan deferral was further extended to January 2021 or later depending on how severely the borrower was affected. For working capital loans, banks will extend the repayment schedule of the amount due during the lockdown up to 60 days; (ii) Banks were instructed to provide a 10% discount on interest payments if paid timely, i.e. by mid-April.

04 - Equity support info_outline
05 - Health and income support NPR190,840,000,000 USD1,674,328,830
05A - Health support NPR185,210,000,000 USD1,624,934,199

(i) No amount/estimate: 30 March 2020, Health spending will be increased, including by providing additional insurance coverage to all medical personnel fighting the coronavirus, importing additional medical supplies (with duty on said items eliminated), and setting up quarantine centers and temporary hospitals; (ii) No amount/estimate: 28 May 2020, In the budget speech for fiscal year 2020/21, Finance Minister Khatiwada announced additional measures in the area of healthcare (the establishment of additional hospital facilities). The specific measures announced include (a) Testing facilities to be expanded in high risk zones; and additional quarantines with testing facilities to be established to allay public concern; (b) Healthcare and lab technicians will be eligible for encouragement allowance; and will be provided with personnel protective equipment; (c) Provision of free health insurance plan of up to NPR500,000 for all healthcare professionals combatting contagious diseases including novel coronavirus; (d) A 50% discount on annual fee applicable on a group corona insurance policy worth NPR100,000; (e) A 300-bed tropical disease hospital to be established in Kathmandu Valley in FY2021; (f) 250 ICU beds to be added in all government hospitals across Kathmandu valley and provincial capitals; (g) A 50-bed tropical disease hospital to be operationalized in all provincial capitals; (h) Capacity of National Public Health Laboratory to be enhanced to comply with international standards; modern health laboratories to be established in all provincial capitals; health desks equipped with requisite medical equipment to be established in all major international entry points; (i) Basic hospitals with 5-15 beds to be established in all local levels; 272 such hospitals to be established by FY2021; (vi) No amount/estimate: 15 January 2021, Conditional permission has been granted for the emergency use authorization of COVISHIELD vaccine against COVID-19; (vii) 17 February 2021, NPR1 billion for the purchase of additional 2 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines from the Serum Institute of India.(viii) No amount/estimate: 27 January 2021, The government launched the first phase of the COVID-19 vaccination drive starting with the health and other frontline workers in all seven provinces; (ix) No amount/estimate: 17 February 2021, The government approves the "Vero Cell" vaccine manufactured by Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co Ltd (BIBP), People's Republic of China, under Sinopharm, for emergency use against COVID-19 in Nepal; (x) No amount/estimate: 19 March 2021, Nepal's drug regulatory body has approved India's Covaxin jab against COVID-19 for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA); (xi) No amount/estimate: 21 April 2021, Nepal has approved Sputnik V, the Russian Covid-19 vaccine, for emergency use in the country ; (xii) 21 May 2021, NPR5.51 billion for the installation of essential equipment and machinery at various hospitals across the country ; (xiii) 21 May 2021, The Finance Ministry approved allocations worth NPR178.7 billion for the establishment of high dependency units and installation of oxygen plants in a number of hospitals . (xiv) 25 May 2021, NPR4.17 billion spent so far for Covid-19 prevention and control.

05B - Income support NPR5,630,000,000 USD49,394,631
05B1 - Tax and contribution deferrals and policy changes

No amount/estimate: 30 March 2020, Tax-filing deadlines are extended.

05B2 - Tax and contribution rates reduction
05B3 - Subsidies to individuals and households

No amount/estimate: (i) 30 March 2020, Social assistance will be strengthened by providing those most vulnerable with daily food rations and by subsidizing utility bills for low-usage customers and taking measures to partially compensate those in the formal sector for lost wages in the event of job loss; (ii) 26 April 2020, Informal sector workers who have lost their jobs due to the ongoing crisis will be given the opportunity to participate in public-works projects for a subsistence wage or receive food worth 25% of local daily wage should they choose not to participate; (iii) 28 May 2020, The budget speech for fiscal year 2020/21 includes additional measures in the area of job creation (labor intensive in the construction sector, and training for work in manufacturing and service sectors). Some specific measures include (a) Daily wagers in the informal sector who choose not to be included in either food-for-work or cash-for-work modalities will still be entitled to food worth one-fourth of minimum wage receivable; (b) Electricity bills will be completely waived for households consuming up to 10 units per month; a 25% discount on electricity bills for households consuming up to 150 units of electricity per month; and a 15% discount on electricity bills for households consuming up to 250 units per month; (c) Government to deposit employer and employees’ social security contribution to SSF during the period of nationwide lockdown; (d) Prime Minister Employment Program will be further expanded across all three tiers of governments. Under this program, an additional 200,000 jobs will be generated; (e) An additional 40,000 jobs will be generated through Small Farmers’ Credit Program operated via Small Farmers’ Development Micro Finance Institutions.

05B4 - Subsidies to businesses

No amount/estimate: 28 May 2020, The budget speech for fiscal year 2020/21 includes electricity demand charge during the nationwide lockdown to be waived for industries affected by COVID-19 pandemic; industries will be entitled to a 50% discount on electricity bills during low demand.

05B5 - Indirect income support

No amount/estimate: 28 May 2020, The budget speech for fiscal year 2020/21 includes skill enhancement training programs to be launched at federal and provincial levels so that Nepali workers can fill in employment opportunities created with the departure of foreign migrant workers due to COVID-19 pandemic. It is expected that this initiative will generate an additional 50,000 jobs.

05B6 - No breakdown (income support) NPR5,630,000,000 USD49,394,631

29 April 2021, The government has provided interest subsidy of NPR5.63 billion till mid-April under the concessional interest subsidy with 77,196 borrowers benefitting from it .

05C - No breakdown (health and income support)
06 - Budget reallocation info_outline
07 - Central bank financing government
07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown
07B - Secondary purchase: government securities
08 - International Assistance Received NPR234,833,631,542 USD2,060,305,593
08A - Swaps info_outline
08B - International loans/grants NPR234,833,631,542 USD2,060,305,593
08B1 - Asian Development Bank NPR48,799,397,200 USD428,140,000

(i) April 2020, USD2.19 million - TA 9950-REG: Regional Support to Address the Outbreak of COVID-19 and Potential Outbreaks of Other Communicable Diseases. As of 29 January 2021, the amount increased to USD2.37 million; (ii) 7 April 2020, USD0.06 milllion TASF - Regional Project Development Support for the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Operational Plan, 2016–2025; (iii) As of 19 June 2020, USD1.97 million (Regular OCR) and USD0.02 million (Cofinanced) - Trade Finance Program (Guarantee). As of 12 February 2021, the amounts decreased to USD1.03 million (Regular OCR) and USD0.17 million (Cofinanced); (iv) 20 May 2020, USD0.35 million TASF - Regional Support to Address Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Strengthen Health Systems Preparedness for Communicable Diseases in South Asia; (v) 26 May 2020, USD250 million (COL) COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program; (vi) 11 June 2020, USD0.80 million TASF - Portfolio Management and Capacity Development for Enhanced Portfolio Performance (Additional Financing); (vii) 29 June 2020, USD3 million COVID-19 Emergency Response under the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund; (viii) 24 July 2020, USD0.21 million (TASF) Due Diligence and Capacity Development of Trade Finance Program Banks (Subproject 3); (ix) 4 September 2020, USD0.13 million TASF - Enhancing Gender Quality Results of South Asia COVID-19 Response; (x) 9 September 2020, USD0.13 million TASF - Strengthening the Enabling Environment for Disaster Risk Financing. (xi) 30 June 2021, USD5 for Prevention and Control of COVID-19 through WASH and Health initiatives in Secondary and Small Towns, confinacing with JFPR. (xii) 22 July 2021, USD165 million for "Responsive COVID-19 Vaccines for Recovery Project Under the Asia Pacific Vaccine Access Facility". (xiii) 22 September 2021, USD0.06 million technical assistance under "Fostering Regional Cooperation and Integration throughKnowledge and Capacity Building of Trade and Supply Chain Finance Program Banks". [update]

08B2 - Other NPR186,034,234,342 USD1,632,165,593

(i) 7 April 2020, The World Bank has approved a fast-track USD29 million COVID-19 Emergency Response and Health Systems Preparedness Project to help Nepal prevent, detect, and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic and strengthen its public health preparedness. 18 March 2021, USD75 million additional funding to support access to safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines and equitable vaccine distribution by strengthening Nepal’s health and vaccination system (signed on 2 April 2021 by the Government of Nepal and the World Bank); (ii) 14 April - 13 Oct 2020: IMF Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust (1st Tranche) - grant assistance for debt service relief, SDR2.852 million (SDR0.729/USD = USD3.9 million). 2 October 2020, IMF Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust (2nd Tranche) - grant assistance for debt service relief, USD5.03 million. 5 April 2021, IMF Catastrophe Containment Relief Trust (3rd Tranche) - USD5.06 million; (iii) 6 May 2020, The IMF Executive Board approved the disbursement of USD214 million in emergency financing to help Nepal address urgent balance of payments needs created by COVID-19 under the Rapid Credit Facility; (iv) 21 May 2020, USD1 million UN COVID-19 Response & Recovery Fund from UNDP; (v) 29 May 2020, USD7.3 million in total assistance from USAID, which includes USD2.5 million in Economic Support Fund to help local governments and disaster-management committees respond to the economic and social impacts of COVID-19, and will provide small grants to the private sector and civil society organizations to enable economic recovery, mitigate food insecurity, and address the needs of vulnerable populations. It also includes USD4.8 million for health assistance that is helping the Nepalese Government to conduct community-level risk-communications, prepare laboratory systems, activate case-finding and surveillance, support technical experts for response and preparedness, and more. As of 13 May 2021, US assistance through USAID has reached USD50.9 million of which USD5.8 Million has enabled the Department of Defense (DOD) to purchase PPE, breathing devices, isolation and disaster camp equipment and supplies, telemedicine equipment, COVID-19 testing supplies, handwashing stations, and medical equipment for health clinics. The DOD also announced an additional USD2.75 million in emergency funding that will provide oxygen cylinders and liquid oxygen storage tanks ; (vi) 2 June 2020, The World Bank Board approved a USD100 million Development Policy Credit (DPC) to continue support to the government in improving the financial viability and governance of the electricity sector and recovering from the COVID-19 crisis; 24 June 2020, The USD100 million DPC was signed by the World Bank and the government; (vii) 10 June 2020, The World Bank approved a USD450 million project to help Nepal improve its roads and set the course for post-COVID-19 economic recovery through greater cross-border trade, more jobs, especially for women, and better road safety; On 17 July 2020, The government and the World Bank signed the USD450 million Financing Agreement; (viii) 4 September 2020, The Government of Nepal and the World Bank signed a financing agreement for an additional grant of USD10.85 million to the School Sector Development Program (SSDP) to maintain access to basic education and continued learning for children amid the COVID-19 crisis; (ix) 17 September 2020, The World Bank approved a USD200 million “Finance for Growth” development policy credit to spur COVID-19 resilience and recovery efforts; (x) 28 September 2020, The World Bank approved a USD150 million project to help Nepal strengthen service delivery and institutional capacities in strategic secondary cities, and to support the post-COVID-19 economic recovery; (xi) 28 October 2020, World Bank approves USD80 million Rural Enterprise and Economic Development Project to boost Nepal’s agriculture sector and support post-pandemic recovery. 21 December 2020, the Government of Nepal and the World Bank signed a USD80 million (around NPR 9.3 billion) million project to bolster Nepal’s agriculture sector by strengthening rural market linkages and promoting entrepreneurship while creating jobs to support post-COVID-19 recovery; (xii) 30 October 2020, The European Commission is providing EUR2 million (USD2.2 million) in humanitarian aid for Nepal and countries in the Southeast Asia to support those affected by the pandemic, natural disasters, and the consequences of man-made conflicts; (xiii) 27 January 2021, The Government of Nepal and the World Bank jointly launched the USD150 million Nepal Urban Governance and Infrastructure Project to promote sustainable urban development and support post-COVID-19 economic recovery in strategic secondary cities; (xiv) 3 March 2021, The Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) received NRP30 million worth of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), examination gloves, surgical mask and Inter-Agency Reproductive Health (IARH) kits from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The financial support is from the People's Republic of China (PRC) under the existing south-south partnership initiative between Nepal, PRC and UNFPA; (xv) 12 May 2021, The EU has mobilized EUR2 million in humanitarian funding to help contain the explosion in COVID-19 cases in Nepal ; (xvi) 21 May 2021, The United Nations and partners launched the Nepal Covid-19 Response Plan calling for USD83.7 million to mobilize an emergency response over the next three months to assist 750,000 of the most vulnerable people affected by the pandemic .; (xvii) 27 May 2021, China to gift 1 million COVID-19 vaccine doses to Nepal. ; (xviii) 16 June 2021, USD150 million from World Bank to support Nepal's Pandemic response and recovery.; (xix) 8 July 2021, USD100 million additional financing from World Bank to support the implementation of the government’s flagship School Sector Development Program, and improve efficiency in the public resource management systems of Nepal’s health sector.

09 - International Assistance Provided
09A - Swaps info_outline
09B - International loans/grants
10 - No breakdown
11 - Other Economic Measures

1 April 2020: (i) The security requirement of 10% of L/C value (Document value) for the import of COVID-related medical supplies and equipment has been waived; (ii) Parents/guardians can send USD500 per student to meet their living expenses abroad even without a NO OBJECTION LETTER; (iii) 22 March 2020, The government has banned the export of the medicines, mask and sanitizers amid potential shortage in the country.

12 - Non-Economic Measures
12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international)

April 2020: (i) Closure of public transportation and ban on domestic and international flights (except chartered flights) until July 22; (ii) Private vehicles are allowed to operate on an alternating odd-even license-plate-number basis, corresponding to the calendar date; (iii) 20 July 2020, The government announced that all flights and transportation will be resumed from August 17; (iv) 11 August 2020, Other containment measures include restrictions on domestic and international passenger flights until August 31. Long distance buses will now be allowed to ply from September 1; (v) 25 August 2020, The government announced that it will resume flights to repatriate Nepali workers stranded abroad until August 31. After that, airlines will be allowed to operate limited regular international flights; (vi) 31 August 2020, The government has extended the suspension on long-route transportation and domestic flights until September 16. International flights will resume on September 1, but only for Nepalis and diplomats (no foreign tourists); (vii) 23 December 2020 The government restricted entry of passengers originating from or transiting through the United Kingdom due to concerns about the new strain of the coronavirus; (viii) 18 March 2021, The government revised the requirements for international flight arrivals to safely support tourism during the trekking season amidst the uptick in COVID-19 cases; (ix) 27 April 2021, The District Administrative Offices of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur have prohibited vehicles other than emergency service vehicles, to ply their roads beginning 29 April 2021 ; (x) 28 April 2021, The government of Nepal has ordered a mandatory 10-day quarantine for all those arriving in Nepal, via land and via air immediately upon arrival ; (xi) 29 April 2021, Kathmandu Valley enters a second lockdown from 6 am until 13 May 2021 . 25 May 2021, The lockdown has been extended until 3 June 2021. The vehicles of government offices, public utilities, and internet service providers will be allowed to operate between 9:30 and 10:30 in the morning, and between 5 and 6 in the evening. ; (xii) 2 May 2021, All domestic and international flights have been suspended until 14 May 2021 to contain the spread of the coronavirus . 11 May 2021, The suspension of international flights has been extended until 31 May 2021 ; (xiii) 4 May 2021, With the continued rise of cases daily, stricter measures on vehicular movement were introduced in the districts of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur ; (xiv) 11 May 2021, The government has decided to extend the ongoing prohibitory order in Kathmandu until 29 May 2021 ; (xv) 13 May 2021, A week after it suspended all international flights, Nepal has permitted a number of “special flights” as requested by foreign embassies to evacuate their citizens ; (xvi) 27 May 2021, Security has been tightened along the Nepal-India border to control mobility via these border points .

12B - Measures affecting business and workplace

April 2020: (i) Closure of cinema halls, stadiums, health clubs, museums, bars and other recreational places until July 22; (ii) 12 June 2020, The government began easing the lockdown and allowed shops to open; (iii) 15 June 2020, Government, private offices, and banks have reopened, with government staff working in shifts; (iv) 20 July 2020, The government announced services, such as hotels and restaurants, will resume operations from July 30. Tourism activities including travel, trekking, mountaineering will also resume operations from August 17. Recreational centers, religious centers, gyms, libraries, museums, and zoos will be closed until further notice; (v) 11 August 2020, Restaurants have been limited to takeaway services and all non-essential services like salons, shopping malls, theatres must remain closed; opening of hotels which was supposed to start on August 17, has been pushed back by 15 days; (vi) 13 November 2020, The government further relaxed restrictions by opening tourist sites; (vii) 27 April 2021, The District Administrative Offices of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur have announced that essential supply stores will have a set window of time for operation beginning 29 April 2021 ; (viii) 4 May 2021, Shops selling foodstuff can open only in the mornings and up to 9 am in the districts of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur ; (ix) 11 May 2021, The government has decided to stop all construction work except the national priority development project ; (x) 25 May 2021, With the extended lockdown in Kathmandu, groceries, including grocery sections of department stores, will remain closed, but the shops of vegetables and fruits, dairy products, and meat are allowed to open until 9 am everyday .

12C - Others

(i) April 2020, Closure of land-border crossings; (ii) June 2020, Nationwide lockdown until July 22. 20 July 2020, The government announced that the national lockdown will be lifted. However, recreational activities including parties, seminars, and other public gatherings continue to be restricted. Educational institutions will be closed until further notice; (iii) 5 August 2020, The Nepal government has enforced partial lockdown to full lockdown in various parts of the country as cases of coronavirus infection and fatalities continued to soar. The Home Ministry released a list of 14 districts: six districts will be facing a complete restriction in movement, while eight would remain under partial lockdown; (iv) 11 August 2020, All educational institutions including schools, colleges, tuition centres and training centers will remain closed. No date for their opening has been announced. 31 August 2020, The government decided to continue the suspension on the operation of schools, colleges and academic institutions until 16 September 2020; On 12 November 2020, The government announced the reopening of schools from November 20 in low infection areas; (v) 25 August 2020, The government has reversed its earlier requirement that all passengers, even those with PCR reports, have to spend at least one week in a hotel quarantine in Kathmandu at their own expense. Passengers with PCR negative reports will now be allowed to go home for 14 day self-isolation; (vi) 24 March 2021, Local bodies of various districts in Nepal have introduced prohibitory orders alerting the public not to conduct any social functions or mass gatherings keeping in mind the possible second wave of the Coronavirus pandemic in the country; (vii) 19 April 2021, The government has decided to close all schools in the urban areas of COVID-19 affected districts of Nepal for one month; (viii) 11 May 2021, The government has decided to restrict weddings, bratbandhas and other functions across banquets ; (xiv) 21 May 2021, The government issued "The COVID-19 Risk Management Ordinance, 2078 BS" to mitigate the risk of COVID-19. Violators of the ordinance are subject to penalties or could face up to one year in prison. (xv) 7 June 2021, all citizens in local units bordering China to get Covid-19 vaccines.; (xvi) 20 September 2021, Nepal received 6 million doses of government purchased vaccines from Chiana. [update]