|Economy||Measure Code||Measure||Currency Code||Amount (Local)||Amount (USD)||Source||Post Date||Details|
|European Central Bank||01||01 - Liquidity Support||EUR|
|European Central Bank||01A||01A - Short-term lending||EUR||OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 29 April 2020).||
No amount/estimate: 12 March, Conducting additional longer-term refinancing operations (LTROs) temporarily (with an interest rate equal to the average rate on the deposit facility, -0.50% currently).
|European Central Bank||01B||01B - Support policies for short-term lending||EUR||IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 29 April 2020).||
No amount/estimate: (i) The ECB also announced a broad package of collateral easing measures for Eurosytem credit operations in early April. These include a permanent collateral haircut reduction of 20 percent for non-marketable assets, and temporary measures for the duration of the PEPP (with a view to re-assess their effectiveness before the end of 2020) such as a reduction of collateral haircuts by 20 percent and expansion of collateral eligibility to include Greek sovereign bonds as well as an expansion of the scope of so-called additional credit claims framework so that it may also include public sector-guaranteed loans to SMEs, self-employed individuals, and households. In a move to mitigate the impact of possible rating downgrades on collateral availability , on April 22, the ECB also announced that it would grandfather until September 2021 the eligibility of marketable assets used as collateral in Eurosystem credit operations falling below current minimum credit quality requirements of “BBB-“ (“A-“ for asset-backed securities) as long as their rating remains at or above “BB” and “BB+”, respectively. Assets that fall below these minimum credit quality requirements will be subject to haircuts based on their actual ratings; (ii) Allow major banks (directly supervised by the ECB) to operate temporarily below the level of capital defined by the Pillar 2 Guidance (P2G), the capital conservation buffer (CCB) and the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR).
|European Central Bank||01C||01C - Forex operations||EUR|
|European Central Bank||02||02 - Credit creation||EUR||4,470,000,000,000||4,944,690,265,487|
|European Central Bank||02A||02A - Financial sector lending/funding||EUR||1,470,000,000,000||1,626,106,194,690||OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 29 April 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/accounts/2020/html/ecb.mg200522~f0355619ae.en.html (accessed 22 May 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.mp200604~a307d3429c.en.html ( accessed 9 June 2020).||
(i) March 12, Adding a temporary envelope of additional net asset purchases of EUR120 billion until the end of the year; (ii) March 18, launched a new temporary asset purchase programme of private and public sector securities (Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme, PEPP) with an overall envelope of EUR 750 billion until the end of 2020. Some self-imposed purchase limits will not apply to the PEPP. A waiver of the eligibility requirements for securities issued by the Greek government will be granted for purchases under PEPP. Based on The European Central Bank is “fully prepared” to provide even more stimulus as soon as June to support an economy that may shrink by a tenth this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the accounts of the bank’s April meeting showed on Friday; (iii) expanding the range of eligible assets under the corporate sector purchase programme (CSPP) to non-financial commercial paper; (iv) June 4, The PEPP envelope will be increased by EUR600 billion to a total of EUR1,350 billion. The purchases will continue to be conducted in a flexible manner over time, across asset classes and among jurisdictions. This allows the Governing Council to effectively stave off risks to the smooth transmission of monetary policy. The horizon for net purchases under the PEPP will be extended to at least the end of June 2021. In any case, the Governing Council will conduct net asset purchases under the PEPP until it judges that the coronavirus crisis phase is over [update].
|European Central Bank||02B||02B - Support policies for long-term lending||EUR||3,000,000,000,000||3,318,584,070,796||EC. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/mopo/implement/omt/html/cspp-qa.en.html (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/blog/date/2020/html/ecb.blog200409~3aa2815720.en.html (accessed 18 April 2020); EC. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200430_1~477f400e39.en.html [accessed 3 May 2020]; EC. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/mopo/implement/omo/html/index.en.html (accessed 30 April 20202); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020).||
(i) March 12, Lowering the interest rate applied in targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTRO III) during the period from June 2020 to June 2021 (25 basis points below the average rate applied in the Eurosystem's main refinancing operations). The targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTROs) are Eurosystem operations that provide financing to credit institutions. By offering banks long-term funding at attractive conditions they preserve favourable borrowing conditions for banks and stimulate bank lending to the real economy. It is estimated that the facility could provide up to around EUR3 trillion in at a negative rate, which can be as low as -0.75%, the lowest rate ECB ever offered. On April 30, ECB lowered the rate on the third round of targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTRO III) to -1% from -0.75%. On the same day, ECB decided to conduct a series of seven pandemic emergency longer-term refinancing operations (PELTROs) to provide liquidity support to the euro area financial system and ensure smooth money market conditions during the pandemic period. No amount/estimate: (ii) relaxation of countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB); (iii) March 20, Flexibility in treatment of non-performing loans (NPLs) to allow banks to fully benefit from public guarantees and moratoriums and of banks' implementation of NPL reduction strategies; (iv) March 27, requirement for banks not to pay dividends until at least 1 October 2020.; (v) see (ii) on CCB in Measure 1; (vi) April 28, the European Commission proposed a number of changes to the Capital Requirements Regulation (Regulation (EU) 575/2013) to provide temporary capital relief to banks. These changes include inter alia extending by 2 years the current transitional arrangements for mitigating the impact of IFRS 9 provisions on regulatory capital, a later date of application of the leverage ratio buffer for global systemically important institutions, a more favourable treatment of publicly guaranteed loans under the NPL prudential backstop (the minimum loss coverage requirement for non-performing loans), and advancing the date of application of capital reduction factors in respect of certain loans to SMEs or in support of infrastructure investments; (vii) No amount/estimate: April 30, New series of non-targeted pandemic emergency longer-term refinancing operations, conducted as fixed rate tender procedures with full allotment, rate fixed at 25bp below refi rate. Operations mature in staggered sequence between July-September 2021.
|European Central Bank||02C||02C - Loan guarantees||EUR|
|European Central Bank||03||03 - Direct long-term lending||EUR|
|European Central Bank||03A||03A - Long-term lending||EUR|
|European Central Bank||03B||03B - Forbearance||EUR|
|European Central Bank||04||04 - Equity support||EUR|
|European Central Bank||05||05 - Health and income support||EUR|
|European Central Bank||05A||05A - Health support||EUR|
|European Central Bank||05B||05B - Income support||EUR|
|European Central Bank||06||06 - Budget reallocation||EUR|
|European Central Bank||07||07 - Central bank financing government||EUR|
|European Central Bank||07A||07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown||EUR|
|European Central Bank||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||EUR||OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020).||
Purchases of government bonds are included in Measure 2 (Encourage Private Credit Creation). The amount could not be disaggregated from the EUR 750 billion PEPP program.
|European Central Bank||08||08 - International Assistance Received||EUR||131,062,824,000||144,981,000,000|
|European Central Bank||08A||08A - Swaps||EUR||131,062,824,000||144,981,000,000||New York FED.https://apps.newyorkfed.org/markets/autorates/fxswap (accessed 14 June 2020).||
Peak amount outstanding with the US Fed: USD144.981 billion as of June 10.
|European Central Bank||08B||08B - International loans/grants||EUR|
|European Central Bank||08B1||08B1 - Asian Development Bank||EUR|
|European Central Bank||08B2||08B2 - Other||EUR|
|European Central Bank||09||09 - International Assistance Provided||EUR||28,000,000,000||30,973,451,327|
|European Central Bank||09A||09A - Swaps||EUR||28,000,000,000||30,973,451,327||ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/search/html/index.en.html?q=+swap+lines (18 May 2020).||
(i) March 20, ECB and Danmarks Nationalbank reactivate swap line EUR24 billion (increased EUR12 billion) to remain in place for as long as needed; (ii) April 15, ECB and Bulgarian National Bank set up new swap line of EUR2 billion to remain in place until end-2020, or as long as needed; (ii) April 22, ECB and Hrvatska narodna banka set up new swap line of EUR2 billion until end-2020, or as long as needed.
|European Central Bank||09B||09B - International loans/grants||EUR|
|European Central Bank||10||10 - No breakdown||EUR||ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/accounts/2020/html/ecb.mg200522~f0355619ae.en.html (24 May 2020).||
May 22, The account of the monetary policy meeting of the Governing Council of the ECB on 29-30 April was released. According to it, the ECB was fully prepared to adjust all of its measures, as appropriate, to ensure that inflation moved towards its aim in a sustained manner, in particular signalling that it was fully prepared to increase the size of the PEPP and adjust its composition as much as necessary and for as long as needed .
|European Central Bank||11||11 - Other Economic Measures||EUR|
|European Central Bank||12||12 - Non-Economic Measures||EUR|
|European Union||01||01 - Liquidity Support||EUR||10,000,000,000||11,061,946,903|
|European Union||01A||01A - Short-term lending||EUR||10,000,000,000||11,061,946,903||EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_569 (accessed 16 April 2020).||
March, The European Investment Bank (EIB) dedicated liquidity lines to banks to ensure additional working capital support for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and mid-caps of EUR10 billion.
|European Union||01B||01B - Support policies for short-term lending||EUR|
|European Union||01C||01C - Forex operations||EUR|
|European Union||02||02 - Credit creation||EUR||46,000,000,000||50,884,955,752|
|European Union||02A||02A - Financial sector lending/funding||EUR|
|European Union||02B||02B - Support policies for long-term lending||EUR||Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020).||
No amount/breakdown: April 22, Provided guidance on the use of flexibility in relation to COVID-19 and called for heightened attention to risks. The European Banking Authority (EBA) proposed to introduce the use of a 66% aggregation factor to be applied until December 31, 2020 under the "core approach." EBA intended to delay reporting for the first FRTB-SA figures until September 2021. EBA emphasized flexibility in the prudential requirements available to competent authorities for banks using VaR models. EBA also clarified the prudential application on the definitions of "default" and "forbearance," and how the EBA Guidelines on legislative and non-legislative moratoria on loan repayments apply to securitizations.
|European Union||02C||02C - Loan guarantees||EUR||46,000,000,000||50,884,955,752||EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_569 (accessed 16 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-086-eib-group-will-rapidly-mobilise-eur-40-billion-to-fight-crisis-caused-by-covid-19 (accessed 16 April 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020); European Finance Network. https://www.european-microfinance.org/news/investeu-programme-questions-and-answers (accessed 19 April 2020); SP Global. https://www.spglobal.com/en/research-insights/articles/covid-19-daily-update-april-16-2020 (accessed 19 April 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-126-eib-board-approves-eur-25-billion-pan-european-guarantee-fund-to-respond-to-covid-19-crisis.htm (accessed 1 June 2020).||
(i) April 6, The EIB redirected EUR1 billion from the EU Budget as a guarantee to the European Investment Fund to incentivize banks to provide liquidity to affected SMEs and midcaps; (ii) The EIB's EUR20 billion in dedicated guarantee schemes to banks based on existing programmes for immediate deployment; (iii) 09 April, EIB proposal to create a EUR25 billion guarantee fund, which will support up to EUR200 billion of financing for companies (especially SMEs) throughout the EU. The scheme will be implemented by the EIB Group, in close partnership with national promotional banks and other financial intermediaries; (iv) No amount/estimate: European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. The commission hopes to mobilize at least 1 trillion euros ($1.1 trillion) of sustainable investments in the next 10 years to help the bloc become climate-neutral by 2050. The InvestEU Fund will mobilise public and private investment through an EU budget guarantee; (v) 26 May, The Board of Directors of the EIB has agreed on the structure and business model of the new Pan-European Guarantee Fund (EGF). Member State contributions to the EGF will take the form of guarantees and may include an upfront payment. Such guarantees will cover losses incurred in the operations supported by the EGF. Any losses will be borne pro rata by the participating countries. At least 65% of the financing are earmarked for SMEs. A maximum of 23% will go to companies with 250 or more employees, with restrictions applying to larger companies with more than 3,000 staff. A maximum of 5% of the financing can go to public sector companies and entities active in the area of health. Another 7% of EGF-supported financing can be allocated to venture and growth capital and venture debt in support of SMEs and midcaps .
|European Union||03||03 - Direct long-term lending||EUR||255,000,000,000||282,079,646,018|
|European Union||03A||03A - Long-term lending||EUR||255,000,000,000||282,079,646,018||OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020).||
(i) March, the EIB dedicated EUR 10 billion in asset-backed securities (ABS) purchasing programs to allow banks to transfer risk on portfolios of SME loans; (ii) 9 April, EU finance ministers decided to establish Pandemic Crisis Support credit lines within the framework of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). Access granted will be 2% of the respective country's GDP as of end-2019, as a benchmark (about EUR 240 billion in total). The credit line will be available until the COVID-19 crisis is over. The only requirement to access the credit line is that euro area Member States requesting support would commit to use this credit line to finance direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention related costs due to the COVID 19 crisis. On May 15, the Board of Governors of the ESM approved the establishment of Pandemic Crisis Support ; (iii) No amount/estimate: European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of the three sources of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. For investments in, for instance, district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (iv) April 24, Approved EUR 5 billion in new financing for businesses affected by the coronavirus, and for the development of medica ltechnology. EUR3 billion was dedicated to businesses in Spain and Italy. The approval represents an extension of the loan package first identified on March 16, 2020.
|European Union||03B||03B - Forbearance||EUR|
|European Union||04||04 - Equity support||EUR||549,000,000||607,300,885||EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020).||
(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs [update].