Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020). NHK. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20200514_33/ (accessed 15 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan/japan-to-lift-emergency-state-for-osaka-kyoto-hyogo-economy-minister-idUSKBN22X07J (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus/japan-to-end-tokyos-state-of-emergency-eyes-fresh-930-billion-stimulus-idUSKBN2300SW (accessed 25 May). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tokyo/city-of-tokyo-issues-stay-home-alert-after-jump-in-new-virus-infections-idUSKBN2391VK?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Tokyo-set-to-drop-all-coronavirus-business-restrictions-on-June-19?utm_campaign=RN%20Free%20newsletter&utm_medium=daily%20newsletter%20free&utm_source=NAR%20Newsletter&utm_content=article%20link&del_type=1&pub_date=20200611190000&seq_num=2&si=%%user_id%% (accessed 11 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-travel/japan-to-ease-entry-for-vietnam-thailand-australia-new-zealand-report-idUSKBN23P1BQ?il=0 (accessed 18 June 2020). euters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tourism/japan-lifts-coronavirus-travel-curbs-to-help-economy-bounce-back-idUSKBN23Q0BM?il=0 (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Japan-immigration/Japan-finally-lifts-COVID-based-reentry-ban-for-foreign-residents (accessed 1 September 2020).

April 7: (i) Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency f'or seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from April 8 to May 6 (which, as of May 4, has since been extended until May 31); the declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies. (ii) The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to July 23–August 8, 2021. May 13: (iii) The Prime Minister has lifted the state of emergency ahead of schedule in 39 prefectures and kept it in place for 8 others including Tokyo (the lifting of which will be decided on May 21). May 21: (iv) The government lifted the state of emergency in Osaka, Kyoto, and Hyogo while keeping it in place for Tokyo and four other prefectures. (v) The government announced the lifting of the state of emergency for Tokyo and four remaining prefectures by June 1. May 25. (vi) June 2, Tokyo issued a stay-home alert after a jump in new virus infections. On June 11, the alert was lifted and authorities announced a lifting of all business restrictions on June 19. On June 19, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and gatherings of up to 1,000 people in indoor/outdoor events were allowed; domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy. (vii) June 18, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On September 1, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. [update]

United Kingdom 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures GBP OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/3fL4ztt (accessed 15 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pm-announces-easing-of-lockdown-restrictions-23-june-2020 (accessed 24 June 2020); Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/uk-unveils-safety-plan-to-reopen-schools-in-september/1897930 (accessed 3 July 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/face-coverings-to-be-mandatory-in-shops-and-supermarkets-from-24-july (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/business-events-and-conferences-given-go-ahead-to-resume-from-1-october (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/disabled-people-exempt-from-wearing-face-coverings-under-new-government-guidance (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/news/spain-removed-from-travel-corridors-exemption-list (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/major-new-campaign-encourages-millions-to-lose-weight-and-cut-covid-19-risk (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-rules-on-gatherings-in-some-parts-of-northern-england (accessed 31 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/nhs-test-and-trace-service-to-strengthen-regional-contact-tracing (accessed 12 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/3fWQUiC (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/31OHelg (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-on-household-gatherings-to-continue-in-parts-of-north-west-west-yorkshire-east-lancashire-and-leicester (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/croatia-trinidad-and-tobago-and-austria-to-be-removed-from-travel-corridors-list (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/update-on-face-coverings-in-schools (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/switzerland-the-czech-republic-and-jamaica-to-be-removed-from-travel-corridors-list (accessed 28 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/all-possible-measures-to-be-taken-before-schools-and-colleges-close (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-lifted-in-parts-of-greater-manchester-lancashire-and-west-yorkshire (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pupils-start-returning-to-schools-in-england (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) Economy-wide lockdown since 23 March; (ii) The government advised British tourists currently abroad to return to the country, and advised against all non-essential travel worldwide. The warning is in place initially for 30 days; (iii) 16 March, Schools are closed except for children of key workers ; (iv) Social distancing is in place. A ban is in place on all social events and gatherings; (v) May 11, The government announced that primary schools will reopen on 1 June; (vi) May 11, The government announced that outdoor places will reopen on May 13 and that people can exercise more than once a day. Social distancing measures remain in place. Ban on public events and social gatherings remains in place; (vii) May 11,The government announced its opening strategy. In a first phase, sectors that were closed during the lockdown can reopen again on 13 May, except entertainment, hospitality, and non-essential retail. All workers who cannot work from home should travel to work if their workplace is open. If the health situation remains under control, a second phase would see the reopening of non-essential retailers on 1 June, followed by the hospitality and entertainment sectors on 4 July; (viii) June 15, Non-essential stores/retailers are allowed to reopen; (ix) June 23, The government eases lockdown restrictions, which includes opening of pubs, restaurants, and accomodation sites starting July 4, provided they adhere to COVID Secure guidelines; (x) July 3, The government outlined its plan to reopen schools in September, along with its safety guidelines; (xi) July 14, Face coverings to be mandatory in shops and supermarkets from 24 July; (xii) July 17, Business events and conferences will be permitted to resume from 1 October provided rates of infection remain at current levels; (xii) July 24, members of the public will need to wear face coverings that cover the nose and mouth in shops, supermarkets, shopping centres and transport hubs, to help curb the spread of the virus. Exemptions include anyone under the age of 11, or those with disabilities, or hidden health conditions such as breathing difficulties, mental health conditions or autism; (xiii) July 25, People returning to the UK from Spain will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks, with the country removed from the travel corridors list; (xiv) July 27, Public Health England launches the Better Health campaign to support people to live healthier lives and reduce their risk of serious illness, including COVID-19; (xv) July 30, Government announces changes to rules on gatherings in Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and East Lancashire after increase in COVID-19 cases; (xvi) August 10, NHS Test and Trace and Public Health England will extend its partnership with local authorities to reach more people testing positive and their contacts; (xvii) August 13, The Government has announced a series of tough new enforcement measures targeting the most serious breaches of social distancing restrictions (https://bit.ly/3fWQUiC); (xviii) August 13, People arriving in England from France, the Netherlands, Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos Islands and Aruba starting 15 August will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xix) August 14, Restrictions on household gatherings to continue in parts of North West, West Yorkshire, East Lancashire and Leicester; (xx) August 20, People arriving in England from Croatia, Trinidad and Tobago and Austria will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xx) August 25, Schools will have the discretion to require face coverings [update]; (xxi) August 27, People arriving in England from Switzerland, the Czech Republic, and Jamaica from August 29 will need to self-isolate for two weeks [update]; (xxii) August 28, The government has published detailed guidance for schools on contingency planning for areas with local lockdowns in place (https://bit.ly/3lxhgM6) [update]; (xxiii) August 28, Restrictions on two households mixing have been lifted in parts of Greater Manchester, Lancashire, and West Yorkshire. Businesses and organizations that have been allowed to open elsewhere starting August 15 will also be permitted to open in those parts [update]; (xxiv) September 1, Schools and colleges across England will start to welcome back pupils with protective measures [update].

Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 11 April 2020).

On April 7, Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency for seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from April 8 to May 6. The declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies. The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to July 23–August 8, 2021.

United Kingdom 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures GBP OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 18 April 2020).

(i) Economy-wide lockdown since 23 March; (ii) The government advised British tourists currently abroad to return to the country, and advised against all non-essential travel worldwide. The warning is in place initially for 30 days; (iii) 16 March, Schools are closed except for children of key workers; (iv) Social distancing is in place. A ban is in place on all social events and gatherings.