Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Saudi Arabia 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020).

(i) April 6, Nighttime curfew in various cities including Mecca and Madina; (ii) Restrictions on international and domestic travel; (iii) Closing mosques, schools, universities, and shopping malls; (iv) Suspending employee attendance at government and private workplaces; (v) Increasing mass testing; (vi) The Ministry of Hajj called on countries to delay their bookings for the 2020 Hajj season; (vii) April 22, Launch of a repatriation program for expatriates; (viii) April 26, partial lifting of the curfew in all regions, except in Mecca and previously isolated neighborhoods.

Singapore 12 - Non-Economic Measures Source: IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020). FT. https://www.ft.com/content/5226602f-1239-4f0c-9298-2c3a1d552bc1 (accessed 12 May 2020).

(i) A full lockdown is in place until June 1 and safe distancing measures will also be enforced until June 1. (ii) May 12, Some business have been allowed to reopen with safety measures such as spacing out employees and avoiding staff gatherings; establishments and taxis are required to use a contact tracing app for employees and visitors/clients. [update]

Spain 12 - Non-Economic Measures OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020).

(i) Economy-wide lockdown since 23 March; (ii) The government advised British tourists currently abroad to return to the country, and advised against all non-essential travel worldwide. The warning is in place initially for 30 days; (iii) 16 March, Schools are closed except for children of key workers ; (iv) Social distancing is in place. A ban is in place on all social events and gatherings; (v) May 13, The government announced a gradual easing of restrictions in England, starting with the opening of most sectors that were closed during the lockdown, with the exception of entertainment, hospitality, and non-essential retail. There will be some relaxation of stay-at-home measures and unlimited exercise and driving to a national park or beach will be permitted. People can also see others from outside their household. If the health situation remains under control, a second phase would see the reopening of non-essential retailers and primary schools on 1 June, followed by the hospitality and entertainment sectors on 4 July [update]; (vi) May 11, Primary schools will re-open on 1 June [update]; (vii) May 11 the government announced that outdoor places will reopen on May 13 and that people can exercise more than once a day. Social distancing measures remain in place. Ban on public events and social gatherings remains in place; (viii) May 11,The government announced its opening strategy. In a first phase, sectors that were closed during the lockdown can re-open again on 13 May, except entertainment, hospitality, and non-essential retail. All workers who cannot work from home should travel to work if their workplace is open. If the health situation remains under control, a second phase would see the reopening of non-essential retailers on 1 June, followed by the hospitality and entertainment sectors on 4 July. [update]

Sweden 12 - Non-Economic Measures OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020).

(i) March 14, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs advised against non-essential travel to all countries; (ii) Many secondary schools and universities have switched to distance learning; (iii) Relatives should avoid "unnecessary visits" to hospitals and from April 1, a ban on visiting elderly care institutions is imposed; (iv) Events with more than 50 persons are banned since March 27.

Switzerland 12 - Non-Economic Measures OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 13 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 19 April 2020, 14 May 2020).

(i) Gatherings in public spaces of more than five people are prohibited; (ii) The Federal Council has banned public and private events; (iii) Classroom teaching is banned at schools, universities and other training and educational institutions. The ban will apply until 19 April 2020; (iv) People from high-risk countries and areas will be refused entry into Switzerland; (v) On March 16, the government declared a ban on all private and public events and closing bars, restaurants, sports and cultural spaces; (vi) While protective and relief measures continue to be rolled out or amended, the authorities also announced a plan to gradually reopen the economy starting from the week of April 27.

Thailand 12 - Non-Economic Measures OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 13 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020).

(i) 23 March, Countries considered as risk zones and travellers from those countries need to undertake quarantine for 14 days. Travellers from these countries must submit health certificates that show no COVID-19 infection in advance of their trips. Thailand also halted issuance of visa on arrival for some other countries. (ii) All schools have been closed since 18 March until further notice. (iii) In Bangkok and its vicinity, leisure and sport facilities, such as boxing arenas, pubs, among others, have suspend their businesses for 14 days until the end of March. In addition, the Bangkok Metropolitan Government announced on 21 March that most of nonessential commercial services, including shopping malls, restaurants and sport facilities, among others, would be closed from 22 March to 12 April. (iv) 28 April 2020, The government extended the period of the state of emergency including the night curfew between 22:00 to 4:00hr,as well as the temporary ban on all international flights to Thailand, until 31 May 2020. (v) The first out of four stages for relaxation of Covid-19 containment measures started on May 3, by opening low-risk businesses including markets, small eateries, small retail outlets, exercise facilities, and hairdressers;mplementation of subsequent stages will depend on the evolution of Covid-19 infection. (vi) May 1, several airlines resumed domestic operations in major airports, except Phuket International airport (where the closure has been extended until May) 15, conditional on strict hygiene and preventive guidelines.

Timor-Leste 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020).

(i) Containment and mitigation measures include (a) suspending collective passenger transport and obligating all individuals to wear a protective mask covering mouth and nose, wash their hands before entering commercial or service establishments, and maintain a safe distance of at least one meter from other people; (b) closing all schools and training facilities and suspending all face-to-face school activities; (c) restricting international travel, including the prohibition of entry of foreigners into national territory, except for foreigners born in Timor-Leste, resident citizens, and legal representatives of minors of Timorese nationality; (d) imposing compulsory isolation in a health facility or their homes applies to all those infected with COVID-19 until they are discharged, and all individuals who enter the national territory and all those under the supervision of the authorities will remain in isolation for a period of 14 days and voluntary isolation at home to those who are not in compulsory isolation as well as prohibiting meetings or demonstrations involving the agglomeration of more than five people and any social, cultural, and sporting events; (e) limiting public administration to essential public services; and (f) extending validity of licenses, authorizations, visas and residence permits, and other administrative acts and documents; (ii) March 27, the President declared the State of Emergency, effective from March 28 to April 26; (iii) April 20, The government extended it until end-May.

Turkmenistan 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

(i) The authorities have adopted a wide range of measures to prevent a COVID-19 outbreak in the country, including closure of borders, flight cancellations and rerouting, and mandatory COVID-19 testing for arriving travelers; (ii) Starting March 24, all sports events have been cancelled. Gyms and sports clubs have been shut down in Ashgabat; (iii) The authorities have imposed restrictions on internal movement, closed roads between some provinces, and stopped rail transportation; (iv) Starting from March 24, only Turkmen freight carriers are allowed to transport cargo in Turkmenistan; (v) The authorities have stepped up efforts to digitalize government services, expand e-commerce, and facilitate online and phone payments by SMEs and SOEs through banks [update].

Tonga 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

(i) The Government of Tonga has been introducing increasingly restrictive containment measures since January 2020; (ii) In March, it toughened measures for incoming travelers, while all international cruise ships and yachts were barred indefinitely; (iii) On March 21, Tonga declared a state of National Emergency. As a preventive measure, a nation-wide lockdown came into effect on March 29, which entails the prohibition of all flights into the country and all public transportation inside the country, the closure of all nonessential businesses and public facilities, a stay-at-home order, a night-time curfew and the prohibition of public gatherings; (iv) The authorities started easing restrictions on April 12, by lifting the national lockdown. The state of National Emergency and the border closure, however, have been extended until May 15 and June 12, respectively [update].

Turkey 12 - Non-Economic Measures OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 12 April 2020); Hurriyet. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/ic-hat-ucuslari-ne-zaman-acilacak-ucak-seferleri-ne-zaman-baslayacak-41505168 (accessed 29 April 2020); US News. https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2020-05-06/turkey-says-starting-new-phase-in-battle-against-coronavirus-minister (accessed 6 May 2020); and Anadolu Agency (AA).https://www.aa.com.tr/en/economy/turkeys-industrial-output-goes-down-2-y-o-y-in-march/1840290(accessed 14 May 2020).

(i) All travellers entering Turkey from virus-affected countries are taken under quarantine for 14 days, irrespective of nationality. Returning pilgrims will be kept under quarantine for one additional week. As of 4 April, 15,756 persons were under quarantine in 78 converted student dormitories. From March 22, a curfew was applied to all citizens above 65 and for people with chronic illnesses. From April 4, this is extended to youth below 20 (with an exception for young workers between 18 and 20). From March 31, 41 towns, villages, and neighborhoods in 18 provinces have been taken under quarantine. From April 4, 30 metropolitan areas, including Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, and the town of Zonguldak are also under quarantine. All exits from and entries to these zones are banned (under administrative authorization for special cases); (ii) Air traffic is stopped with all countries. Land borders with Iran, Azerbaijan and Georgia are closed. Public employees’ travels to foreign countries are subject to prior approval by their superiors; (iii) Turkish citizens are advised to postpone their travel plans abroad. Public transportation vehicles are required to accept 50% of their capacity to allow social distancing; (iv) On 28 March, additional measures were announced: intercity travel was prohibited, subject only to individual permissions by state governors; Turkish Airlines suspended its domestic and international flights, Starting from 4 April all domestic flights are suspended until 28 April; suspension extended until 28 May; (v) All educational institutions are closed. Online education started for primary and secondary classes on National TV and internet on March 23. Universities shifted to full online education via their distance education centers and Higher Education Council’s courses platform; (vi) Persons above 65 (March 23) and those below 20 (April 4) are locked down in their living places (with the exception of young workers between 18 and 20); (vii) Sport and cultural facilities, mosques (during high attendance periods), domestic and international trade fairs, cafes, museums, and libraries are closed; (viii) From March 28, outside physical exercises and picnics are banned in town centers on the weekends. Local authorities can extend these bans to weekdays. Grocery stores and supermarkets' opening hours are restricted, with a maximum of one customer for every 10 square metres of space; (vix) Turkey is starting to reduce coronavirus containment measures, lifting inter-city travel restrictions in seven provinces and easing a curfew imposed on the elderly and people less than 20 years old. Shopping malls, barber shops and some stores will be allowed to open on May 11 provided they abide by so-called normalisation rules, and universities would return to their academic calendar on June.

Tuvalu 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 May 2020).

(i) Tuvalu has established a COVID-19 National Taskforce that will act as an Advisory body to Cabinet and provide updates on a regular basis; (ii) Quarantine and self-isolation measures; (iii) The State of Public Health Emergency, which was first declared on March 20, 2020, was extended for another 6 months on March 26, 2020.

United States 12 - Non-Economic Measures WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/covid19_e.htm#faq (accessed 11 April 2020). FT. https://www.ft.com/content/df97fa73-a2f0-3400-bb6c-a3794f1c1607 (accessed 6 May 2020).

(i) Forty-eight states have issued stay at home orders; (ii) Current State Department guidance – Level 4 health advisory alert – advises Americans not to travel; (iii) All states have closed schools; (iv) Limits on operation of bars and restaurants in place in most states; and (v) US retailer Gap announced it will reopen up to 800 of its stores by the end of this month as states nationwide gradually begin to ease lockdowns.

Uzbekistan 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 8 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) Restricting travel (including international flights, domestic public transportation, and movement by car); (ii) Closing borders (except for trade), closing schools and universities and all stores except grocery stores and pharmacies; (iii) Quarantine and self-isolation measures; (iv) Cancelling public events and religious gatherings.

Vanuatu 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

(i) A national State of Emergency (SOE) was declared on March 26 for a two-week period. The SOE will be renewed after April 9; (ii) Quarantine and self isolation measures; (iii) Closed all ports of entry for international flights and cruise ships; (iv) The SOE was renewed on April 11 for 30 days; (v) The government has (a) closed all ports of entry for international flights and cruise ships; (b) suspended departures for seasonal worker programs to Australia and New Zealand (with optional repatriation of workers already abroad); (c) closed all schools until further notice; (d) established curfews for businesses and transport, but not essential medical and communication services; (e) banned gatherings of more than 5 people (suspended temporarily as of April 5 to allow for group sheltering caused by TC Harold and its aftermath); and (f) been encouraging social distancing; (v) Tourism, which contributes 24.6% of Vanuatu’s GDP, has effectively ceased.

South Africa 12 - Non-Economic Measures Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 7 May 2020).

(i) March 15, national state of disaster declared; (ii) nationwide lockdown; (iii) travel ban of foreign nationals from high-risk countries; (iv) screening at ports of entry; (v) school closures; (vi) screening visits to homes; (vii) introduction of mobile technology to track and trace contacts of those infected; (viii) banning of large gatherings.

Afghanistan 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 14 April 2020)

(i) Screening at ports of entry, quarantine for infected people, and closure of public places for gathering; (ii) Quarantine for infected people; (iii) Closure of public places for gathering; (iv) Social distancing measures, including a three-week lockdown of Kabul (March 28) and Ghazni (April 1) and restricting daily movements to those deemed essential; (v) Extended the border closures until April 9.

Armenia 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

The government declared a national state of emergency on March 16, and imposed strict containment measures, including school closures, travel bans on foreign citizens from high risk countries, and imposed fines to those who violate isolation orders during the state of emergency. The state of emergency will be in place until April 14 and encompass movement restrictions.

Australia 12 - Non-Economic Measures Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 11 April 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them.

Austria 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines.

Azerbaijan 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) To contain the spread of COVID-19, the authorities have introduced a special quarantine regime (until April 20). It includes border closures, required quarantine of returning citizens, prohibition of mass gatherings, and restriction on domestic movements; (ii) The COVID-19 Operational Headquarters has been created under the Cabinet of Ministers, and working groups within various ministries and the CBA have been tasked with developing specific measures.

Bangladesh 12 - Non-Economic Measures WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 Aprul 2020).

Effective 2 March 2020 to 2 April 2020, Temporary export prohibition on surgical masks, face masks, and disinfectants (hand sanitizers).

Belgium 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad.

Bhutan 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) Bhutan started imposing containment measures immediately after the first case was recorded on March 6, with restriction of entry of foreign tourists initially for two weeks but extended afterwards and closure of schools in three cities; (ii) March 22, Bhutan sealed off its land borders as a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19. For non-Bhutanese, exits are allowed. Incoming non-Bhutanese are scrutinized and quarantined where applicable; (iii) March 27, More containment measures were imposed on public gatherings, travel (within and outside Bhutan), business and entertainment, games and sports and civil service, corporate, private, and other agencies. The quarantine period has been extended to April 21; (iv) Healthcare measures include setting up dedicated hospitals and quarantine centers.

Brunei Darussalam 12 - Non-Economic Measures
Canada 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces.

Cook Islands 12 - Non-Economic Measures
European Central Bank 12 - Non-Economic Measures
European Union 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented.

Finland 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel.

France 12 - Non-Economic Measures IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020).

The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities.