Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD
Australia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/more-flights-helping-australians-return (accessed 19 October 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/statement-national-cabinet (accessed 12 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) 14 July 2020, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (iii) 16 October 2020, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months; (iv) 8 January 2021, Returning Australians and other travellers to Australia must have a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure; (v) 8 January 2021, All passengers and air crew are required to wear masks on flights and in airports; (vi) 8 January 2021, International passenger caps in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia will be temporarily halved from no later than 15 January 2021 to manage the flow of returning Australians and other travellers who have been potentially exposed to the new variants.

Australia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Australia 12C 12C - Others AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020); Government of Australia. https://www.australia.gov.au/framework-national-reopening (accessed 27 October 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/tasmania-help-more-australians-return-home (accessed on 09 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.australia.gov.au/content/dam/australia/news-and-updates/framework-national-reopening-nov2020.pdf (accessed 16 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.covid-19.sa.gov.au/emergency-declarations/public-activities (accessed 24 November 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/pfizer-vaccine-approved (accessed 26 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (ii) March 2020, Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (iii) March 2020, Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (iv) 26 April 2020, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (v) 8 May 2020, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (vi) 30 July 2020, The government published guidance on wearing face masks; (vii) 23 October 2020, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19; (viii) 7 November 2020, The Australian and Tasmanian Governments have agreed to provide an additional 450 spaces in quarantine facilities to help more Australians return home from abroad; (ix) 13 November 2020, The Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory agreed to a new ‘Framework for National Reopening Australia by Christmas’ subject to local health advice; (x) 22 November 2020, The Emergency Management (Stay at Home No.3) Direction 2020 has been released by the government to update rules on public activities and management of places where these activities occur; (xi) 25 January 2021, Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has provisionally approved the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for use in Australia [update].

Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Austria 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR The Local, Austria. https://www.thelocal.at/20210112/here-is-the-form-you-need-to-register-to-come-to-austria(accessed 14 January 2021); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, lockdowns became stricter and stricter and covering more countries as the situation developed; (ii) By 16 March 2020, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions; (iii) The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from 5 June 2020; (iv) 16 June 2020, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) 12 January 2021, To facilitate contract tracing, authorities at the border entering Austria will require online registration for everyone, including for Austrian citizens and residents, before crossing.

Austria 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines; (ii) 13 April 2020, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May; (iii) Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since 1 June 2020; (iv) The authorities eventually announced a 4-week partial lockdown effective on 3 November 2020. Compared to the first lockdown, the second lockdown is relatively more lenient. While restaurants and bar are ordered to be closed, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools remain open.

Austria 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020); The Local Austria. https://www.thelocal.at/20210117/austria-extends-coronavirus-lockdown-until-february-7th (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) Anti-COVID19 measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts; (ii) By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, the Bundesliga was allowed to restart; (iii) 15 June 2020, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 24 July 2020, pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas; (v) In September 2020, this tightening extended to indoors and public institutions; (vi) The authorities eventually announced a partial second lockdown between 3 November and 6 December 2020. Industry and manufacturing continue to open while restaurants, bars, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools are closed. This lockdown was subsequently tightened from 17 November 2020; (vii) 17 January 2021, Austria extended the coronavirus lockdown until 7 February 2021 and tightened existing measures.

Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Belgium 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR Brussels Times. https://www.brusselstimes.com/news/belgium-all-news/health/146417/belgium-could-extend-uk-travel-ban-by-weeks-border-closure-annelies-verlinden-eu-ambassadors-boris-johnson-matt-hancock-channel-eurotunnel-dover/ (accessed 4 January 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) 11 June 2020, Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iii) 18 June 2020, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (iii) 20 December 2020, A closure of borders to and from the United Kingdom has been implemented given the new COVID-19 strain.

Belgium 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR Belgium News. https://news.belgium.be/fr/petra-de-sutter-prolonge-les-contrats-rosetta-en-raison-de-la-covid-19 (accessed 14 January 2021); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on 4 May 2020, to be followed by shops (11 May 2020 and 18 May 2020); (ii) 23 December 2020, Extended the contracts of young federal agents so as not to put federal public services in diffuculty amidst the pandemic.

Belgium 12C 12C - Others EUR Brussels Times. https://www.brusselstimes.com/news/belgium-all-news/149326/belgium-extends-coronavirus-measures-until-1-march-ministerial-decree/ (accessed 16 January 2021); Brussels Times. https://www.brusselstimes.com/news/belgium-all-news/health/148163/belgium-starts-large-scale-coronavirus-vaccination-campaign-pfizer-biontech-official-vaccine-rollout-health-minister-frank-vandenbroucke-european-medicines-agency-ema-moderna-commission/ (accessed 7 January 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes; (ii) The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by 8 June 2020, while sporting events remain banned until 31 July 2020; (iii) 11 June 2020, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of 8 June 2020; (iv) 23 July 2020, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (v) 20 August 2020, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted; (vi) Schools, except universities, have fully reopened in September, with in-person classes; (vii) Containment measures have been ramped up significantly since early October amidst a sharp resurgence of cases and hospitalizations culminating in a new lockdown from 2 November 2020; (viii) While non-essential shops were allowed to reopen from 1 December 2020, other restrictions and social distancing rules will remain in place until 15 January 2021. As of 15 January 2021, these restrictions, including closure of certain shops, remote work requirements, curfews, etc. have been extended until 1 March 2021; (ix) 5 January 2020, Belgium has started its large-scale coronavirus vaccination campaign.

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD
Canada 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

Travel restrictions

Canada 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Social distancing measures; (ii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iii) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces.

Canada 12C 12C - Others CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Reopening the economy. On 28 April 2020, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK
Denmark 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). Manila Bulletin. https://mb.com.ph/2021/01/06/denmark-bars-south-african-residents-over-new-virus-strain/ (accessed 7 January 2021). Schengen Visa Info. https://www.schengenvisainfo.com/news/denmark-temporarily-bans-from-entering-citizens-of-all-countries/ (accessed 14 January 2021). AP News. https://apnews.com/article/dubai-united-arab-emirates-denmark-middle-east-coronavirus-pandemic-a7f8ba15e5b517dab12c1a96efffd020 (accessed 28 January 2021)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down; (ii) 6 January 2021, Denmark is barring entry to residents of the UK and South Africa until 17 January 2021 due to fears over the spread of a new strain of the coronavirus there; (iii) 11 January 2021, Citizens of all countries have been banned from entering Denmark from 9 until 18 January. As of 13 January, this has been extended to 7 February; (iv) 23 January 2021, Suspension of all flights from the United Arab Emirates for five days. [update]

Denmark 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20210105/latest-denmark-moves-to-highest-covid-19-alert-level-amid-concerns-over-b117-variant (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by 15 April 2020 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions. As of 8 October 2020, all current restrictions will be in place until 31 October.

Denmark 12C 12C - Others DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). Ministry of Finance. https://fm.dk/nyheder/nyhedsarkiv/2021/februar/regeringen-vil-udvikle-et-digitalt-coronapas-i-samarbejde-med-erhvervs-og-kulturliv/ (accessed 5 February 2021)

(i) All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of 20 May 2020. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places; (ii) The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy; (iii) As of 26 October 2020, Denmark has reduced the maximum number of people who are allowed to gather in public from 50 to 10, subject to exemptions for essential activities, etc. This measure will be initially effective for 4 weeks; (iv) 5 January 2021, The COVID-19 risk level used by authorities is to be increased from level 4 to level 5. This level indicates “widespread infection in society”, as well as “a risk that treatment capacity at hospitals will be exceeded”. Along with this, the limit on assembly in public will be reduced from 10 to 5 people; (v) 13 January 2021, The national lockdown, which has been in place since 25 December 2020, is extended until 7 February 2021; (vi) 3 February 2021, the government is launching a corona passport that can be used to document vaccination against COVID-19 in connection with travel, e.g. for business travelers. The solution will be launched on Sundhed.dk at the end of February. [update]

Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Finland 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 3 October 2020); https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020); Schengenvisainfo. https://www.schengenvisainfo.com/news/finland-extends-entry-restrictions-to-january-12/ (accessed 6 January 2021); Finland Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/sv/-/10616/regeringen-beslutade-om-skarpningar-i-villkoren-for-granstrafiken?languageId=en_US (accessed 27 January 2021).

16 March 2020, The government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on 14 April 2020. On 4 May 2020, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on 14 May 2020, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on 1 June 2020, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on 31 July 2020, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective 16 June 2020, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on 1 October 2020. On 23 June 2020, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of 13 July 2020, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19. On 18 August 2020, the government reinstated travel restrictions on traffic between Finland and several countries based on their 14-day incidence rates. This is in addition to entry restrictions for three countries introduced on 6 August 2020. The government adopted on 11 September 2020 a decision to continue internal border checks and restrictions on border traffic, which entered into force on 19 September 2020 and will continue through 18 October 2020. The government also adopted a resolution on a hybrid strategy for cross-border traffic and travel which requires a rapid increase in cross-border testing capacity and analysis by 10,000 tests/day. This would allow a more flexible approach to border restrictions. On 24 September 2020, the government reintroduced travel restrictions between Finland and several Schengen area countries. On 19 November 2020, the government decided to extend till 13 December 2020 the entry restrictions into Finland due to the acceleration of the COVID-19 epidemic elsewhere. The government continues to recommend that Finnish citizens and residents avoid unnecessary travel to high-risk countries. On 10 December 2020, the government prolonged the current entry restrictions to 12 January 2021, due to a surge in the number of Coronavirus cases in many countries worldwide. Finland continues to restrict entry for all internationals wishing to enter the country from the following select Schengen states. On 22 January 2021, The government decided to tighten internal and external border traffic and recommendations on testing and quarantine [update].

Finland 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020).

On 13 August 2020, the government adopted resolutions on recommendations for wearing face coverings and face masks, and for remote work. The government has imposed new restrictions starting 22 October 2020 on the opening and licensing hours of food and beverage service businesses [update from 8 October 2020]. As of 20 November 2020, restrictions on the activities of food and beverage service businesses in five regions will continue due to their epidemiological conditions.

Finland 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 6 January 2021); Schengenvisainfo. https://www.schengenvisainfo.com/news/finland-extends-entry-restrictions-to-january-12/ (accessed 6 January 2021).

10 December 2020, The Government adopted a resolution on Finland's COVID-19 vaccine strategy: Vaccination will be offered based on medical risk assessments with priority given to healthcare and social welfare workers caring for COVID-19 patients, homecare workers, elderly persons, and persons at high risk for severe disease due to underlying health conditions.Finland is participating in the European Union's joint vaccine procurement.

France 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
France 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 21 May 2020); France Government. https://www.gouvernement.fr/en/coronavirus-covid-19 (6 January 2020)

(i) The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. On 11 May 2020, France started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. Most major domestic restrictions were lifted as of 22 June 2020. Internal and intra-European travel restrictions have also been lifted; (ii) 28 December 2020, Internal European borders remain open but with some exceptions external borders are closed. All travelers arriving in France will be tested at airports and ports.

France 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 3 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/state-of-health-emergency-reinstated-in-france/ (accessed 15 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/france-coronavirus-new-restrictions/ (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020); France Government. https://www.gouvernement.fr/en/coronavirus-covid-19 (6 January 2020).

(i) In response to the recent uptick in infections, limits on large gatherings have been extended until the end of October 2020, testing ramped up, and mask mandates tightened with the use of masks obligatory in most public spaces and indoor areas (including workplaces). A digital contact tracing application was launched by the government on 2 June 2020. Selective regional restrictions have also been imposed in high-infection areas including Paris. (ii) 14 October 2020, announced a curfew in nine major urban centers starting 16 October 2020 as a new state of health emergency was declared to combat a second wave of coronavirus infections. A curfew will apply to the Paris region and eight major urban centers: Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Aix-Marseille, Rouen, Montpellier, St Etienne and Toulouse. (iii) 28 October 2020, announced a national lockdown starting 30 October 2020. Schools remain open but non-essential retail and services are ordered to close. While intra EU borders remain open, extra-European borders are closed, and circulation between France’s regions is not allowed; (iv) 28 December 2020, a nightly curfew between 8 pm and 6 am has been enforced; work from home or staggered work patterns is encouraged; kindergarten to high schools are open during lockdown; Shops, services (private and public), and public libraries are open, but bars, restaurants, cinemas, theatres, museums and gyms remain closed.

France 12C 12C - Others EUR
Germany 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Germany 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/pflichtests-kommen-1774748 (accessed 8 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-merkel/germany-agrees-stricter-anti-covid-measures-for-virus-hot-spots-idUSKBN26U1I7 (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/coronavirus/reisewarnung-europa-1791502 (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/suche/pressekonferenz-von-bundeskanzlerin-merkel-buergermeister-mueller-und-ministerpraesident-soeder-nach-der-besprechung-der-bundeskanzlerin-mit-den-regierungschefinnen-und-regierungschefs-der-laender-1820256 (accessed 28 November 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.de/20210105/germany-toughens-and-extends-coronavirus-lockdown-until-end-of-january (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) On 15 April 2020, The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since 16-19 March. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On 2 April 2020, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from 25 March onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April 2020. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting 18 March 2020; (iii) 10 May 2020, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (iv) 6 May 2020, Border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (v) 28 May 2020, Control of lifting the lockdown lies on the federal states. Border controls were eased on 15 May with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on 15 June; (vi) 3 June 2020, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries; (vii) 17 June 2020, Containment measures re-imposed in two municipalities in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia after a resurgence in new COVID-19 cases (“emergency brake"). Restrictions were eased on 6 July; (viii) 22 October 2020, The Federal Foreign Office has issued travel warnings for other regions in Europe due to the increased number of COVID-19 cases. All of Poland and Switzerland as well as large parts of Italy and almost all of Austria are designated as risk areas, effective October 24; (ix) 5 January 2021, Under the extended lockdown until 31 January 2021 (now extended to 14 February 2021), those residing in districts where new infections are above 200 per 100,000 people over the last seven days will be banned from travelling beyond a 15-kilometre radius of the zones; (x) 30 January 2021, Travelers arriving from "virus-variant" countries are not allowed to enter Germany until 17 February 2021. [update]

Germany 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/world/europe/german-children-start-new-school-year-amid-virus-fears?gallery_image=undefined#big (accessed 4 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-merkel/germany-agrees-stricter-anti-covid-measures-for-virus-hot-spots-idUSKBN26U1I7 (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/coronavirus/reisewarnung-europa-1791502 (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/suche/pressekonferenz-von-bundeskanzlerin-merkel-buergermeister-mueller-und-ministerpraesident-soeder-nach-der-besprechung-der-bundeskanzlerin-mit-den-regierungschefinnen-und-regierungschefs-der-laender-1820256 (accessed 28 November 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany/germany-to-extend-covid-19-restrictions-until-jan-10-merkel-idUSKBN28C175 (accessed 13 December 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/997532/1827366/69441fb68435a7199b3d3a89bff2c0e6/2020-12-13-beschluss-mpk-data.pdf?download=1 (accessed 4 January 2021). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.de/20210105/germany-toughens-and-extends-coronavirus-lockdown-until-end-of-january (accessed 7 January 2021). German government. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/verordnung-zu-homeoffice-1841120 (accessed 30 January 2021)

(i) Restaurants are closed; (ii) A gradual reopening of stores began on 20 April 2020. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from 8 May onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (iii) 28 May 2020, Shops are allowed to reopen; (iv) 27 January 2021, Employers are obliged to offer their employees home office wherever possible. This measure is valid until March 15. [update]

Germany 12C 12C - Others EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-tests/germany-begins-mass-coronavirus-testing-at-airports-idUSKCN24U2DG (accessed 30 July 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-merkel/germany-agrees-stricter-anti-covid-measures-for-virus-hot-spots-idUSKBN26U1I7 (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/coronavirus/reisewarnung-europa-1791502 (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/suche/pressekonferenz-von-bundeskanzlerin-merkel-buergermeister-mueller-und-ministerpraesident-soeder-nach-der-besprechung-der-bundeskanzlerin-mit-den-regierungschefinnen-und-regierungschefs-der-laender-1820256 (accessed 28 November 2020).

(i) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April 2020; Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since 15 March 2020. Larger events were cancelled until end-August 2020; (ii) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on 22 March 2020 across the country, extended until at least 4 May; (iii) 10 May 2020, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on 22 March has been extended until 5 June but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (iv) 28 May 2020, Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August 2020. Social distancing rules extended until 29 June; (v) 16 June 2020, The government launched a Corona-Warn app that allows users to trace potential contact with COVID-infected individuals. Its use is voluntary; (vi) July 2020, A general contact restriction of keeping distance and wearing masks in stores and public transport should continue until further notice; (vii) 29 July 2020, Free and compulsory coronavirus testing begins at Berlin's Tegel airport. Other airports such as Frankfurt have been offering tests over the previous weeks, but additional preparations are being made to test passengers arriving from countries deemed high risk; (viii) 8 August 2020, Mandatory corona tests for returnees from risk areas begins. Tests are free for the travelers; (ix) 3 August 2020, New school year begins with children returning to school in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania region. Germany's 16 states had agreed that schools will reopen full-time after the summer break; (x) 27 August 2020, Returnees from risk areas should be able to end their quarantine at the earliest with a test from the fifth day after their return. The federal states will set the minimum fine for violations of the mask requirement of at least EUR50. There is a ban on major events, where contact tracking and compliance with hygiene regulations, are not possible until at least the end of 2020; (xi) 9 October 2020, The prime minister and mayors from 11 cities agreed to impose stricter measures if infections exceed a threshold of 50 cases per 100,000 population in a week; (xii) 25 November 2020, Christmas celebrations will be limited to a maximum of 10 people (children under 14 are not included in the count); (xiii) 2 December 2020, Restrictive measures currently expiring by the 20th, will be extended until 10 January 2021 in order to stem a tide of new COVID-19 infections. As of 19 January 2021, this has been extended to 14 February 2021. Schools, leisure and sporting facilities and most shops will remain shut, and people will be allowed to meet up with only one other individual from another household under the new rules, instead of five people previously.

Ireland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Ireland 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/aabc99-daily-briefing-on-the-governments-response-to-COVID-19-friday-27-mar/#observe-social-distancing; IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 31 October 2020); IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/4a0ca-48-hours-ban-on-flights-to-ireland-from-great-britain/ (accessed 5 January 2021); IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/066ce-ireland-placed-on-full-level-5-restrictions-of-the-plan-for-living-with-COVID-19/ (accessed 6 January 2021); Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/health/coronavirus/northern-executive-imposes-more-restrictions-to-curb-huge-spike-in-COVID-19-cases-1.4450603 (accessed 7 January 2021); IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/11176-minister-foley-confirms-that-schools-will-remain-closed-to-students/?referrer=http://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/c2730-additional-public-health-restrictions-people-urged-to-stay-at-home/

(i) The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On 27 March 2020, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until 5 May 2020, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August; (ii) On 5 October 2020, the level of restrictions was raised from 2 to 3 due to a surge in new cases (infection incidence rate has tripled from 31 to 109 per 100,000 in the last two weeks), implying traveling restrictions outside county/region, a ban on indoor gatherings and sport events, additional restrictions on restaurants and bars; (iii) On 19 October 2020, the government made a decision to move to the highest level 5 restrictions from the level 3 introduced on 5 October 2020 due to a surge in new cases. This implies traveling restrictions within 5 km, closure of non-essential retail and personal services, a ban on indoor/outdoor gatherings, restaurants and bars can only offer take-away, construction and manufacturing will be allowed to operate, schools and childcare centers will remain open; (vi) 20 December 2020, in response to the identification of a new strain of COVID-19 in the South-East of England, the government has announced a ban on all flights arriving into Ireland from Great Britain with effect from midnight of 20 December 2020; (vii) 22 December 2020, Ireland’s was put on Level 5 restrictions from midnight on 24 December until 12 January with specific adjustments – residents must remain within their county (as opposed to within 5km of their home) apart from travel for work, education or other essential purposes. The government has also agreed that the current restrictions on travel from Britain to Ireland should remain in place until at least 31 December 2020; (viii) 5 January 2021, from 8 January 2021, the “stay at home” advice will become legally enforceable. People must have a “reasonable excuse” to be away from their home; (ix) 7 January 2021, schools will remain closed from 11 January 2021 to reduce mobility in the community.

Ireland 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/aabc99-daily-briefing-on-the-governments-response-to-COVID-19-friday-27-mar/#observe-social-distancing; IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); Government of Ireland. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/e5e599-government-publishes-roadmap-to-ease-COVID-19-restrictions-and-reope/#; IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 15 December 2020); IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/066ce-ireland-placed-on-full-level-5-restrictions-of-the-plan-for-living-with-COVID-19/ (accessed 6 January 2021).

(i) The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On 27 March 2020, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until 5 May 2020, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August; (ii) The authorities have started a five-phase reopening on 18 May 2020. Phase (1) included the return of outdoor workers, and small groups of family and friends were permitted to meet in the open; in phase (2) effective as of 8 June 2020, small retail outlets and marts where social distancing is possible reopened. With declining infections and increased testing, the authorities have accelerated the initial reopening plan: in phase (3), which took effect on 29 June 2020, most businesses have reopened with social distancing measures put in place; in phase (4) effective as of 20 July 2020, envisages a continued phased return to work across all sectors. The final phase was delayed due to the rebound in community transmission. In August, government adapted a medium-term national framework for living with COVID-19. It consists of five levels depending on the pandemic indicators, with lower level having less social restriction; (iii) On 5 October 2020, the level of restrictions was raised from 2 to 3 due to a surge in new cases (infection incidence rate has tripled from 31 to 109 per 100,000 in the last two weeks), implying traveling restrictions outside county/region, a ban on indoor gatherings and sport events, additional restrictions on restaurants and bars; (iv) On 19 October 2020, the government made a decision to move to the highest level 5 restrictions from the level 3 introduced on 5 October 2020 due to a surge in new cases. This implies traveling restrictions within 5 km, closure of non-essential retail and personal services, a ban on indoor/outdoor gatherings, restaurants and bars can only offer take-away, construction and manufacturing will be allowed to operate, schools and childcare centers will remain open; (v) After 6 weeks (in December), Ireland's second lockdown ended moving from Level 5 to Level 3 restrictions - non-essential retail outlets, churches, gyms, hairdressers and other businesses allowed to open. Social distancing measures remain in place and household visit are prohibited until 18 December 2020; (vi) 22 December 2020, Ireland was put on Level 5 restrictions from midnight on 24 December until 12 January with specific adjustments - non-essential retail may remain open but the retail sector will be requested to defer January sales events, gyms, leisure centers and swimming pools may remain open for individual training only, outdoor golf and tennis are permitted with a maximum of 2 household participants, hotels may only open for essential non-social and non-tourist purposes except for guests who already have a booking and are due to check in up to and including 26 December. Transitional arrangements were also put in place for the Christmas period.

Ireland 12C 12C - Others EUR
Italy 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Italy 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/italy-coronavirus-restrictions-conte/ (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 12 November 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-italy-regions-idUSKBN28D2FU (accessed 14 December 2020); The Local Italy. https://www.thelocal.it/20201222/latest-italy-to-allow-citizens-and-residents-to-return-from-uk (accessed 4 January 2020).

(i) Travel is restricted; (ii) People can now travel within their own region, and mobility restrictions across regions has been lifted on 3 June 2020, when international borders also reopen without restriction to and from other EU countries; (iii) Rapid Covid tests are required for travelers coming back from a number of countries in Europe; (iv) 8 October 2020, The Minister of Health, Roberto Speranza, has signed a new Ordinance, which provides for urgent measures to contain and manage the current health emergency. In particular, the Ordinance provides for the obligation of molecular or antigenic testing for those coming from or transiting in some European countries at greater risk for Covid-19 in the 14 days prior to entry into Italy, and the obligation to communicate entry into Italy to the Department of Prevention of the Local Health Authority; (v) A nationwide curfew is in place from 10pm to 5am. Public transportation capacity is reduced to 50%; (vi) Travelling into high risk regions (and between municipalities in these regions) is only permissible for essential work- and health-related reasons; (ix) 4 December 2020, Italy approved new restrictions including halting movement between towns during the Christmas and New Year season, as the country posted its highest daily death toll of the pandemic; (x) 22 December 2020, Italy allows citizens to return from UK despite a travel ban in place until 6 January 2021 due to the new coronavirus strain.

Italy 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/italy-coronavirus-restrictions-conte/ (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 12 November 2020).

(i) Non-essential productive activities are closed across the country, with exceptions for supermarket and grocery stores, pharmacies, banks, public transport and essential public services; (ii) Since reopening on 4 May 2020, manufacturing and construction reopened under new safety rules (e.g., staggered shifts, spaced workstation, temperature checks, masks); (iii) In addition to retail shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers reopened on 18 May 2020 (the initial reopening plan was June 1); (iv) Sports facilities reopened on 25 May 2020, followed by cinemas and theatres on 15 June 2020; (v) Following the increase in confirmed cases beginning in early August, the government reintroduced some containment measures, including closing night clubs, capacity limits at cultural sites; (vi) Across the country, museums, cinemas, theatres, pools, and gyms are shut; (vii) In addition, the areas with the highest level of infections must close all bars, restaurants, and most non-essential shops. In low risks area, bars and restaurants must close by 6pm with a maximum of four persons per table.

Italy 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/italy-coronavirus-restrictions-conte/ (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 12 November 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-italy-regions-idUSKBN28D2FU (accessed 14 December 2020), https://in.reuters.com/article/instant-article/idINL1N2J703O (accessed 4 January 2021); The Local Italy. https://www.thelocal.it/20210103/italy-delays-opening-of-ski-resorts (accessed 4 January 2021); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-italy-emergency/italy-to-extend-covid-state-of-emergency-to-end-of-april-idUSKBN29I1L4 (accessed 20 January 2021); NPR. https://www.npr.org/2021/01/26/960744631/italys-prime-minister-quits-as-covid-19-response-splits-coalition-government( accessed 28 January 2021); France24. https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20210201-restaurants-and-museums-reopen-as-italy-relaxes-coronavirus-curbs (accessed 4 February 2021).

(i) The nation-wide lockdown, announced in early March, was extended until 3 May 2020; (ii) Public gathering is banned; (iii) The nation-wide lockdown expired on 4 May 2020; (iv) All schools and universities remain shut; (v) The government moved forward some of the reopening plans; (vi) Regional governments are allowed the discretion to adjust the dates in both direction; (vii) Mask wearing in public places (both in and outdoors) is required through end January 2021. Fines were raised for those who do not follow anti-contagion and quarantine rules; (viii) Rapid Covid tests have been authorized for use in schools to identify and quarantine infected individuals, thereby avoiding the need to close entire schools. Schools remain open but older students will switch to remote learning; (ix) 4 December 2020, Italy approved new restrictions to avoid a surge in novel coronavirus infections over Christmas and the New Year, banning midnight mass and halting movement between towns (reflected in 12A); (x) 27 December 2020, Italy kicked off COVID19 vaccinations in Rome; (xi) 3 January 2021, Italy postponed the reopening of its ski resorts on Saturday until later this month, after regional authorities asked for more time to meet coronavirus regulations; (xii) 13 January 2021, Italy announced that it would extend the COVID state of emergency to end of April 2021; (xiii) 26 January 2021, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte handed in his resignation to the president on issues over his handling of the second wave of COVID-19 and recovery funds from the European Union [update]; (ix) 4 February 2021, Restaurants and museums reopen as Italy relaxes coronavirus curbs [update].

Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY
Japan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tourism/japan-lifts-coronavirus-travel-curbs-to-help-economy-bounce-back-idUSKBN23Q0BM?il=0 (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Japan-immigration/Japan-finally-lifts-COVID-based-reentry-ban-for-foreign-residents (accessed 1 September 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/Japan-to-lift-14-day-quarantine-for-reentering-business-travelers (accessed 7 October 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Japan-and-China-restart-business-travel-amid-pandemic (accessed 30 November 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Japan-bans-entry-from-all-countries-to-block-new-strain-s-spread (accessed 28 December 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Japan-halts-business-travel-and-threatens-to-deport-quarantine-violators (accessed 14 January 2021); The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/02/04/national/new-virus-law-explainer/ (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 7 April 2020, Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency for seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from 8 April (including border and travel restrictions); (ii) On 19 June 2020, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy; (iii) 18 June 2020, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On 1 September 2020, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. On 7 October 2020, Authorities announced the lifting of mandatory 14-day quarantine for reentering business travelers with residency status and action plans of travel. On 30 November 2020, Japan and China restarted business travel without compulsory quarantine provided travelers test negative upon arrival and submit an itinerary of activities. On 26 December 2020, Authorities restricted entry from all countries once more to prevent the spread of the more contagious coronavirus strain identified in the United Kingdom. Bilateral business travel arrangements with 11 countries, however, will remain in place. 13 January 2021, 14-day quarantine period will be applied to all those who enter Japan. 14 January 2021, Authorities suspended business travel arrangements with 11 countries. 4 February 2021, A revised quarantine law was passed that allows authorities to demand those entering Japan to isolate themselves for 14 days at home, and those who refuse will be ordered to quarantine at special facilities [update].