Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
United Kingdom 01 01 - Liquidity Support GBP 41,530,813,690 51,419,394,818
United Kingdom 01A 01A - Short-term lending GBP 29,048,000,000 35,964,394,818 Bank of England. (accese 13 April 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 22 May 2020); Bank of England. (5 September 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 22 June 2020; 10 July 2020).

(i) March, Activating a Contingent Term Repo Facility (CTRF) to complement the Bank of England’s (BoE's) existing sterling liquidity facilities. June 19, The Bank of England announced that, in light of more stable funding market conditions and recent usage patterns, it will discontinue 3-month CTRF operations at the end of June 2020. The final operation is on 26 June. As of June 26, cumulative amount allocated since March was GBP11.515 billion; (ii) March 17, The Covid Corporate Financing Facility (CCFF) provided jointly with the Treasury provides lending to businesses with minimum amount GBP1 million per participant. The BoE will purchase commercial papers (CP) of firms of up to one-year maturity, with interest rate set with a fixed spread to the sterling overnight index swap (OIS) rate. The spread is determined based on rating or equivalent assessment. The scheme will operate for at least 12 months and will be financed by the issuance of central bank reserves. The peak sum of CP purchased less any redemptions and sales (reported on a settlement date basis) since the CCFF began in March 2020 was GBP17.533 billion (August 19) [update].

United Kingdom 01B 01B - Support policies for short-term lending GBP International Monetary Fund (IMF). (accessed 15 May 2020).

No amount/estimate:(ii) April, The Prudential Regulatory Authority (PRA) set out supervisory expectation that banks should suspend dividends and buybacks until end-2020, cancel outstanding 2019 dividends and pay no cash bonuses to senior staff.

United Kingdom 01C 01C - Forex operations GBP 12,482,813,690 15,455,000,000 Bank of England. (accessed 12 June 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 22 June 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 27 August 2020).

The peak total amount in the US dollar repo operations from March 18-June 24 was recorded in March 18, with 2 transactions, 7-day & 84-day terms, at USD15.455 billion. June 19, The Bank of England, in coordination with other central banks, has decided to reduce the frequency of 7-day maturity operations which provide liquidity via the standing US dollar liquidity swap line arrangements. The frequency of 7-day US dollar repo operations will be reduced from daily to three times per week commencing 1 July 2020. August 20, The Bank of England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank and the Swiss National Bank, in consultation with the Federal Reserve, have jointly decided to further reduce the frequency of their 7-day operations from three times per week to once per week from September 1 [update].

United Kingdom 02 02 - Credit creation GBP 430,000,000,000 532,383,977,273
United Kingdom 02A 02A - Financial sector lending/funding GBP 100,000,000,000 123,810,227,273 Bank of England. (accessed 13 April 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 13 April 2020); Bank of England. (5 September 2020).

March 11, Introducing a new Term Funding scheme with additional incentives for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (TFSME), financed by the issuance of central bank reserves. The Term Funding Scheme offers four-year funding at or very close to the Bank Rate. Estimated size of the scheme is GBP100 billion. As of September 2, current loans made through the Term Funding Scheme with additional incentives for SMEs amounted to GBP33.606 billion [update].

United Kingdom 02B 02B - Support policies for long-term lending GBP IMF. (accessed 19 April 2020); OECD. (acessed 15 May 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 15 May 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 15 May 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 12 June 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) Policy rate reductions: From 0.75% to 0.1% in two steps on 11 and 19 March; (ii) April, reducing the UK countercyclical buffer rate to 0% from a pre-existing path toward 2% by December 2020, with guidance that it will remain there for at least 12 months; (iii) May 4, The Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) is offering a modification by consent for banks subject to the UK Leverage Ratio Part of the PRA Rulebook to exclude loans under the COVID-19 Bounce Back Loan scheme (BBLS) from the leverage ratio total exposure measure, if they choose to do so; (iv) May 7, the PRA announced its intention to alleviate unwarranted pressure on firms by setting all Pillar 2A requirements as a nominal amount, instead of a percentage of total Risk Weighted Assets (RWAs). As well as avoiding an absolute increase in Pillar 2A capital requirements in the current stress, this would reduce Pillar 2A, as well as the threshold at which firms are subject to maximum distributable amount (MDA) restrictions, as a share of a firm’s RWAs in the capital stack if RWAs increase; (v) May 7, The dates for the major UK banks and building societies to submit their first reports on their preparations for resolution and publicly disclose a summary of these reports have been extended by a year. These firms will now be required to submit their first reports to the PRA by October 2021 and make public disclosures by June 2022; (vi) June 4, the Bank of England informs all regulated UK Financial Market Infrastructures and Specified Providers that when considering any distribution of shareholders or making decisions on variable remuneration they should pay close attention to the additional risks and potential financial and operational demands due to COVID-19, and that they should discuss with the BOE in advance of making any distribution to shareholders.

United Kingdom 02C 02C - Loan guarantees GBP 330,000,000,000 408,573,750,000 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 23 May 2020); Office for Budget Responsbility. (accessed 5 June 2020)

March, GBP330 billion of temporary state loans and guarantee scheme for businesses. The Coronavirus Business Interruption Loan Scheme (CBILS) (17 March) will provide loans of up to GBP5 million for small and medium-sized businesses. The CBILS provides support to smaller businesses, with financing up to GBP5 million, wherein the government will provide the lender a partial guarantee (80%). As of 31 May, GBP8.9 billion had been approved. Starting July 30, businesses with fewer than 50 employees and a turnover of less than GBP 9 million can apply to CBILS In addition, the Coronavirus Large Business Interruption Loan Scheme (CLBILS) will provide a government guarantee of 80% to enable banks to make loans of up to GBP25 million to larger firms with an annual turnover of between GBP45 million and GBP500 million (3 March). The CLBILS will provide a government guarantee of 80% to enable banks to make loans of up to GBP25 million to larger firms with an annual turnover of between GBP45 million and GBP500 million. May 19, Extended maximum loan size available through the CLBILS from GBP50 million to GBP200 million. Companies receiving help through the CLBILS were also asked to agree to not pay dividends and to exercise restraint on senior pay. As of 31 May, GBP1.1 billion had been approved under under CLBILS. May 4, Bounce Back Loan Scheme (BBLS) is launched to help small firms get finance, with a 100% government-backed guarantee. As of May 31, GBP21.3 billion had been approved under BBLS, covering nearly 700,000 loans.

United Kingdom 03 03 - Direct long-term lending GBP 520,000,000 643,813,182
United Kingdom 03A 03A - Long-term lending GBP 520,000,000 643,813,182 Bank of England. (accessed 13 April 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 13 April 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 12 July 2020).

(i) May 20, Future Fund is launched. To bolster high-tech start-ups, the new GBP500 million Future Fund provides between GBP125,000 and GBP5 million for UK based-business as long as the cash is matched by private investors (i.e. government is committing GBP250 million, with the other GBP250 million expected to be raised by the private sector). The scheme is initially open until September and will be delivered by the British Business Bank. If the government loan is not repaid within three years, it gets automatically converted into an equity stake at 20% discount to the valuation set in the next funding round; (ii) July 5, The package in support for cultural organisations includes GBP270 million of repayable finance.

United Kingdom 03B 03B - Forbearance GBP Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). (accessed 15 April 2020); FCA. (accessed 16 July 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) April 9, The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) introduced a package of targeted temporary measures to support customers affected by coronavirus, including by setting the expectation for firms to offer a payment freeze on loans and credit cards for up to three months; (ii) July 15, The FCA has confirmed the support that will be available for users of motor finance, buy-now pay-later (BNPL), rent-to-own (RTO), pawnbroking and high-cost short-term credit (HCSTC) products, who continue to face payment difficulties due to COVID-19. Measures include: (a) Firms should contact customers if they can resume payments – and if so, agree a plan on how the missed payments could be repaid, (b) For customers with still payment difficulties, firms will freeze or reduce payments to a level they can afford, on their motor finance, BNPL or RTO agreements for a further 3 months, (c) Customers that have not yet had a payment freeze or requested an extension of an existing payment freeze can request this up until 31 October 2020, (d) HCSTC customers can only apply for a payment freeze under this guidance once up to 31 October 2020, (e) The ban on repossessions will continue until 31 October 2020, and (f) Any payment freezes or partial payment freezes offered under this guidance should not have a negative impact on credit files.

United Kingdom 04 04 - Equity support GBP
United Kingdom 05 05 - Health and income support GBP 195,918,200,000 242,566,768,689
United Kingdom 05A 05A - Health support GBP 10,705,400,000 13,254,380,070 Office for Budget Responsibility. (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 24 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 6 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV. UK. (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) April, GBP10 billion for the National Health Service (NHS) and other public services to tackle the virus; (ii) May 17, UK’s top researchers rapidly working to find a coronavirus vaccine will benefit from GBP84 million of new government funding; (ii) No amount/estimate: July 20, The government is setting up face covering production lines in cooperation with UK manufacturers. Ten production lines have been procured and a further ten British production lines are being made with government support. The manufacturers will produce millions of masks each week; (iii) July 23, GBP100 million will be used to fund a state-of-the-art Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult Manufacturing Innovation Centre to accelerate the mass production of a successful COVID-19 vaccine; (iv) No amount/estimate: July 29, A deal to secure early access to a promising new COVID-19 vaccine has been announced. The agreement with GSK and Sanofi Pasteur will supply an additional 60 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine, which means that the government has now secured early access to four different types of immunization and a total of 250 million doses; (v) No amount/estimate: August 3, Government partners with pharmaceutical and biotech organization Wockhardt to accelerate vaccine manufacturing; (vi) No amount/estimate: August 5, UK government and Valneva (global biotech company) undertake a joint investment in a vaccine manufacturing facility in Livingston. This will enable the government secure access to 60 million doses of Valneva's promising vaccine candidate; (vii) August 16, The National Academy for Social Prescribing (NASP) has been awarded GBP5 million in funding to support people to stay connected and maintain their health and wellbeing following the COVID-19 pandemic; (viii) August 18, The government creates a new National Institute for Health Protection, which will have a single command structure to advance the country’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic; (ix) August 25, GBP8 million to boost pupil and teacher well-being [update]; (x) August 28, The UK government is investing GBP8.4 million in COVID-19 immunology research projects, including at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee [update]; (xi) September 3, New GBP500 million funding package will be invested in next generation testing technology and increased testing capacity [update].

United Kingdom 05B 05B - Income support GBP 185,212,800,000 229,312,388,618 OECD. (acessed 15 May 2020); Office for Budget Responsibility. (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 5 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 24 June 2020); Financial Times. (accessed 20 June 2020); Department for the Economy. (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 9 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 12 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 18 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 22 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV. UK. (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 3 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 4 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 5 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 20 August 2020); Department for the Economy. (accessed 20 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 August 2020); Department for the Economy. (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 28 August 2020); Department for the Economy. (accessed 3 September 2020),

(i) March 20, VAT payments of around GBP30 billion for the 2nd quarter of 2020 are deferred until 2021; (ii) April: (a) Employment support: Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (GBP42 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP54 billion), Self-employed income support scheme (GBP10 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP15 billion) (b) Household Support: Statutory sick pay support (GBP1 billion), Welfare package (GBP7 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP8 billion), Local authority funding to support vulnerable people (GBP0.5 billion); Suspending benefit recovery (no amount yet); (c) Business support: Small business grant schemes (GBP15 billion), Business rates package (GBP13 billion), Off-payroll working delay extension to private sector by 1 year (GBP1.2 billion), VAT on e-publications - early introduction (GBP0.1 billion, June 4); (d) Funds for devolved administrations (GBP3.5 billion = GBP1.6 billion local + GBP1 billion Scotland + GBP0.6 billion Wales + GBP0.3 billion Northern Ireland.); (f) Railway services operation (GBP3.5 billion); (iii) April 8, Charities across the UK will receive a GBP750 million package of support to ensure they can continue their vital work during COVID; (iv) May 23, GBP15 million to support the Citizens Advice Service during COVID-19 pandemic ; (v) May 29, the Self-Employment Support Scheme is extended until August, but government contribution will be slowly tapered from 80% of the salary in June to 60% in October; (vi) June 9, GBP38 million support package for debt advice providers so they can continue helping people affected by COVID; (vii) June 19, Schools will receive GBP1 billion to help pupils catch up after coronavirus and provide for a national tutoring program; (viii) May 19 & June 23, GBP2.4 million funding to alleviate student hardship; (ix) June 24, GBP105 million to keep 15,000 vulnerable people off the streets during coronavirus pandemic; (x) June 29, GBP200 million Sustainable Innovation Fund to help businesses drive forward cutting-edge new technology and recover from the impacts of coronavirus. This funding, delivered through Innovate UK, forms part of a wider GBP750 million package of grants and loans announced in April; (xi) July 5, Cultural and heritage organizations to be protected with GBP1.57 billion support package (; (xii) July 8, Plan for Jobs includes: (a) GBP9.4 billion: Job Retention Bonus, (b) GBP2.1 billion Kickstart Scheme, (c) GBP1.6 billion in scaling up employment support schemes, training, and apprenticeship. August 1, A new online and telephone support - Redundancy Support Service for Apprentices (ReSSA) is launched, (d) GBP8.7 billion infrastructure package, decarbonization, and Grenn Homes Grant, (e) GBP0.5 billion: Eat Out to Help Out discount scheme, (f) GBP4.1 billion: Reduced rate of VAT for hospitality, accommodation and attractions, (g) GBP3.8 billion: Stamp Duty Land Tax temporary cuts ( ; (xiii) July 16, Allocations for individual councils to help deliver essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic (GBP500 million); (xiv) July 18, GBP266 million housing fund (; (xv) July 21, No amount/estimate: Nearly 1 million public sector workers (e.g., police officers, teachers, doctors, etc.) will be given above-inflation pay increases; (xvi) July 24, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales will receive a minimum of GBP3.7 billion in additional funding (; (xvii) July 27, Councils are given GBP800,000 so they continue to modernize and improve delivery of public services, as they respond to COVID; (xviii) July 30, GBP20 million new funding for smaller businesses to recover (; (xix) July 28, GBP500 million to assist film and television production struggling to secure insurance for COVID-related costs; (xx) August 3, GBP100 million funding for zoos and aquariums, which need support following a drop in income due to COVID; (xxi) No amount estimate: August 5, Working parents eligible for Tax-Free Childcare whose incomes have fallen below the minimum requirement due to COVID will continue to receive financial support until October 2020; (xxi) GBP20 million to improve small business leadership and problem-solving skills in the wake of coronavirus; (xxxiii) August 5, GBP1.3 billion Funds to deliver up to 45,000 homes, create up to 85,000 jobs and upgrade skills and infrastructure to help fuel a green economic recovery; (xxxiv) No amount/estimate: August 13, New law to ensure furloughed employees receive full redundancy payments; (xxv) No amount/estimate: August 18, Disabled people can now benefit from financial support to work from home, thanks to an extension to the Access to Work scheme; (xxvi) August 21, ‘Acceleration Unit’ launched to speed up delivery of transport projects. This coincides with around GBP360 million of investment to build back better from COVID-19; (xxvii) August 21, A new productivity institute is announced to boost wage growth and living standards. This new institute in Manchester will boost ground-breaking research to explore how to increase productivity, boost wages, and support the economic recovery. Government's share is GBP30 million; (xxviii) No amount/estimate: August 24, Economy Minister has launched a new tourism program to provide financial assistance up to GBP200,000 to support tourism providers [update]; (xxix) No amount/estimate: August 27, New payment for people on low incomes in areas with high rates of COVID-19, who need to self-isolate and can’t work from home [update]; (xxx) August 27, There is an additional GBP17.2 million funding to help bolster local apprenticeship system as it battles the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic [update].

United Kingdom 06 06 - Budget reallocation GBP
United Kingdom 07 07 - Central bank financing government GBP 304,370,000,000 376,841,188,750
United Kingdom 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown GBP 4,370,000,000 5,410,506,932 Bank of England. (accessed 13 April 2020).

(i) April 9, HM Treasury and the BoE announced temporary extension to Ways and Means (W&M) facility. As of May 13, drawings under the W&M facility remain at GBP370 million; (ii) April 2020, There was a GBP4.0 billion dividend transfer from the Bank of England Asset Purchase Facility Fund (BEAPFF) to HM Treasury.

United Kingdom 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities GBP 300,000,000,000 371,430,681,818 OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 12 June 2020); Bank of England. (accessed 22 June 2020); Bank of England. (5 September 2020).

March 19, Increase BoE's holdings of UKG government and corporate bonds by GBP200 billion to a total of GBP645 billion, financed by central bank reserves. June 18, The Bank of England announced an increase in the stock of purchases of UK government bonds, financed by central bank reserves, by an additional GBP100 billion, to take the total stock of asset purchases to GBP745 billion. As of September 2, Current gilt purchases stood at GBP662.678 billion [update].

United Kingdom 08 08 - International Assistance Received GBP 30,449,827,272 37,700,000,350
United Kingdom 08A 08A - Swaps GBP 30,449,827,272 37,700,000,350 Federal Reserve Bank of New York. (accessed 18 May 2020).

Unlimited USD liquidity swap line with the US Federal Reserve: peak amount outstanding was recorded in April 2: USD37.7 billion.

United Kingdom 08B 08B - International loans/grants GBP
United Kingdom 08B1 08B1 - Asian Development Bank GBP
United Kingdom 08B2 08B2 - Other GBP
United Kingdom 09 09 - International Assistance Provided GBP 151,829,765 187,980,777
United Kingdom 09A 09A - Swaps GBP
United Kingdom 09B 09B - International loans/grants GBP 151,829,765 187,980,777 IMF. (accessed 19 April 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 12 August 2020)/; GOV.UK. (accessed 3 September 2020).

United Kingdom as donor-country: (i) The government has made available GBP150 million to the IMF’s Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust; (ii) August 11, United Kingdom supports the implementation of protocols against COVID-19 in municipal markets in Guatemala, with funding of GTQ300,000 (GBP29,765); (iii) September 2, The United Kingdom announces GBP1.8 million funding to strengthen COVID-19 health sector preparedness and response in the Pacific, including Papua New Guinea, through the World Health Organization [update].

United Kingdom 10 10 - No breakdown GBP 550,000,000 680,956,250 OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 24 April 2020). GOV.UK. (24April 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 4 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 6 August 2020).

April 20, GBP1.25 billion support package to protect firms driving innovation in the UK, of which: (a) Treasury will dedicate GBP750 million to grants and loan support for SMEs to perform research and development, of which GBP500 million is for high-growth firms, called the Future Fund, reported in Measure 3A. June 29, GBP200 million out of GP750 million is for the Sustainable Innovation Fund to help businesses drive forward cutting-edge new technology and recover from the impacts of coronavirus, which is a grant (amount is recorded under Measure 5B); (b) Innovate UK (national innovation agency) will administer GBP200 million of grant and loan payments through its existing list of customers on an opt-in basis; (c) The remaining GBP550 million will increase support for existing customers and firms not yet involved with Innovate UK funding. The first payments will be made by mid-May. On 20 May, GBP40 million was allocated to this package to support the UK’s Fast Start Competition, to fast-track development of innovations.

United Kingdom 11 11 - Other Economic Measures GBP OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 5 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 August 2020).

(i) June 6, The government extended ban on evicting tenants from social or private accomodation in England and Wales by two months to August 23 due to the COVID outbreak; (ii) June 5, The Corporate Insolvency and Governance Bill has been proposed to introduce new corporate restructuring tools to the insolvency and restructuring regime, temporarily suspend parts of the insolvency law, and to amend Company Law and other legislation; (iii) June 9, People on paternity and maternity leave who return to work in the coming months will be eligible for the government's furlough scheme, the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS), after the June 10, 2020 cut-off date; (iv) August 28, Legislation has been introduced that requires landlords to give tenants 6 months’ notice before they can evict, until March 2021 [update].

United Kingdom 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures GBP OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 15 June 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 24 June 2020); Anadolu Agency. (accessed 3 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 July 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 12 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 28 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) Economy-wide lockdown since 23 March; (ii) The government advised British tourists currently abroad to return to the country, and advised against all non-essential travel worldwide. The warning is in place initially for 30 days; (iii) 16 March, Schools are closed except for children of key workers ; (iv) Social distancing is in place. A ban is in place on all social events and gatherings; (v) May 11, The government announced that primary schools will reopen on 1 June; (vi) May 11, The government announced that outdoor places will reopen on May 13 and that people can exercise more than once a day. Social distancing measures remain in place. Ban on public events and social gatherings remains in place; (vii) May 11,The government announced its opening strategy. In a first phase, sectors that were closed during the lockdown can reopen again on 13 May, except entertainment, hospitality, and non-essential retail. All workers who cannot work from home should travel to work if their workplace is open. If the health situation remains under control, a second phase would see the reopening of non-essential retailers on 1 June, followed by the hospitality and entertainment sectors on 4 July; (viii) June 15, Non-essential stores/retailers are allowed to reopen; (ix) June 23, The government eases lockdown restrictions, which includes opening of pubs, restaurants, and accomodation sites starting July 4, provided they adhere to COVID Secure guidelines; (x) July 3, The government outlined its plan to reopen schools in September, along with its safety guidelines; (xi) July 14, Face coverings to be mandatory in shops and supermarkets from 24 July; (xii) July 17, Business events and conferences will be permitted to resume from 1 October provided rates of infection remain at current levels; (xii) July 24, members of the public will need to wear face coverings that cover the nose and mouth in shops, supermarkets, shopping centres and transport hubs, to help curb the spread of the virus. Exemptions include anyone under the age of 11, or those with disabilities, or hidden health conditions such as breathing difficulties, mental health conditions or autism; (xiii) July 25, People returning to the UK from Spain will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks, with the country removed from the travel corridors list; (xiv) July 27, Public Health England launches the Better Health campaign to support people to live healthier lives and reduce their risk of serious illness, including COVID-19; (xv) July 30, Government announces changes to rules on gatherings in Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and East Lancashire after increase in COVID-19 cases; (xvi) August 10, NHS Test and Trace and Public Health England will extend its partnership with local authorities to reach more people testing positive and their contacts; (xvii) August 13, The Government has announced a series of tough new enforcement measures targeting the most serious breaches of social distancing restrictions (; (xviii) August 13, People arriving in England from France, the Netherlands, Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos Islands and Aruba starting 15 August will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xix) August 14, Restrictions on household gatherings to continue in parts of North West, West Yorkshire, East Lancashire and Leicester; (xx) August 20, People arriving in England from Croatia, Trinidad and Tobago and Austria will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xx) August 25, Schools will have the discretion to require face coverings [update]; (xxi) August 27, People arriving in England from Switzerland, the Czech Republic, and Jamaica from August 29 will need to self-isolate for two weeks [update]; (xxii) August 28, The government has published detailed guidance for schools on contingency planning for areas with local lockdowns in place ( [update]; (xxiii) August 28, Restrictions on two households mixing have been lifted in parts of Greater Manchester, Lancashire, and West Yorkshire. Businesses and organizations that have been allowed to open elsewhere starting August 15 will also be permitted to open in those parts [update]; (xxiv) September 1, Schools and colleges across England will start to welcome back pupils with protective measures [update].