|Economy||Measure Code||Measure||Currency Code||Amount (Local)||Amount (USD)||Source||Post Date||Details|
|Canada||01||01 - Liquidity Support||CAD||261,201,000,000||187,207,310,518|
|Canada||01A||01A - Short-term lending||CAD||261,201,000,000||187,207,310,518||Canada Mortgage ad Housing Corporation. https://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/finance-and-investing/mortgage-loan-insurance/the-resource/covid19-understanding-mortgage-payment-deferral; Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/06/bank-canada-announces-changes-term-repo-operations-bankers-acceptance-purchase-facility (all accessed 10 June 2020). Bank of Canada https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/09/bank-canada-announces-changes-provincial-money-market-purchase-pmmp/ (accessed 18 September)||
All amounts are peak value since 4 March 2020; BoC has not announced limits for any facility. (i) CAD38.766 billion (8 April 2020 peak) - Bankers' Acceptance Purchase Facility (BAPF); (ii) CAD7.629 billion (1 July 2020 peak): The Provincial Money Market Purchase (PMMP) program is an asset purchase facility that will acquire provincially-issued money market securities through the primary issuance market. This program will support a liquid and well-functioning market for short-term provincial borrowing. Under the PMMP, the Bank will purchase up to 40% of each offering of directly-issued provincial money market securities with terms to maturity of 12 months or less. This includes treasury bills and short-term promissory notes of all Canadian provinces. The 40% limit may be adjusted if market conditions warrant. The Bank will make its first purchases under the PMMP on Wednesday, 25 March 2020. This facility, combined with the Bank’s other recent actions, will provide a material amount of support to provincial funding markets; effective 21 September 2020, the Bank of Canada will reduce the amount it purchases to up to 10% of each accepted offering of directly issued provincial money market securities with maturity of 12-months or less; (iii) CAD2.993 billion (29 April 2020 peak): The Commercial Paper Purchase Program (“CPPP” or “the program”) will be structured as a direct purchase program into a separate account held by the Bank of Canada (“BoC” or “the Bank”). The program will purchase CP new issuance in the primary market via dealers and after issuance from eligible counterparties in the secondary market. The program will purchase from eligible issuers up to three-month CAD-denominated CP, including asset-backed CP (“ABCP”). Draws can be rolled during the operation of the program; (iv) CAD211.227 billion (10 June 2020 peak): (CTRF) Term Repo Facility and other term repos. Up to 1 month repos; Standing Liquidity Facility and Standing Term Liquidity Facility; 4 March 2020 level was CAD14.518 billion, so peak = 211.227 - 14.518 = CAD196.709 billion; (v) Advances = CAD9.904B (15 April 2020 peak); (vi) No amount/estimate; the Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) will provide interest-free loans of up to CAD40,000 to small businesses and not-for-profits; (vii) Farm Credit Canada will provide an additional CAD5 billion in lending to producers, agribusiness, and food processors; (viii) Canadian Dairy Commission's borrowing limit increased by CAD200 million; (viii) 3 June 2020, Effective 6 June 2020, the BoC will reduce the frequency of BAPF operations to bi-weekly; (ix) 3 June 2020, Effective 15 June 2020, the BoC will reduce the frequency of its Term Repo operations from twice to once per week, and the number of maturity points will be reduced from 4 to 2; (x) Farm Credit Canada was authorized by the government to provide an additional CAD5 billion in lending to producers, agribusiness, and food processors; (xi) 9 November 2020, Effective 16 November 2020, the BoC will discontinue the PMMP program, with the last operation scheduled for November 13.
|Canada||01B||01B - Support policies for short-term lending||CAD||Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/04/assets-eligible-collateral-standing-liquidity-facility-090420/; Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/06/bank-canada-announces-changes-term-repo-operations-bankers-acceptance-purchase-facility/ (all accessed 10 June 2020).||
No amount/estimate. (i) Most recent collateral policies, assets aligible as Collateral under the Bank of Canada’s Standing Liquidity Facility (SLF), provides access to liquidity to those institutions that participate directly in the Large Value Transfer System (LVTS).(ii) On 9 April 2020, the Bank widened the eligibility requirements of term asset-backed securities accepted as collateral; (iii) 24 April 2020, the Bank included term repurchase agreements up to 90 days in its Standing Term Liquidity Facility (STLF); (iii) June 3, eligible securities for collateral in Term Repo operations will be reduced to exclude all large value transaction settlement (LVTS) members' bankers' acceptances or bearer deposit notes (including own name).
|Canada||01C||01C - Forex operations||CAD|
|Canada||02||02 - Credit creation||CAD||559,729,000,000||401,167,532,700|
|Canada||02A||02A - Financial sector lending/funding||CAD||219,729,000,000||157,483,605,089||Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/markets/market-operations-liquidity-provision/market-operations-programs-and-facilities/canada-mortgage-bond-purchase-program/#marketFunctioning; Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/markets/market-operations-liquidity-provision/market-operations-programs-and-facilities/provincial-bond-purchase-program/ (all accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) Increase in Mortgage Bonds = CAD9.729 billion (peak 9 December 2020) - Canada Mortgage Bond Purchase Program (CMBP) will target CAD500 million in purchases per week; (ii) CAD50 billion limit; CAD16.558 billion (peak 3 February 2021). The Provincial Bond Purchase Program (“PBPP” or “the program”) will be structured as a direct purchase program into a separate account held by the Bank of Canada (“BoC” or “the Bank”), managed by BMO Global Asset Management Inc. (“BMO GAM” or “the Asset Manager”) and supported by Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Mellon (“CIBC Mellon” or “the Custodian”) as a custodian. The program will support the liquidity and efficiency of provincial government funding markets. The program’s parameters may be expanded if conditions warrant. (iii) CAD10 billion limit. Beginning 26 May 2020, the Corporate Bond Purchase Program (CBPP) will purchase eligible corporate bonds in the secondary market. The program size will be capped at CAD10 billion and will be restricted to senior secured and unsecured bonds originated by Canadian incorporated companies with a remaining maturity of up to 5 years and a minimum credit rating of BBB or equivalent; since 25 November 2020, bonds purchased through the CBPP were CAD181 million; (iv) CAD150 billion; the government's Insured Mortgage Purchase Program (IMPP) purchases insured mortgage pools through the Canada Mortgage Housing Corporation (CMHC); (v) 28 April 2020, The Bank of Canada began offering 24-month repurchase operations (amount included in repurchase operations in 1A). (vi) As of 6 January 2021, the PBPP and CBPP are authorized for a combined CAD60 billion in purchases, while combined purchases to date are CAD15.158 billion, leaving CAD44.842 billion unutilized.
|Canada||02B||02B - Support policies for long-term lending||CAD||300,000,000,000||215,015,230,245|
|Canada||02B1||02B1 - Interest rate adjustments||CAD||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/03/canadas-covid-19-economic-response-plan-support-for-canadians-and-businesses.html#Supporting_Financial_Market. BoC https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/fad-press-release-2020-06-03.pdf (all accessed 10 June 2020). BoC https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/10/fad-press-release-2020-10-28/ (accessed Oct 31). BoC https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2020/12/fad-press-release-2020-12-09/ (accessed 20 December 2020). BoC https://www.bankofcanada.ca/2021/01/fad-press-release-2021-01-20/ (accessed 22 January 2021)||
(i) 3 June 2020, the BoC maintained its targets at 0.5% for the Bank Rate (penalty rate) and 0.25% for both the deposit rate (interest on reserves) and the overnight rate target; (ii) 28 October 2020, the BoC announced that it will maintain its overnight rate target at the lower bound (interest on reserves) rate of 0.25% until "the 2% inflation target is sustainably achieved. In our current projection, this does not happen until 2023"; (iii) 28 October 2020, the BoC announced that its quantitative easing program (QE) will continue purchasing government securities, though "total purchases will be gradually reduced to at least CAD4 billion per week," a reduction from the previous rate of CAD5 billion per week; (iv) 9 December 2020, the BoC announced that the policy rate will remain at the current levels until the inflation objective is achieved; (v) no amount/estimate; 20 January 2021, the BoC reiterated that the policy rate will remain at the "effective lower bound until economic slack is absorbed so that the 2 percent inflation target is sustainably achieved" and clarified that "In our project, this does not happen until 2023. To reinforce this commitment and keep interest rates low across the yield curve, the Bank will continue its QE program until the recovery is well underway";
|Canada||02B2||02B2 - Other policies to support long-term lending||CAD||300,000,000,000||215,015,230,245||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/03/canadas-covid-19-economic-response-plan-support-for-canadians-and-businesses.html#Supporting_Financial_Market. OSFI https://www.osfi-bsif.gc.ca/Eng/fi-if/in-ai/Pages/FRI20200828_let.aspx (Accessed 2 September).||
(i) The Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI) announced it is lowering the Domestic Stability Buffer by 1.25% of risk-weighted assets to 1%, effective immediately. This action will allow Canada’s large banks to inject CAD300 billion of additional lending in to the economy; (ii) No amount/estimate: 31 August 2020, the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions (OSFI) extended regulatory flexibility for insurers for 6 more months, including relaxing requirements for insurers regarding capital requirements for premiums or insured loans that are delinquent or for which a payment deferral has been given.
|Canada||02C||02C - Loan guarantees||CAD||40,000,000,000||28,668,697,366||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) No amount/estimate: Loan Guarantee for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises through the Business Credit Availability Program, Export Development Canada (EDC) is working with financial institutions to guarantee 80% of new operating credit and cash flow term loans of up to CAD6.25 million to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); Canadian Government reports on 11 August 2020 that the amount of loan guarantees is CAD40 billion.
|Canada||03||03 - Direct long-term lending||CAD||49,705,000,000||35,624,440,065|
|Canada||03A||03A - Long-term lending||CAD||49,705,000,000||35,624,440,065||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) CAD25 billion - Expanding the Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) to businesses that paid between CAD20,000 and CAD1.5 million in total payroll in 2019 (updated in (ii)); (ii) 11 August 2020: From the Canadian Government's "Fiscal Summary" cited in 5B below, Canada student loans--CAD1.93 billion; Alternative Credit Support for Businesses Unable to Access other Emergency Measures--CAD1.232 billion; Canada Emergency Business Account--CAD41.25 billion; Credit support for the agricultural sector--CAD5.2 billion; National Ecosystem Fund--CAD93 million.
|Canada||03B||03B - Forbearance||CAD||Bank of Canada. https://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/finance-and-investing/mortgage-loan-insurance/the-resource/covid19-understanding-mortgage-payment-deferral (accessed 10 June 2020). Canada Department of Finance https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/06/government-announces-extension-of-rent-relief-program-for-small-businesses.html (accessed 1 July 2020).||
(i) No amount/estimate: Mortgage Payment Deferral from the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, in which interest on mortgage deferrals is added to the principal; (ii) Canada Emergency Commercial Rent Assistance (CECRA) for small businesses. This program will lower rent by 75% for small businesses that have been affected by COVID-19. On 30 June 2020, CECRA was extended by one month to cover small business rents for July and, to simplify the application process, the government is removing the requirement to claw-back insurance proceeds and provincial rent supports from the CECRA forgivable loan amount for both existing and new applicants. This will provide important relief for small businesses that continue to experience financial hardship, and also allow property owners to maintain rental income and keep tenants in their commercial properties as the economy gradually restarts; (iii) No amount/estimate: Deferring payments for tourism operators on commercial leases and licenses of occupation.
|Canada||04||04 - Equity support||CAD||537,000,000||384,877,262||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) CAD287 million to support rural businesses and communities by providing them with much-needed access to capital through the Community Futures Network; (ii) CAD250 million to assist innovative, early-stage companies that are unable to access other COVID-19 business supports through the Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP).
|Canada||05||05 - Health and income support||CAD||319,322,500,000||228,864,002,867|
|Canada||05A||05A - Health support||CAD||25,174,000,000||18,042,644,687||Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/05/government-provides-tariff-relief-to-importers-of-certain-medical-goods.html (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) Immediate public health response--CAD50 million; COVID-19 response fund--CAD1.025 billion; Personal protective equipment and supplies-CAD2 billion; Safe Restart Agreement--CAD19.351 billion; Personal protective equipment for essential workers--CAD511 million; Support for Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada--CAD88 million; Reducing import costs for critical medical goods--CAD 281 million; Health and Social Support for Northern Communities--CAD115 million; Medical research and vaccine development--CAD1.127 billion; Consular assistance--CAD100 million; Virtual care and mental health tools--CAD241 million; Enhancing public health in Indigenous communities--CAD285 million.
|Canada||05B||05B - Income support||CAD||294,148,500,000||210,821,358,180|
|Canada||05B1||05B1 - Tax and contribution deferrals and policy changes||CAD||85,000,000,000||60,920,981,903||Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020). Canadian Government https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan/fiscal-summary.html (accessed 27 September 2020).||
Tax support: Income tax payment deferral until after August--CAD55 billion; Sales tax remittance and customs duty payments deferral--CAD30 billion; No amount/estimate: Flexibility for individual and corporate taxpayers (tax payment deferral until September).
|Canada||05B2||05B2 - Tax and contribution rates reduction||CAD||Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020). Canadian Government https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan/fiscal-summary.html (accessed 27 September 2020).||
No amount/estimate: Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) provides a taxable benefit of CAD2,000 every 4 weeks for up to 16 weeks to eligible workers who have lost their income due to COVID-19.
|Canada||05B3||05B3 - Subsidies to individuals and households||CAD||100,686,500,000||72,163,769,934||Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020). Department of Finance https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/07/supporting-canadian-workers-and-businesses-with-a-redesigned-canada-emergency-wage-subsidy.html (accessed 20 July 2020). Department of Finance https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/07/government-legislation-to-support-canadian-workers-businesses-persons-with-disabilities-and-legal-rights-receives-royal-assent.html (accessed 31 July 2020). Canadian Government https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan/fiscal-summary.html (accessed 27 September 2020).||
(i) Support for individuals: Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) - CAD80.473 billion; Temporary Enhanced Canada Child Benefit - CAD1.997 billion; Temporary enhanced GST Credit - CAD5.515 billion; Canada Student Loan Payments - CAD190 million; Waiving employment insurance waiting period for people in imposed quarantine--CAD5 million; (ii) Support for student and recent graduates: Youth employment and skills development programs--CAD 1.008 billion; Canada Emergency Student Benefit--CAD5.250 billion; Canada Student Service Grant--CAD900 million; (iii) One-time payment to OAS and GIS recipients--CAD2.509 billion; New Horizons for Seniors Program expansion--CAD20 million; Lower RRIF minimum withdrawal--CAD495 million; United Way contribution--CAD9 million; (iv) Support for Vulnerable Groups: Indigenous Community Support Fund--CAD380 million; Support for the On Reserve Income Assistance Program--CAD270 million; Support for people experiencing homelessness (through Reaching Home) - CAD157.5 million; Support for women’s shelters and sexual assault centres including on reserve - CAD50 million; Protecting and supporting Indigenous women and girls fleeing violence--CAD29 million; Kids Help Phone--CAD8 million; Support for food banks and local food organizations--CAD100 million; Support for charities and non-profits serving vulnerable people--CAD350 million; Support for persons with disabilities--CAD865 million; Support for Red Cross--CAD100 million; Wage subsidy for staff of the non-public funds, Canadian forces--CAD6 million; (v) No amount/estimate: Starting 5 October 2020, the Canada Recovery Sickness Benefit will provide CAD500 per week for up to 2 weeks for those that miss work from having COVID-19; (vi) No amount/estimate: Starting 5 October 2020, the Canada Recovery Caregiving Benefit will provide CAD500 per week for up to 26 weeks for caregivers; (vii) No amount/estimate: Starting 12 October 2020, the Canada Recovery Benefit provides CAD500 per week for up to 26 weeks for those unemployed but not eligible for employment insurance.
|Canada||05B4||05B4 - Subsidies to businesses||CAD||105,884,000,000||75,888,908,798||Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020). Department of Finance https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/07/government-announces-new-extension-of-rent-relief-for-small-businesses.html (accessed 1 August 2020). Canadian Government https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan/fiscal-summary.html (accessed 27 September 2020).||
(i) Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS)-CAD83.6 billion; 10% temporary wage subsidy--CAD2.08 billion; Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) 25% incentive--CAD13.75 billion; Support for Indigenous businesses and Aboriginal financial institutions--CAD307 million; Financial relief for Fist Nations through the First Nations Finance Authority--CAD17 million; Enhancements to the Work-Sharing Program--CAD12 million; Canada Emergency Commercial Rent Assistance (CAD2,974 million less Provincial contributions of CAD569 million = CAD2,405 million); Women Entrepreneurship Strategy--CAD15 million; Support for Federal Bridge Corporation--CAD3 million; (ii) Support for sectors: Air transportatoin--CAD331 million; Food inspection--CAD20 million; Firms that hire temporary foreign workers--54 million; Broadcasting industry--CAD35 million; Emissions reduction fund for oil and gas sector--CAD750 million; Farmers, food businesses, and food supply--CAD453 million; Fish and seafood processors--CAD63 million; Fish harvesters--CAD469 million; Academic research community--450 million; Supporting safe jobs and safe operations of junior mining companies--CAD50 million; No amount/estimate: Increased payments of 50% to 75% to AgriStability to support farmers that face significant revenue declines; (iii) No amount/estimate: 20 July 2020, the Finance Ministry announced proposed changes to the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS) that would extend it to 19 December 2020, make the subsidy eligible to a broader range of employers by including those with a revenue decline of less than 30%, and introduce a top-up subsidy up to an additional 25% for employers most adversely affected; (iv) 20 July 2020, A one-time non-taxable payment of up to CAD600 to approximately 1.7 million eligible disabled individuals (CAD600 x 1,700,000 = CAD1.02 billion); (v) No amount/estimate: 31 July 2020, the Department of Finance announced an extension of rent relief for small businesses by one month through the Canada Emergency Commercial Rent Assistance.
|Canada||05B5||05B5 - Indirect income support||CAD||2,578,000,000||1,847,697,545||Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020). Canadian Government https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan/fiscal-summary.html (accessed 27 September 2020).||
Advertising campaign for government COVID-19 response plan--CAD10 million; COVID-19 communications and marketing--CAD50 million; Support for Indigenous economies and Indigenous tourism--CAD133 million; Parks Canada Rent Relief & Revenue Replacement--CAD74 million; Granville Island Emergency Relief Fund--CAD17 million; Emergency Support Fund for cultural, heritage, and sport organization to address financial needs of affected organizations so they can continue to support artists and athletes--CAD500 million; Canada's national museums--CAD26 million; National Arts Centre--18 million; Cleaning up former oil and gas wells--CAD1.72 billion; Safety measures in forest operations--CAD 30 million.
|Canada||05B6||05B6 - No breakdown (income support)||CAD|
|Canada||05C||05C - No breakdown (health and income support)||CAD|
|Canada||06||06 - Budget reallocation||CAD||15,000,000||10,750,762||
(i) Support for Northern Business from existing sources--CAD15 million.
|Canada||07||07 - Central bank financing government||CAD||364,052,000,000||260,922,415,338|
|Canada||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||CAD||115,008,000,000||82,428,238,667||Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 3 February 2021).||
BoC purchases of T-bills were in the primary market as they were auctioned; As of 3 February 2021, current T-bill holdings have increased by CAD24.013 billion since the end of February 2020, with the maximum increase occurring on 29 July 2020 at CAD115.008 billion.
|Canada||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||CAD||249,044,000,000||178,494,176,671||Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 3 February 2021).||
(i) Government of Canada Bond Purchase Program (GBPP): Purchases will begin with a minimum of CAD5 billion per week across the yield curve. The program will be adjusted as conditions warrant but will continue until the economic recovery is well underway; on 28 October 2020, BoC announced purchases would gradually decline to CAD4 billion per week; As of 3 February 2021, the increase in government bonds owned by BoC has risen to CAD245.528 billion since the purchases in response to COVID-19 began, which is also the peak figure [update]; (ii) 3 June 2020, Bank of Canada began purchasing Government of Canada Real Return Bonds; as of 3 February 2021, the purchased amount is CAD3.416 billion; the peak figure on 6 Jaunary 2021 was an increase of CAD3.516 billion (pre-COVID BoC did not hold government real return bonds).
|Canada||08||08 - International Assistance Received||CAD|
|Canada||08A||08A - Swaps||CAD||Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 3 February 2021).||
No amount/estimate: BoC together with central banks from Japan, Euro Area, UK, US, and Switzerland, announced a coordinated central bank action to further enhance the provision of liquidity via the standing US dollar liquidity swap line arrangements; Starting with the Fed's expansion of its central bank swap lines on 2 March 2020, the BoC had not used the swap line to acquire US dollars from the Federal Reserve.
|Canada||08B||08B - International loans/grants||CAD|
|Canada||08B1||08B1 - Asian Development Bank||CAD|
|Canada||08B2||08B2 - Other||CAD|
|Canada||09||09 - International Assistance Provided||CAD|
|Canada||09A||09A - Swaps||CAD|
|Canada||09B||09B - International loans/grants||CAD|
|Canada||10||10 - No breakdown||CAD|
|Canada||11||11 - Other Economic Measures||CAD|
|Canada||12||12 - Non-Economic Measures||CAD|
|Canada||12A||12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international)||CAD||International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).||
|Canada||12B||12B - Measures affecting business and workplace||CAD||International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) Social distancing measures; (ii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iii) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces.
|Canada||12C||12C - Others||CAD||International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).||
(i) Reopening the economy. On 28 April 2020, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.