Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (vi) April 26, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (vii) May 8, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (viii) July 14, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (ix) July 30, the government published guidance on wearing face masks.

Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 16 July 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines. (ii) April 13, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May. By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, and the Bundesliga was allowed to restart. Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since June 1. The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from June 5; (iii) June 15, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 16 June, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) A pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas.

Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 03 September 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on May 4, to be followed by shops (May 11 and May 18). Schools will also start to gradually reopen from May 18. The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by June 8, while sporting events remain banned until July 31; (iii) June 11, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of June 8. Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iv) June 18, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (v) July 23, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (vi) August 20, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted. [update]

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces; (v) Reopening the economy. On April 28, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down. All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of May 20. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by April 15 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions . The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy.

Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (1 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (acccessed 13 August 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on April 14. On May 4, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on May 14, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on June 1, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on July 31, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective June 16, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on October 1. On June 23, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of July 13, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19.

France 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020).

The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. As of May 11, France has started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. .

Germany 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-tests/germany-begins-mass-coronavirus-testing-at-airports-idUSKCN24U2DG (accessed 30 July 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/world/europe/german-children-start-new-school-year-amid-virus-fears?gallery_image=undefined#big (accessed 4 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/pflichtests-kommen-1774748 (accessed 8 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020).

(i) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on March 22 across the country, extended until at least May 4 on April 15. The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since March 16 and 19. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On April 2, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from March 25 onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting March 18; (iii) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April; (iv) Restaurants are closed. Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since March 15 and 16. Larger events were cancelled until end-August; (v) May 10, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on March 22 has been extended until June 5 but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (vi) May 10, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (vii) A gradual reopening of stores began on April 20. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from May 8 onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (viii) May 6, border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (ix) May 28, Control of lifting the downlockdown lies on the federal states. Shops are allowed to reopen and schools have been partially reopened. Border controls were eased on May 15 with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on June 15. Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August. Social distancing rules extended until June 29; (x) June 3, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries; (xi) June 16, The government launched a Corona-Warn app that allows users to trace potential contact with COVID-infected individuals. Its use is voluntary; (xii) June 17, Containment measures re-imposed in two municipalities in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia after a resurgence in new COVID-19 cases (“emergency brake"). Restrictions were eased on 6 July; (xiii) July, A general contact restriction of keeping distance and wearing masks in stores and public transport should continue until further notice; (xiv) July 29, Free and compulsory coronavirus testing begins at Berlin's Tegel airport. Other airports such as Frankfurt have been offering tests over the previous weeks, but additional preparations are being made to test passengers arriving from countries deemed high risk; (xv) August 3, new school year begins with children returning to school in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania region. Germany's 16 states had agreed that schools will reopen full-time after the summer break; (xvi) August 8, Mandatory corona tests for returnees from risk areas begins. Tests are free for the travelers; (xvii) August 27, Returnees from risk areas should be able to end their quarantine at the earliest with a test from the fifth day after their return. The federal states will set the minimum fine for violations of the mask requirement of at least EUR50. There is a ban on major events, where contact tracking and compliance with hygiene regulations, are not possible until at least the end of 2020 [update].

Ireland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020).

The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On March 27, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until May 5th, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August. The authorities announced a gradual reopening plan starting on May 18th. The “stay-at-home” order is eased in five phases three weeks apart: phase 1)has started last Monday includes return of outdoor workers and small groups of family and friends are permitted to meet in the open; in phase 2) small retail outlets and marts where social distancing is possible can reopen; 3) cafes and restaurants may reopen; (4) return to work for those who cannot work from home; phase 5) envisages return to work across all sectors. Schools and colleges will re-open at the beginning of the next academic year in September and October. These phases may have to be reversed back if the rate of the infection increases significantly as the lockdown is eased. Similarly, the government may speed up the plan if Covid cases continue to fall.

Italy 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020).

The nation-wide lockdown, announced in early March, was extended until May 3. Travel is restricted and public gathering are banned. All schools and universities remain shut. Non-essential productive activities are closed across the country, with exceptions for supermarket and grocery stores, pharmacies, banks, public transport and essential public services. The nation-wide lockdown expired on May 4. Since then, manufacturing and construction have reopened under new safety rules (e.g., staggered shifts, spaced workstation, temperature checks, masks). The government has moved forward some of the reopening plans this week. In addition to retail shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers have reopened on May 18 (the initial reopening plan was June 1). Sports facilities will reopen on May 25, followed by cinemas and theatres on June 15. Regional governments are allowed the discretion to adjust the dates in both direction. People can now travel within their own region, and mobility restrictions across regions will be lifted on June 3, when international borders will also reopen without restriction to and from other EU countries.

Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020). NHK. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20200514_33/ (accessed 15 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan/japan-to-lift-emergency-state-for-osaka-kyoto-hyogo-economy-minister-idUSKBN22X07J (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus/japan-to-end-tokyos-state-of-emergency-eyes-fresh-930-billion-stimulus-idUSKBN2300SW (accessed 25 May). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tokyo/city-of-tokyo-issues-stay-home-alert-after-jump-in-new-virus-infections-idUSKBN2391VK?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Tokyo-set-to-drop-all-coronavirus-business-restrictions-on-June-19?utm_campaign=RN%20Free%20newsletter&utm_medium=daily%20newsletter%20free&utm_source=NAR%20Newsletter&utm_content=article%20link&del_type=1&pub_date=20200611190000&seq_num=2&si=%%user_id%% (accessed 11 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-travel/japan-to-ease-entry-for-vietnam-thailand-australia-new-zealand-report-idUSKBN23P1BQ?il=0 (accessed 18 June 2020). euters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tourism/japan-lifts-coronavirus-travel-curbs-to-help-economy-bounce-back-idUSKBN23Q0BM?il=0 (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Japan-immigration/Japan-finally-lifts-COVID-based-reentry-ban-for-foreign-residents (accessed 1 September 2020).

April 7: (i) Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency f'or seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from April 8 to May 6 (which, as of May 4, has since been extended until May 31); the declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies. (ii) The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to July 23–August 8, 2021. May 13: (iii) The Prime Minister has lifted the state of emergency ahead of schedule in 39 prefectures and kept it in place for 8 others including Tokyo (the lifting of which will be decided on May 21). May 21: (iv) The government lifted the state of emergency in Osaka, Kyoto, and Hyogo while keeping it in place for Tokyo and four other prefectures. (v) The government announced the lifting of the state of emergency for Tokyo and four remaining prefectures by June 1. May 25. (vi) June 2, Tokyo issued a stay-home alert after a jump in new virus infections. On June 11, the alert was lifted and authorities announced a lifting of all business restrictions on June 19. On June 19, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and gatherings of up to 1,000 people in indoor/outdoor events were allowed; domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy. (vii) June 18, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On September 1, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. [update]

Luxembourg 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 23 July 2020). KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/luxembourg-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 21 May 2020).

(i) People have been encouraged to self-isolate and should only leave the house for essential activities such as food shopping, going to work (note: working-from-home if possible), going to doctors and to help vulnerable people; (ii) All public gatherings are prohibited; (iii) All cultural and recreational events (incl. sport events) are suspended; (iv) All schools, universities and kindergartens have been closed since 16 March, until at least 4 May 2020; (v) On April 15, the government announced a multiphase lockdown exit strategy, with phases comprising activities/tentative opening dates as follows: phase 1-construction sites and selected activities-including craft, landscaping, and recycling services (April 20); Phase 2-secondary education (May 11); Phase 3: basic education and childcare facilities (May 25); later phases-commercial activities and the hospitality sector (dates to be determined); (vi) To achieve a well-sequenced lifting of the lockdown restrictions and avoid a second wave of Covid-19 infections, the government envisages to perform large-scale testing on a voluntary basis, including cross-border commuters; (vii) May 20, The Luxembourg Ministry for the Economy has set-up a hotline and website with information for enterprises, which includes a FAQ on existing measures for companies, including SMEs (financial support and partial employment); (viii) July 16, Mandatory face masks for both public and private gatherings of more than 20 people in case physical distance of 2 meters cannot be guaranteed; (ix) July 16, Fines for customers of bars and restaurants if they disregard the precautionary measures.

Netherlands 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 28 May 2020). OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/country-policy-tracker/ (accessed 20 July 2020). Rijksoverheid. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/08/12/nederland-stelt-inreisverbod-voor-marokko-weer-in (accessed 13 August 2020)

(i) The authorities have taken measures to limit the spread of the virus, including ordering closure of schools and many catering businesses, and advising to avoid social contact and work from home to the extent possible; (ii) As the number of new infections and death continue to decline, the Dutch government is laying down a progressive easing of the lockdown measures; (iii) Starting on May 11, and under strict conditions, childcare services and primary schools will be allowed to reopen, as well as some businesses (including for example hairdressers and nail stylists). The authorities have stressed that further relaxation of the containment measures will follow only to the extent that the spread of virus remains contained; (iv) Starting on June 1, secondary schools and more businesses (e.g. restaurants and cafes, cultural institutions) will also reopen; (v) As of June 15, tourists from EU or Schengen countries can enter the Netherlands. However, tourists from Sweden and the United Kingdom should go into quarantine for 14 days. Tourists must reserve their holiday accommodation before they travel to the Netherlands; (vi) Starting July 1, gatherings of more than 100 people in a closed space will be allowed, and no limit on occupancy will be imposed on cinemas, cafés and restaurants. Social distancing requirements will remain in place, however. (vii) The Netherlands will reinstate the entry ban for Morocco from 13 August 2020; (viii) August 6, the Dutch government introduced new nationwide measures to curb the spread, including compulsory testing at Schiphol airport and mandatory temporary closing of entertainment businesses experiencing an outbreak.

New Zealand 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NZD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RBNZ. https://www.rbnz.govt.nz/news/2020/05/financial-services-under-level-2 (accessed on 14 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. https://covid19.govt.nz/latest-updates/nz-covid-tracer-app-released/ (accessed 20 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. https://uniteforrecovery.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/new-zealand-moved-to-alert-level-1-on-tuesday-9-june/ (accessed 10 June 2020); Government of New Zealand. https://covid19.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/plan-to-respond-to-new-covid-19-cases-in-the-community/ (accessed 16 July 2020); New Zealand Government. https://covid19.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/new-zealand-will-remain-at-the-existing-alert-levels-until-sunday/ (accessed 24 August 2020); Department of the Treasury. https://treasury.govt.nz/publications/weu/weekly-economic-update-28-august-2020-html (accessed 28 August 2020).

April: (i) Social distancing measures and closure of all non-essential businesses, cancellation of all events and gatherings, closure of schools, and cancellation of discretionary domestic air travel; (ii) Closing of the borders to all but New Zealand citizens, who must self-isolate for at least 14 days upon entry; and (iii) The government announced that New Zealand will move to Alert Level 3 starting April 27, 11:59pm, allowing many businesses to re-open, though without physical contact to customers, and schools to re-open with limited capacity; (iv) May 14, New Zealand moved to Alert Level 2; (iv) May 20, The Ministry of Health has released the NZ COVID Tracer app to support contact tracing in New Zealand; (v) June 9, The government announced that New Zealand has moved to Alert Level 1 starting June 8, where everyone can return without restriction to work, school, sports, and domestic travel, and can get together with as many people. Controls at the borders remain for those entering New Zealand, including health screening and testing for all arrivals, and mandatory 14-day managed quarantine or isolation; (vi) July 15, The government launched the “Stamp it Out” plan for responding to new cases, which includes several scenarios and their impacts on individuals, businesses, and other organizations such as schools; (vii) August 24, Due to new confirmed cases, the government announced that Auckland will stay at Alert Level 3 until 11:59pm on 30 August, while the rest of the country will remain at Alert Level 2 [update]; (viii) August 28, Auckland will join the rest of New Zealand at Alert Level 2 on 31 August, where the country will remain for at least another week [update].

Norway 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NOK Source: OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 12 April 2020; 8 May 2020; 15 May 2020)

(i) Restrictions on stays outside resident municipality; (ii) 2. Border control measures included substantial restrictions on incoming foreigners; (iii) Schools and universities closed from 13 March to 13 April.; (iv) Curtailment of public events/gatherings; (iv) Reopening of daycare centres is scheduled progressively between the 20th and 27th April and reopening of primary schools and out-of-school programmes is scheduled for 27th April; (v) All schools and universities have reopened by May 8.

Portugal 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 12 April 2020, 30 April 2020, 9 May 2020).

(i) Public containment has been implemented on the 19th of March after the announcement of the State of Emergency on the 18th of March; (ii) Border control with Spain through mutual agreement started on 17th of March. Suspended air, rail, and river connections; (iii) Suspension of all face-to-face school activities (teaching and non-teaching) from 16th of March to be reassessed on 9th of April; (iv) Closure of non-essential shops, and all national monuments and places of cultural activities (both public and private); (v) classes restarted on April 14 for high school, while TV schooling for primary education; (vi) From May 4, confinement measures have been eased. Small street shops, hairdressers, bookstores and car dealerships can reopen.

Spain 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 12 April 2020; 14 May 2020; 21 May 2020; 2 July 2020, 16 July 2020); El Pais. https://bit.ly/3hM0M0D (accessed 28 May 2020); El Pais. https://bit.ly/3hOqBgs (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37KY07j (accessed 1 June 2020); Murcia Today. https://bit.ly/310IuD2 (accessed 8 June 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/2Z7ppwv (accessed 15 June 2020); La Moncloa. https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/lang/en/gobierno/news/Paginas/2020/20200717_viajasegur.aspx (accessed 20 July 2020); La Moncloa. https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/serviciosdeprensa/notasprensa/sanidad14/Paginas/2020/140820-sanidad.aspx (accessed 17 August 2020); El Pais. https://english.elpais.com/society/2020-08-25/madrid-will-delay-start-of-school-term-for-some-students-and-bring-down-class-sizes.html (accessed 27 August 2020); La Moncloa. https://www.lamoncloa.gob.es/serviciosdeprensa/notasprensa/educacion/Paginas/2020/270820-covid-curso.aspx (accessed 28 August 2020).

(i) Mandated nationwide quarantine for at least 15 days since March 15, gradually extended until May 9th; (ii) Suspension of all nonessential work from March 30 to April 9, inclusive; (iii) Land borders are closed except for Spanish citizens, residents and land transportation of goods (March 16); (iv) Mar 23, Airport and port border restrictions have been introduced for 30 days, extended to May 15 (April 21); (v) March 11, Ban on direct flights from Italy, except for flights transporting Spanish citizens or residents; (vi) Closure of schools nationwide since March 12; (vii) March 26, Closure of hotels, all retail spaces, except those selling food and essential items, closure of restaurant , which will only be able to maintain food delivery services, museums, libraries, public show venues. Sport events and local celebration events have been suspended; (viii) Mandated nation-wide lockdown until May 10th. State of emergency will continue until May 24th; (ix) Plan for gradual transition: (a) Phase 0 (from May 4): Preparation phase, ability to go outside for exercise and walks, individual training for professional sportsmen, reopen small businesses that can take bookings (restaurants that offer take-way food and places, and hardware stores) and hairdressers, (b) Phase 1 (from May 10): Interregional trips not allowed until end-June but mobility within regions allowed; gatherings of up to 10 people with social distancing rules, open up sidewalk cafes (30% of capacity limit) and hotels (except common areas) and religious sites (30% capacity limit). Public transport capacity will rise to 80%, (c) Phase 2 (at least 2 weeks after Phase 1): Open up bars and restaurants with inside seating, cinemas, theatres, monuments and exhibition centers (30% capacity limit), allow cultural events such as concerts (1/3 capacity), outdoor events up to 400 people, if seated. Visit to people in homes with disabilities, but not the elderly. Schools will not open fully until September, but schools will offer classes to children under the age of six if parents require it to be able to go to work and so that students can complete their university entrance exams. Open shopping centers (except recreational areas), (d) Phase 3 (at least 2 weeks after Phase 2, likely mid-June): Relaxation of mobility restrictions further, visit senior homes (under some yet to be set conditions), open bars, cinemas and theatres (50% capacity limit), allow shoppers to enter shops (with limits on capacity of 50%, 2 meter social distancing rules), and (e) Phase 4 (the new normality stage, likely end-June): End of social and economic restrictions. Mobility across regions, public transport capacity will rise to 100%; (x) According to the gradual deconfinement plan, announced on April 28, schools will not open fully until September, but in phase 2 of the plan, schools will offer classes to children under the age of six if parents require it to be able to go to work and so that students can complete their university entrance exams; (xi) Phase 1 (from May 10 in certain regions, around 51% of the Spanish population): Interregional trips not allowed until end-June but mobility within regions allowed; gatherings of up to 10 people with social distancing rules, open up hotels (except common areas), restaurant terraces (50% capacity), places of worship (30% capacity) and museums (30% capacity). Cultural events of under 30 people indoors (30% capacity) and cultural events less than 200 people outside. Isolation of people who are diagnosed or with symptoms and those in contact with someone diagnosed or with symptoms. Timetable for taking walks and other exercises (to be set by regions). Open up small businesses less than 400 square meters (30% capacity, 2-meter social distancing rules). Educational centers and universities open for disinfection and administrative functions. Scientific seminars of less than 30 people allowed. Active and nature tourism activities allowed up to 10 people; (xii) In line with the gradual deconfinement plan, some regions entering Phase 1 are slowly opening up some public places with limited capacity, while others are still in Phase 0 (May 11, 51% of population entered Phase 1) ; (xiii) Obligatory shut down of economic activities. In line with the gradual deconfinement plan, some regions entering Phase 1 are slowly opening up economic activities, while others are still in Phase 0 (May 11, 51% of population entered Phase 1); (xiv) May, Ban on entry from outside the Schengen area extended to June 15. Internal border controls to remain in place until June 15; (xv) May 24-27, All of Spain will be at least be in Phase 1, while some areas will be in Phase 2. The government also announced that it would reopen to international tourists and lift the two-week quarantine for overseas arrivals in July; (xvi) May 31, Lockdown extended until June 21; (xvii) June 8, 52% of Spain will be in phase 3 while 48% will be in phase 2 of the COVID de-escalation process; (xviii) June 14, Spain will reopen its borders on June 21 to visitors from the European Union and the open-border Schengen area; (xix) July 1, Opened borders with Portugal. Travelers from 15 countries allowed (EU level decision); (xx) Since July, some localized restrictions have been imposed on movements or activities.Social distancing requirements, capacity limitations, and hygiene measures at workplaces remain in place, including mandatory use of masks in closed spaces and on streets when a safety distance of 1.5 meters cannot be maintained; (xxi) July 7, The Royal Decree on the economic reactivation measures to face the impact of Covid-19 in the areas of transport and housing includes provisions to for airport managers and airlines to implement management measures for passengers and civil aviation personnel in the face of the pandemic, minimizing the risks of contagion both in airport facilities, as well as during the different stages of the trip, including limiting access to airport terminal buildings; (xxii) July 17, Ministry of Foreign Affairs launches campaign entitled #ViajaSeguro adapted to the limitations imposed by COVID-19 (https://bit.ly/347YQeG); (xxiii) August 14, Health and the autonomous communities unanimously agree on coordinated actions to control the transmission of COVID-19 (https://bit.ly/3kVmIZ0); (xxiv) August 25, The Madrid region will delay start of classes, temporarily hire nearly 11,000 teachers, and do 100,000 coronavirus antibody tests for staff [update]; (xxv) August 27, The government and autonomous communities have agreed that in general, the teaching activity will be face-to-face for all levels and stages of the education system. They reiterate the need to resume face-to-face educational activity, by adopting a series of prevention, hygiene and health promotion measures that guarantee safe return to classrooms [update].

Sweden 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures SEK OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April, 25 June 2020); Ministry of Finance. https://bit.ly/3fHoE3B (accessed 21 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/3dfA1yl (accessed 19 June 2020); Ministry of Justice. https://www.government.se/press-releases/2020/07/extension-of-temporary-entry-ban-to-sweden-until-31-august-2020-and-easing-of-restrictions-for-more-travellers/ (accessed 9 July 2020); The Local SE. https://www.thelocal.se/20200729/sweden-scraps-advice-against-travel-to-four-countries (accessed 30 July 2020); Regeringskansliet. https://www.regeringen.se/uds-reseinformation/ud-avrader/a--andringar-av-avradan-fran-icke-nodvandiga-resor-till-alla-lander/ (accessed 13 August 2020).

(i) March 14, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs advised against non-essential travel to all countries; (ii) Many secondary schools and universities have switched to distance learning; (iii) Relatives should avoid "unnecessary visits" to hospitals and from April 1, and a ban on visiting elderly care institutions is imposed; (iv) Events with more than 50 persons are banned since March 27; (v) May 14, The temporary entry ban began to apply on March 19 and initially applied for 30 days. It was subsequently extended until May 15 in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission. The Government has now decided on a further extension of the entry ban until 15 June; (vi) June 13, public transport where a place cannot be booked should be avoided; (vii) June 17, The Foreign Ministry announced that it will lift its advice against non-essential travel to 10 European countries (Greece, Croatia, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, France, Iceland, Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg) from June 30. For other European countries, the advice against non-essential travel will remain; (viii) July 2, Extension of temporary entry ban to Sweden until 31 August 2020 and easing of restrictions for more travellers; (ix) July 30, Sweden has lifted its advice against non-essential travel to four more countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway, and Switzerland. The ministry's recommendations against non-essential travel to other countries in the EU, EEA and Schengen area, as well as the UK, were extended until August 12; (x) August 13, the advice against unnecessary travel to Liechtenstein and Austria is lifted. Advice against non-essential travel to other countries within the EU, the EEA (European Economic Area) and the Schengen area as well as the United Kingdom is extended until August 26.

Switzerland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CHF/CHE/CHW OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 13 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 19 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 25 June 2020).

(i) Gatherings in public spaces of more than five people are prohibited; (ii) The Federal Council has banned public and private events; (iii) Classroom teaching is banned at schools, universities and other training and educational institutions. The ban will apply until 19 April 2020; (iv) People from high-risk countries and areas will be refused entry into Switzerland; (v) On March 16, the government declared a ban on all private and public events and closing bars, restaurants, sports and cultural spaces; (vi) While protective and relief measures continue to be rolled out or amended, the authorities also announced a plan to gradually reopen the economy starting from the week of April 27; (vii) June 15, Covid-19 related entry restrictions were lifted for all EU/EFTA states and the United Kingdom.

Turkey 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TRY OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 12 April 2020; 4 June 2020; 2 July 2020); Hurriyet. https://bit.ly/2V25m0V (accessed 29 April 2020); US News. https://bit.ly/2zLTJ6W (accessed 6 May 2020); Anadolu Agency (AA).https://bit.ly/2YUh5A0(accessed 14 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/3fIKkMK (accessed 1 June 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/2NrEraZ (accessed 4 June 2020); Daily Sabah.https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/education/limited-lockdown-ends-in-turkey-as-25-million-students-take-exams (accessed 29 June 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/turkeys-fight-against-covid-19-outbreak-intensifies-with-new-measures/news (accessed 6 August 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/turkey-to-reopen-schools-on-aug-31-with-distance-learning-amid-pandemic/news (accessed 13 August 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/vigilant-businesses-recognized-in-turkeys-new-scheme-for-covid-19-measures/news (accessed 19 August 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/turkey-takes-new-measures-against-covid-19-from-flexible-work-to-shorter-weddings/news (accessed 27 August 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/turkey/education/new-school-year-opens-in-turkey-minus-students-at-schools (accessed 4 September 2020).

(i) All travellers entering Turkey from virus-affected countries are taken under quarantine for 14 days, irrespective of nationality. Returning pilgrims will be kept under quarantine for one additional week. As of 4 April, 15,756 persons were under quarantine in 78 converted student dormitories. From March 22, a curfew was applied to all citizens above 65 and for people with chronic illnesses. From April 4, this is extended to youth below 20 (with an exception for young workers between 18 and 20). From March 31, 41 towns, villages, and neighborhoods in 18 provinces have been taken under quarantine. From April 4, 30 metropolitan areas, including Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, and the town of Zonguldak are also under quarantine. All exits from and entries to these zones are banned (under administrative authorization for special cases); (ii) Air traffic is stopped with all countries. Land borders with Iran, Azerbaijan and Georgia are closed. Public employees’ travels to foreign countries are subject to prior approval by their superiors; (iii) Turkish citizens are advised to postpone their travel plans abroad. Public transportation vehicles are required to accept 50% of their capacity to allow social distancing; (iv) On 28 March, additional measures were announced: intercity travel was prohibited, subject only to individual permissions by state governors; Turkish Airlines suspended its domestic and international flights, Starting from 4 April all domestic flights are suspended until 28 April; suspension extended until 28 May; (v) All educational institutions are closed. Online education started for primary and secondary classes on National TV and internet on March 23. Universities shifted to full online education via their distance education centers and Higher Education Council’s courses platform; (vi) Persons above 65 (March 23) and those below 20 (April 4) are locked down in their living places (with the exception of young workers between 18 and 20); (vii) Sport and cultural facilities, mosques (during high attendance periods), domestic and international trade fairs, cafes, museums, and libraries are closed; (viii) From March 28, outside physical exercises and picnics are banned in town centers on the weekends. Local authorities can extend these bans to weekdays. Grocery stores and supermarkets' opening hours are restricted, with a maximum of one customer for every 10 square metres of space; (vix) Turkey is starting to reduce coronavirus containment measures, lifting inter-city travel restrictions in seven provinces and easing a curfew imposed on the elderly and people less than 20 years old. Shopping malls, barber shops and some stores will be allowed to open on May 11 provided they abide by so-called normalisation rules, and universities would return to their academic calendar on June; (x) May 28, intercity train services resume after a two-month gap; (xi) June 1, Museums, libraries, and public parks will be open with distancing rules. Travel bans between regions are waived and domestic flights restart; (xii) June 4, the country plans to resume flights in 40 countries within the month; (xiii) June 19, all schools are formally re-opened; (xiv) June 24, 62 provinces among 81 were subject to obligatory mask bearing; (xv) Jun 28, The country ended the 2nd day of limited lockown in 81 provinces as 2.5 million students take university exams. Further easing is set for July 1, with wedding halls, theaters and cinemas set to reopen; (xv) August 5, New measures are imposed (e.g., inspection of isolation of patients, contract tracing, etc.) and nationwide inspection of the observation of rules is undertaken (https://bit.ly/3iaZLyE); (xvi) August 12, The country is scheduled to reopen schools on August 31 with distance learning. A gradual return to classrooms is scheduled for September 21; (xvii) August 18, The government is awarding certificates to businesses that fully comply with measures against COVID-19; (viii) August 26, All state institutions may implement flexible working methods. Engagement ceremonies are banned in 14 provinces to fight COVID-19, and weddings will be limited to one hour [update]; (ix) August 31, New school year opens, using distance education classes [update].

United Kingdom 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures GBP OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/3fL4ztt (accessed 15 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pm-announces-easing-of-lockdown-restrictions-23-june-2020 (accessed 24 June 2020); Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/uk-unveils-safety-plan-to-reopen-schools-in-september/1897930 (accessed 3 July 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/face-coverings-to-be-mandatory-in-shops-and-supermarkets-from-24-july (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/business-events-and-conferences-given-go-ahead-to-resume-from-1-october (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/disabled-people-exempt-from-wearing-face-coverings-under-new-government-guidance (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/news/spain-removed-from-travel-corridors-exemption-list (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/major-new-campaign-encourages-millions-to-lose-weight-and-cut-covid-19-risk (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-rules-on-gatherings-in-some-parts-of-northern-england (accessed 31 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/nhs-test-and-trace-service-to-strengthen-regional-contact-tracing (accessed 12 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/3fWQUiC (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/31OHelg (accessed 14 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-on-household-gatherings-to-continue-in-parts-of-north-west-west-yorkshire-east-lancashire-and-leicester (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/croatia-trinidad-and-tobago-and-austria-to-be-removed-from-travel-corridors-list (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/update-on-face-coverings-in-schools (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/switzerland-the-czech-republic-and-jamaica-to-be-removed-from-travel-corridors-list (accessed 28 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/all-possible-measures-to-be-taken-before-schools-and-colleges-close (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-lifted-in-parts-of-greater-manchester-lancashire-and-west-yorkshire (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pupils-start-returning-to-schools-in-england (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) Economy-wide lockdown since 23 March; (ii) The government advised British tourists currently abroad to return to the country, and advised against all non-essential travel worldwide. The warning is in place initially for 30 days; (iii) 16 March, Schools are closed except for children of key workers ; (iv) Social distancing is in place. A ban is in place on all social events and gatherings; (v) May 11, The government announced that primary schools will reopen on 1 June; (vi) May 11, The government announced that outdoor places will reopen on May 13 and that people can exercise more than once a day. Social distancing measures remain in place. Ban on public events and social gatherings remains in place; (vii) May 11,The government announced its opening strategy. In a first phase, sectors that were closed during the lockdown can reopen again on 13 May, except entertainment, hospitality, and non-essential retail. All workers who cannot work from home should travel to work if their workplace is open. If the health situation remains under control, a second phase would see the reopening of non-essential retailers on 1 June, followed by the hospitality and entertainment sectors on 4 July; (viii) June 15, Non-essential stores/retailers are allowed to reopen; (ix) June 23, The government eases lockdown restrictions, which includes opening of pubs, restaurants, and accomodation sites starting July 4, provided they adhere to COVID Secure guidelines; (x) July 3, The government outlined its plan to reopen schools in September, along with its safety guidelines; (xi) July 14, Face coverings to be mandatory in shops and supermarkets from 24 July; (xii) July 17, Business events and conferences will be permitted to resume from 1 October provided rates of infection remain at current levels; (xii) July 24, members of the public will need to wear face coverings that cover the nose and mouth in shops, supermarkets, shopping centres and transport hubs, to help curb the spread of the virus. Exemptions include anyone under the age of 11, or those with disabilities, or hidden health conditions such as breathing difficulties, mental health conditions or autism; (xiii) July 25, People returning to the UK from Spain will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks, with the country removed from the travel corridors list; (xiv) July 27, Public Health England launches the Better Health campaign to support people to live healthier lives and reduce their risk of serious illness, including COVID-19; (xv) July 30, Government announces changes to rules on gatherings in Greater Manchester, West Yorkshire and East Lancashire after increase in COVID-19 cases; (xvi) August 10, NHS Test and Trace and Public Health England will extend its partnership with local authorities to reach more people testing positive and their contacts; (xvii) August 13, The Government has announced a series of tough new enforcement measures targeting the most serious breaches of social distancing restrictions (https://bit.ly/3fWQUiC); (xviii) August 13, People arriving in England from France, the Netherlands, Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos Islands and Aruba starting 15 August will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xix) August 14, Restrictions on household gatherings to continue in parts of North West, West Yorkshire, East Lancashire and Leicester; (xx) August 20, People arriving in England from Croatia, Trinidad and Tobago and Austria will need to self-isolate for 2 weeks; (xx) August 25, Schools will have the discretion to require face coverings [update]; (xxi) August 27, People arriving in England from Switzerland, the Czech Republic, and Jamaica from August 29 will need to self-isolate for two weeks [update]; (xxii) August 28, The government has published detailed guidance for schools on contingency planning for areas with local lockdowns in place (https://bit.ly/3lxhgM6) [update]; (xxiii) August 28, Restrictions on two households mixing have been lifted in parts of Greater Manchester, Lancashire, and West Yorkshire. Businesses and organizations that have been allowed to open elsewhere starting August 15 will also be permitted to open in those parts [update]; (xxiv) September 1, Schools and colleges across England will start to welcome back pupils with protective measures [update].

United States 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures USD WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/covid19_e.htm#faq (accessed 11 April 2020). FT. https://www.ft.com/content/df97fa73-a2f0-3400-bb6c-a3794f1c1607 (accessed 6 May 2020).

(i) Forty-eight states have issued stay at home orders; (ii) Current State Department guidance – Level 4 health advisory alert – advises Americans not to travel; (iii) All states have closed schools; (iv) Limits on operation of bars and restaurants in place in most states; and (v) US retailer Gap announced it will reopen up to 800 of its stores by the end of this month as states nationwide gradually begin to ease lockdowns.