Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 01C 01C - Forex operations AFN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 6 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) DAB is in discussions with money-service providers, who play a systemic role in financial transactions, to ensure uninterrupted services, including transactions in foreign currency, and to encourage enhancement of their remote services given closures; (ii) DAB remains focused on price stability and is committed to exchange rate flexibility, limiting its foreign interventions to preventing excessive volatility.

Arab Republic of Egypt 01C 01C - Forex operations EGP
Argentina 01C 01C - Forex operations ARS

See (i) in Measure 11.

Armenia 01C 01C - Forex operations AMD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 05 May 2020).

(i) No amount/estimate: Provided a few foreign exchange swap operations to assure sufficient liquidity in AMD and in foreign currency. The CBA has undertaken some foreign exchange sales to limit excessive dram volatility since; (ii) The exchange rate has been allowed to adjust flexibly and has depreciated around 3% against the USD since the end of February. No balance of payment or capital control measures have been adopted.

Australia 01C 01C - Forex operations AUD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 September 2020).

No amount/estimate: April 2020, The exchange rate has been allowed to adjust flexibly to absorb economic shocks.

Austria 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Azerbaijan 01C 01C - Forex operations AZN International Monetary Fund (IMF). https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 01 October 2020).

April 2020, The Central Bank of Azerbaijan (CBA), with the participation of the State Oil Fund, conducted scheduled and extraordinary foreign exchange auctions, and satisfied all demands for foreign currency at the announced 1.7AZN/USD rate.

Bangladesh 01C 01C - Forex operations BDT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 1 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: Foreign exchange rules were eased by Bangladesh Bank to provide foreign currency to the Bangladeshi nationals who are visiting abroad and facing problem in returning home due to travel disruptions. It also resumed sales of the US dollar to offset extra pressure on the market caused by lower remittance inflows following the COVID-19 outbreak.

Belgium 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Bhutan 01C 01C - Forex operations BTN/INR
Brazil 01C 01C - Forex operations BRL 310,509,194,527 63,587,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19?fbclid=IwAR3QQSk6OmfE7YbISvq0_ut_FpTD_Bc00gRB-YJ_YA_VB-VlWiYD9PBO0Ro#B (Accessed 29 May 2020) . Mercopress https://en.mercopress.com/2020/10/31/brazil-s-central-bank-intervenes-twice-in-the-week-in-support-of-the-weakening-real (accessed October 31). BCB https://www.bcb.gov.br/ingles/infecon/mab/previous/mab202003comments.pdf (Accessed 15 January 2021)

(i) The central bank has intervened various times in the foreign exchange market since mid-February (both with spot and derivative contracts sales), by a total of nearly USD45 billion (10% of gross reserves) as of 28 May 2020; (ii) The central bank is resuming repo operations of Brazilian sovereign bonds denominated in US dollars, having released USD9 billion into the money market thus far; (iii) 31 October 2020, BCB sold USD1.787 billion across 28 October and 30 October 2020 to keep BRL below BRL5.8 per USD, which it had crossed for the first time since May; (iv) The BCB's March traditional foreign exchange swap auctions maturing on December 1, 2020 totalled the equivalent of USD7.8 billion.

Brunei Darussalam 01C 01C - Forex operations BND
Cambodia 01C 01C - Forex operations KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020).

No amount/estimate: April 2020, Cambodia continues to maintain a managed floating exchange rate.

Canada 01C 01C - Forex operations CAD
Cook Islands 01C 01C - Forex operations NZD
Denmark 01C 01C - Forex operations DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 May 2020).

Denmark’s krone is pegged to the Euro. The fixed exchange rate policy has served Denmark well. The DN has stated its objective of preserving the peg.

European Central Bank 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
European Union 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Federated States of Micronesia 01C 01C - Forex operations USD
Fiji 01C 01C - Forex operations FJD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

The Reserve Bank of Fiji tightened exchange controls on 3 April 2020 to ensure that adequate foreign reserves can be maintained. It reported foreign exchange reserves stood at FJD2,111.0 billion (7.7 months of retained imports) as of 30 July 2020. As of 31 August 2020, reserves stood at FJD2,371.0 billion (8.7 months of retained imports).

Finland 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
France 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Georgia 01C 01C - Forex operations GEL 2,785,310,750 916,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 January 2021).

(i) NBG has sold USD916 million in five interventions in the foreign exchange market, to prevent disorderly depreciation; (ii) No amount/estimate: 14 May 2020, To ease lari liquidity pressures, the NBG started FX swap lines with banks and microfinance institutions in mid-April.

Germany 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Hong Kong, China 01C 01C - Forex operations HKD 77,651,000,000 10,000,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020).

The HKMA (i) increased banking system liquidity such as through USD repo transactions; and (ii) 22 April 2020, Launched a US Dollar Liquidity Facility (US$10 billion) which uses funds obtained through the US Fed's FIMA Repo Facility.

India 01C 01C - Forex operations INR 201,396,887,737 2,710,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 5 May 2020).

The RBI conducted two sell–buy swap auctions to inject United States dollar liquidity into the forex market to a cumulative USD2.71 billion on 16 March and 23 March 2020.

Indonesia 01C 01C - Forex operations IDR 48,622,636,190,476 3,200,000,000 Bank Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_223020.aspx (accessed 16 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020).

(i) BI lowered the foreign currency reserve requirement by 4% to increase foreign currency liquidity in the banking industry by around USD3.2 billion; No amount/estimate: (ii) BI announced increasing the frequency of foreign exchange swap auctions for 1, 3, 6, and 12 month tenors from three times per week to daily auctions; and (iii) BI has intervened in the spot and domestic non-deliverable foreign exchange markets, and in the domestic government bond market to maintain orderly market conditions.

Ireland 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Islamic Republic of Iran 01C 01C - Forex operations IRR 105,000,000,000,000 2,500,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 December 2020).

(i) The Central Bank of Iran announced it injected USD1.5 billion in the foreign exchange market to stabilize the rial; (ii) July 2020, injected another USD1 billion.

Italy 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Japan 01C 01C - Forex operations JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) The exchange rate has been allowed to adjust flexibly; (ii) See (i) May 22 in Measure 1A.

Kazakhstan 01C 01C - Forex operations KZT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020). OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/country-policy-tracker/ (accessed 8 July 2020)

(i) No amount/estimate: The National Bank (NBK) allowed the tenge to depreciate by over 15% to almost 450 KZT/USD from 9 March 2020, intervening to mitigate excessive volatility. It also introduced a limit on bid-ask spread and lowered the ceiling of FX purchase without supporting import documents for the duration of the state of emergency. The exchange rate has recovered to around 430 KZT/USD, but remains vulnerable to oil price volatility; (ii) No amount/estimate: 2 July 2020, The President of Kazakhstan has assigned the objective to stabilise the exchange rate to the NBK on 2 July 2020.

Kiribati 01C 01C - Forex operations AUD
Kyrgyz Republic 01C 01C - Forex operations KGS 38,772,555,468 519,700,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 14 April 2020, 9 July 2020, 16 September 2020, 2 October 2020, 12 October 2020, 6 November 2020, 8 January 2021, 15 January 2021).

As of 7 January 2021, the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic already sold USD519.7 million of foreign exchange reserves.

Lao PDR 01C 01C - Forex operations LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: April 2020, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has a managed exchange rate (crawl-like arrangement). Under this arrangement, the exchange rate has depreciated. No new balance of payment or capital control measures have been adopted.

Luxembourg 01C 01C - Forex operations EUR
Malaysia 01C 01C - Forex operations MYR
Maldives 01C 01C - Forex operations MVR Maldives Monetary Authority. http://www.mma.gov.mv/#/news/PR-MCS-2020-3(english).html (accessed 13 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 13 April 2020).

April 2020, The MMA will increase foreign exchange intervention and use other available facilities to maintain the exchange rate peg.

Marshall Islands 01C 01C - Forex operations USD
Mexico 01C 01C - Forex operations MXN 219,690,000,000 10,000,000,000 International Monetary Fund (IMF). https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed on 30 April 2020).

(i) The exchange rate has been allowed to adjust flexibly, while supporting USD liquidity. A new tool was added this week permitting the central bank to intervene in offshore non-deliverable forwards markets; (ii) Activated the swap line with the Fed, auctioned already USD5 billion to commercial banks with an 84-day maturity and announced a second auction (USD5 billion).

Mongolia 01C 01C - Forex operations MNT
Myanmar 01C 01C - Forex operations MMK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020).

No amount/estimate: April 2020, The kyat has been allowed to adjust flexibly, with limited rules-based intervention to manage excessive exchange rate volatility.