Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Brunei Darussalam 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BND
Brunei Darussalam 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) BND IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020, 14 May 2020).

(i) The government is actively responding to the risks of the pandemic from spreading further by implementing a range of measures, including strict inbound and outbound travel restrictions and banning all mass gatherings, including weddings and sporting events; (ii) MOH actively rolling out a contact tracing app (“BruHealth”) for residents to download before they are given the green light to visit public places.

Brunei Darussalam 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace BND
Brunei Darussalam 12C 12C - Others BND IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020, 14 May 2020).

The Ministry of Health (MOH) is also stepping up efforts to track close contacts of positive cases;

Cambodia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KHR
Cambodia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. http://auschamcambodia.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/fourth-round-of-stimulus-measures.pdf (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government has announced foreigners wishing to travel to Cambodia the need to obtain a visa at a Cambodian diplomatic mission abroad, a health certificate before departure, and sufficient travel insurance; (ii) 20 May 2020, The authorities have lifted the entry ban on citizens from Iran, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, and the US; (iii) 11 August 2020, The Inter-Ministerial Commission for Combating COVID-19 issued a press release on the temporary suspension of flights from the Philippines from August 13, 2020 onward; (iv) 11 November 2020, The Ministry of Health issued the updated guidance on travel and the implementation of health measures and quarantine requiring passengers to quarantine at government approved facilities, effective 18 November 2020.

Cambodia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) June 2020, The Royal Government introduced Phase 1 of the IT business registration platform in early June 2020 to facilitate and promote business registration, especially to make it easy for those companies wishing to be registered to obtain loans from the Royal Government’s special financing program; (ii) 8 July 2020, Phnom Penh Capital Administration Notification on Reopening of Clubs and KTVs in Phnom Penh by Transforming into Restaurants.

Cambodia 12C 12C - Others KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); Government of Cambodia. https://www.information.gov.kh/detail/463652 (accessed 19 November 2020); Open Development Cambodia. https://opendevelopmentcambodia.net/announcements/announcement-on-the-temporary-suspension-of-all-travelers-from-the-philippine-from-13-august-2020/ (accessed 19 November 2020); Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. https://www.mfaic.gov.kh/covid-19?fbclid=IwAR1mPXR38h1zbZnYF5lpEUSJLD0SIdxJBG0LYzOl61_hoNIgLEUJgqjN5Vc (accessed 16 November 2020); Cambodianess. https://cambodianess.com/article/the-cambodian-authorities-announces-that-schools-will-reopen-on-nov-23 (accessed 20 November 2020).

April 2020: (i) Quarantine and self-isolation measures were put in place; (ii) Schools and casinos are closed and the government has banned public events with more than 50 participants; (ii) The Khmer New Year break has been cancelled; (iii) November 19, The Government announced that schools, museums and cinemas will reopen on 23 November 2020 and that events involving gatherings such as weddings, religious ceremonies or festivals will be allowed to take place.

Indonesia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures IDR
Indonesia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) IDR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 5 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-indonesia-haj/indonesia-cancels-haj-pilgrimage-over-coronavirus-concerns-idUSKBN2390QO?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-indonesia-flights/indonesia-resumes-domestic-air-travel-coronavirus-cases-jump-idUSKBN23G147?il=0 (accessed 9 June 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Indonesia-bans-international-visitors-over-new-coronavirus-strain (accessed 28 December 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-indonesia-foreigne/indonesia-extends-ban-on-foreign-visitors-for-two-more-weeks-idUSKBN29G0CW?il=0 (accessed 11 January 2021).

(i) Travel- and transport-related restrictions include temporary bans on domestic and international air and sea travel, screening at ports of entry, and reduced transportation. The government has also banned Indonesia’s traditional annual exodus for Muslim holidays in 2020 in an effort to curb the spread of the virus from Jakarta and other high-risk regions; (ii)) 2 June 2020, The government canceled the haj pilgrimage to Mecca due to COVID-19; (iii) 9 June 2020, Domestic flights resumed at 70% capacity with observance of strict health protocols; (iv) On 28 December 2020, Authorities imposed a two-week ban on international visitors starting 1 January 2020 to prevent the spread of the more contagious coronavirus strain identified in the United Kingdom. The regulation applies to all foreign visitors except for high-level government officials. On 11 January 2021, Authorities extended its ban on international visitors by further two weeks.

Indonesia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace IDR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 5 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/covid-19-jakarta-eases-restrictions-in-transition-phase-strict-health-protocols-remain (accessed 4 June 2020).

The government has adopted various containment measures including workplace restrictions. On 4 June 2020, The government eased restrictions in Jakarta by gradually allowing workplaces, places of worship, shopping centres and recreational venues with strict health guidelines such as a 50% capacity limit and ensuring physical distancing.

Indonesia 12C 12C - Others IDR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 5 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/covid-19-jakarta-eases-restrictions-in-transition-phase-strict-health-protocols-remain (accessed 4 June 2020).

The government has adopted various containment measures, including school closures, other restrictions on public events, and obligations on masks. On 4 June 2020, The government an easing of restrictions in Jakarta by gradually allowing workplaces, places of worship, shopping centres and recreational venues with strict health guidelines such as a 50% capacity limit and ensuring physical distancing.

Lao PDR 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures LAK
Lao PDR 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020); Vientiane Times. http://www.vientianetimes.org.la/freeContent/FreeConten_COVID147.php (accessed 31 July 2020); Laotian Times. https://laotiantimes.com/2020/10/02/laos-eases-covid-19-measures-allows-charter-flights/ (accessed 12 October 2020); Vientiane Times. https://www.vientianetimes.org.la/freeContent/FreeConten_Govt_23.php (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 4 May 2020: Travel and public transport within each province are now permitted but inter-provincial travel and public transport including air transport; (ii) 18 May 2020: In country travel and public transport are now permitted; (iii) 10 June 2020, The government announced that the last patient has fully recovered and discharged from hospital. Consequently: (a) In-country travel and public transport are fully operational; (b) With the exception of certain checkpoints allowed by the government, border checkpoints for individuals and transportation of goods, will remain closed as will all international borders. However, foreign businessmen, investors, workers for large investment projects as well as diplomats and foreign experts with proper medical certification and authorization can enter the country but have to be quarantined for 14 days; (iv) 1-31 August 2020: (a) Shuttle flights will be suspended; (b) Closure of traditional and local border checkpoints, except those permitted by the government for goods transport. International checkpoints remain closed for regular travellers, except essential crossings for Lao and foreign nationals who are permitted by the task force committee. Transportation of goods via the international checkpoints is allowed as normal; and (c) Suspending the issuing of tourist or visiting visas for those travelling from or transiting via countries where there is COVID-19 outbreak. Foreign diplomats, the staff of international organizations, experts, investors, business people, technical personnel, and workers deemed essential to take up missions in Lao PDR can enter the country upon approval by the task force committee; (v) 1 October 2020, Ban on charter flights will be eased; (vi) As of 3 February 2021, The Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Public Security, in cooperation with authorities in Vientiane and the provinces, especially border provinces, have been urged to strengthen border patrols until 28 February 2021 [update].

Lao PDR 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020)

(i) April 2020, Entertainment venues remain closed; (ii) 4 May 2020: (a) The new loosened measures allow the reopening of public offices and some private sector businesses and is expected to last until 17 May 2020; (b) Restaurants, hotels, resorts, guesthouses, coffee shops, barbershops, beauty salons as well as wholesale and retail outlets can resume their businesses, however, large-scale manufacturing plants and investment projects with large number of employees must abide by strict preventative measures introduced by the National Taskforce; (iii) 18 May 2020: (a) The new loosened measures allow public offices and businesses to resume and are expected to last until 1 June 2020; (b) Restaurants, food vendors, retail and wholesale outlets, fresh markets, supermarkets, personal care services as well as development projects, companies and factories are also permitted to resume operations, but must abide by strict preventative measures introduced by the National Taskforce; and (c) Border checkpoints, night markets, and entertainment venues remain closed; and (d) Price control of essential goods is still in place; (iv) 10 June 2020: (a) All schools have resumed but must ensure hygiene and distancing practices; (b) All indoor and outdoor sporting activities are now permitted and audiences are allowed, however, entertainment venues remain closed.

Lao PDR 12C 12C - Others LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020); Laotian Times. https://laotiantimes.com/2020/10/02/laos-eases-covid-19-measures-allows-charter-flights/ (accessed 12 October 2020).

(i) April 2020: (a) Schools remain closed; (b) Price control of essential goods is still in place; and (c) The Taskforce Committee for COVID-19 Epidemic Prevention, Control and Response is monitoring latest developments and coordinates the authorities’ response. A separate Taskforce Committee and its seven working groups are in place to address the economic impact of the crisis; (ii) 4 May 2020: (a) A nationwide lockdown has been partially lifted; and (b) large gatherings are still suspended and banned; (iii) 18 May 2020: (a) Some classes at primary, lower and upper secondary schools can resume on May 18 while all others are slated to open on June 2; and (b) All indoor and outdoor sporting activities are now permitted; (iv) 10 June 2020: (a) Large gatherings, including for traditional ceremonies and celebrations are now allowed; and (b) Price control of essential goods is still in place; (v) 1-31 August 2020, Prevention measures will be continuously imposed like closure of entertainment venues, karaoke, and gaming shops; (vi) 1 October 2020, The government has extended its COVID-19 prevention measures until October 31.

Malaysia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MYR
Malaysia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MYR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 June 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/social-activities-barred-during-mco-to-reduce-covid-19-transmission-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 18-31 March 2020, extended until 14 April 2020: Borders are closed; (ii) 10 June 2020, borders will remain closed and overseas travel restricted until at least 31 August 2020; (iii) 11 January 2021, Interstate travel across the nation is barred during the Movement Control Order (MCO). For states under MCO, inter-district crossings will not be allowed as well.

Malaysia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MYR MF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 23 May 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/social-activities-barred-during-mco-to-reduce-covid-19-transmission-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/economic-activities-will-continue-to-function-during-state-of-emergency-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 4 May 2020, The authorities started easing the MCO by allowing most businesses to reopen. However, 7 states out of 14 have opted for a more delayed approach; (ii) 11 January 2021: (a) The five sectors identified as essential economic sectors and allowed to operate are industrial and manufacturing, construction, services, trade and distribution, as well as plantations and commodities; (b) Eateries and hawker stalls are only allowed to operate on a take-away basis, while areas under the Conditional Movement Control Order (CMCO) and RMCO will be allowed to operate as usual with standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place; (c) Supermarkets, health services such as clinics, hospitals and pharmacies, and banks will also be allowed to operate in areas placed under MCO, but with very strict SOPs; (iii) 12 January 2021, The country’s economic activities will continue to function throughout the duration of the state of emergency, but is subject to compliance with the SOPs and the re-implementation of the MCO. Internationally recognized national regulatory organizations, namely Bank Negara Malaysia, the Securities Commission Malaysia, and Bursa Malaysia will continue to play their role as regulatory catalysts, and facilitators of companies and markets.

Malaysia 12C 12C - Others MYR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 3 May 2020, 23 May 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2020/06/key-initiatives-of-pm-muhyiddin-in-100-days/ (accessed 9 June 2020). Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2020/08/nations-economy-showing-positive-signs-toward-recovery-pm/?highlight=rmco (accessed 11 September 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/social-activities-barred-during-mco-to-reduce-covid-19-transmission-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/no-elections-by-elections-during-covid-19-emergency-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/technical-committee-set-up-to-ensure-smooth-management-of-emergency-nationwide-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 20 March 2020, Temporary export ban on face masks; (ii) A Movement Control Order (MCO) was put in place on 18-31 March 2020 and subsequently extended until 14 April 2020: schools, universities and non-essential businesses are closed; all public gatherings are banned; and 10 May 2020, MCO has become conditional movement control order (CMCO). It will be extended until 9 June 2020; (iii) 7 June 2020, The implementation of the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO) from 10 June to 31 August 2020 was announced; (iv) From 24 June 2020, schools will start gradually reopening; (v) 28 August 2020, The government extended the RMCO until 31 December 2020; (vi) 11 January 2021: (a) Social activities involving mass gatherings such as weddings, conferences, religious parades including Thaipusam, meetings, seminars, courses and group sports are not allowed during the MCO period. However, for Perlis and Sarawak, which are under the RMCO, social activities will be allowed, subject to strict standard operating procedure compliance; (b) For states under MCO, movement will be restricted to a 10-km radius, while only two household members will be allowed in the same car while out shopping for essentials; (vii) 12 January 2021: (a) An emergency was proclaimed. It will be enforced until 1 August 2021, or earlier if the COVID-19 pandemic is contained and brought under control in Malaysia; and (b) The general election, state elections and by-elections will not be held during the period of the COVID-19 emergency proclaimed today and to remain in force until 1 August 2021; (viii) 16 January 2021, The government agreed to set up an Emergency Management Technical Committee to ensure the smooth management of the emergency nationwide.

Myanmar 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MMK
Myanmar 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MMK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. https://tourism.gov.mm/covid-19/ (accessed 13 July 2020); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/wfp-myanmar-covid-19-situation-report-10-2-september-2020 (accessed 02 September 2020).

(i) April 2020, Travel restrictions have been announced, i.e. suspension of visa issuances and international flights, and closure of several land borders; (ii) 7 July 2020, Myanmar government announced that it is opening for domestic travel, but incoming international travelers will not be allowed until the end of July 2020; (iii) July 2020, Restrictions on visa issuances and international passenger flights have been extended to 31 July 2020; (iv) 2 September 2020, The temporary ban on international commercial flights was extended to 30 September 2020.

Myanmar 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MMK
Myanmar 12C 12C - Others MMK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. https://tourism.gov.mm/covid-19/ (accessed 13 July 2020); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/wfp-myanmar-covid-19-situation-report-10-2-september-2020 (accessed 02 September 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government announced measures to limit the spread of the virus including quarantine requirements and ban of mass public gatherings; (ii) April 2020, Yangon and Mandalay will be under lockdown during the long holidays (10–19 April 2020); (iii) Government employees have been instructed not to travel home and will be compensated for this period; (iv) A National Central Committee on Prevention, Control and Treatment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus has been established to coordinate the authorities’ response. A second committee, the Control and Emergency Response Committee on COVID-19, was setup on March 30 to help with stricter administrative measures to control the spread of the virus, including quarantine migrant workers coming from neighboring countries.

Philippines 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures PHP
Philippines 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) PHP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 19 April 2020). The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/philippines-will-gradually-ease-lockdowns-as-testing-relief-payments-remain-stalled/ (accessed 13 May 2020). BusinessWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/lockdown-in-metro-manila-to-ease-on-june-1/ (accessed 29 May 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1303074/ph-lifts-restriction-on-non-essential-outbound-travels-2 (accessed 7 July 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1351611/govt-allows-foreigners-with-investors-visa-to-enter-ph (accessed 23 October 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronarivus-philippines/philippines-expands-travel-ban-to-limit-spread-of-coronavirus-variant-idUSKBN2930C1?il=0 (accessed 29 December 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1383954/break-ph-extends-travel-restriction-on-countries-with-new-variant-until-jan-31 (accessed 15 January 2021).

(i) The government has put the Luzon island, including Metro Manila, under an “enhanced community quarantine” starting 12 March 2020. (ii) Suspension of flights from high-risk economies; (iii) 12 May 2020, The government announced an easing in quarantine measures in many areas of the country after 15 May 2020 but will extend lockdowns in certain areas in the National Capital Region, Cebu City, and Laguna province; (iv) 28 May 2020, The Government announced the easing of lockdown measures in the National Capital Region and remaining areas under enhanced community quarantine by 1 June 2020; (v) 3 June 2020, Domestic flights for essential travel resumed; (vi) 7 July 2020, Authorities lifted restrictions on non-essential outbound travel. On 23 October 2020, Authorities announced that foreigners with investors visa will be allowed entry into the country starting on 1 November 2020. On 29 December 2020, Authorities announced a ban on travelers from 20 countries, including the United Kingdom, where the new coronavirus variant has been detected from 30 December 2020 to 15 January 2021. On 15 January 2021, the travel ban was extended to 31 January and applied to 32 countries.

Philippines 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace PHP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 19 April 2020). The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/05/philippines-will-gradually-ease-lockdowns-as-testing-relief-payments-remain-stalled/ (accessed 13 May 2020). BusinessWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/lockdown-in-metro-manila-to-ease-on-june-1/ (accessed 29 May 2020). PDI.

(i) The government has put the Luzon island, including Metro Manila, under an “enhanced community quarantine” starting 12 March 2020; (ii) 12 May 2020, The government announced an easing in quarantine measures in many areas of the country after 15 May 2020 but will extend lockdowns in certain areas in the National Capital Region, Cebu City, and Laguna province; (iii) 28 May 2020, The Government announced the easing of lockdown measures in the National Capital Region and remaining areas under enhanced community quarantine by 1 June 2020.

Philippines 12C 12C - Others PHP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 19 April 2020).

(i) School closures starting 12 March 2020 and restrictions on mass gatherings. While schools have remained closed, limited gatherings have been allowed following the easing of community quarantine levels per locality; (ii) 4 February 2021, The “no-disconnection policy” for low-income households that are unable to pay their electricity bills amid the COVID-19 pandemic, has been extended until 31 January 2021 [update].

Singapore 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures SGD
Singapore 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) SGD The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/spore-opens-borders-to-china-australias-victoria-from-nov-6-what-other-travel-arrangements (accessed 30 October 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-singapore/hong-kong-singapore-to-allow-travel-to-each-other-without-quarantines-from-november-22-idUSKBN27R0B2?il=0 (accessed 11 November 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/travel-bubble-flights-between-singapore-hong-kong-postponed (accessed 22 November 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-vietnam-plan-to-launch-green-lane-for-business-and-official-travel-by-next-year (accessed 16 December 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/new-short-term-business-travel-arrangement-next-year-will-not-require-quarantine-no-matter (accessed 16 December 2020).

After closing its borders in March 2020, as of 30 October 2020, Singapore announced (a) bilateral green lane arrangements for essential business or official travel with the People's Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Germany; (b) unilateral opening of its borders to travellers from Brunei Darussalam, New Zealand, Viet Nam, Australia, and the PRC; and (c) an undisclosed date for launching an air travel bubble with Hong Kong, China. On 11 November 2020, Hong Kong, China and Singapore authorities announced resumption of travel between the two cities without mandatory quarantine on 22 November 2020 following a previous travel bubble announcement. On 21 November 2020, authorities announced the suspension of the travel bubble following escalating cases in Hong Kong, China. On 15 December 2020, Singapore and Viet Nam announced plans of launching a green lane for business and official travel in early 2021. On 15 December 2020, authorities announced that short-term business travellers from all countries will no longer need to be quarantined under new segregated travel lane arrangements with movement restrictions taking effect in January 2021.

Singapore 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace SGD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020). FT. https://www.ft.com/content/5226602f-1239-4f0c-9298-2c3a1d552bc1 (accessed 12 May 2020). MAS. https://www.mas.gov.sg/news/media-releases/2020/safe-re-opening-of-more-customer-services-in-the-financial-sector (accessed 22 May 2020). Gov.sg. https://www.psd.gov.sg/press-room/press-releases/end-of-circuit-breaker--public-service-adopts-phased-approach-to-re-opening-physical-service-centres-and-public-facilities; Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-singapore-reopenin/schools-reopen-as-singapore-eases-lockdown-restrictions-idUSKBN2390G8?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/coronavirus-spore-to-start-phase-2-reopening-on-june-19-dining-in-public-social-gatherings (accessed 19 June 2020).

(i) 12 May 2020, Some businesses were allowed to reopen with safety measures such as spacing out employees and avoiding staff gatherings; establishments and taxis are required to use a contact tracing app for employees and visitors/clients; (ii) 19 May 2020, The MAS announced that more financial institutions will be allowed to reopen more locations from 2 June 2020; (iii) 19 May 2020, The government announced its decision to exit the Circuit Breaker with gradual resumption of the Public Service at physical touchpoints and facilities from 2 June 2020; (iv) 19 June 2020, Restrictions eased further under Phase 2 of Singapore's reopening allowing most businesses to resume.

Singapore 12C 12C - Others SGD Gov.sg. https://www.psd.gov.sg/press-room/press-releases/end-of-circuit-breaker--public-service-adopts-phased-approach-to-re-opening-physical-service-centres-and-public-facilities; https://www.mccy.gov.sg/about-us/news-and-resources/press-statements/2020/may/gradual-resumption-of-religious-activities (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-singapore-reopenin/schools-reopen-as-singapore-eases-lockdown-restrictions-idUSKBN2390G8?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/coronavirus-spore-to-start-phase-2-reopening-on-june-19-dining-in-public-social-gatherings (accessed 19 June 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-to-enter-phase-3-on-dec-28-groups-of-8-to-be-allowed-for-social-gatherings (accessed 15 December 2020).

(i) 19 May 2020, The government announced its decision to exit the Circuit Breaker with phased resumption of religious activities from 2 June 2020; (ii) A full lockdown went into place until 1 June 2020 and safe distancing measures enforced until the said date; (iii) 2 June 2020, Schools reopened as part part of gradual easing in lockdown restrictions; (iv) 19 June 2020, Restrictions eased further under Phase 2 of Singapore's reopening including allowing gatherings of groups up to 5 people and households to receive up to 5 visitors. On 14 December 2020, the Prime Minister announced that Singapore will enter Phase 3 of its reopening on 28 December 2020, further easing restrictions on social gatherings and capacity limits in public places, among others.

Thailand 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures THB
Thailand 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) THB OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 22 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/thailand-to-lift-nationwide-curfew-on-june-15?cx_testId=20&cx_testVariant=cx_1&cx_artPos=1#cxrecs_s (accessed 12 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-thailand-flights/thailand-to-lift-ban-on-international-flights-in-july-regulator-idUSKBN2402D8 (accessed 30 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-thailand-idUSKBN27D0VM (accessed 11 November 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-thailand-tourism/thailand-relaxes-travel-curbs-for-tourists-from-over-50-countries-idUSKBN28R13H?il=0 (accessed 17 December 2020).

(i) 23 March 2020, Countries considered as risk zones and travellers from those countries need to undertake quarantine for 14 days. Travellers from these countries must submit health certificates that show no COVID-19 infection in advance of their trips. Thailand also halted issuance of visa on arrival for some other countries. (ii) 28 April 2020, The government extended the period of the state of emergency including the night curfew between 22:00 to 4:00hr,as well as the temporary ban on all international flights to Thailand, until 31 May 2020. As of 28 October 2020, the state of emergency has been extended until end-November. (iii) 1 May 2020, several airlines resumed domestic operations in major airports, except Phuket International airport, conditional on strict hygiene and preventive guidelines. (iv) 16 May 2020, the Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand extended the temporary ban on international passenger flights until June 30 with limited exceptions. On 30 June 2020, Authorities announced the lifting of the ban on international flights on July 1 after the government earlier approved limited foreign travel to the country including business travellers and foreigners with spouses, work permits or residency in the country. On 17 December 2020, Thailand eased travel restrictions for 56 countries with waived visas subject to requirements such as COVID-19 tests and mandatory quarantine. [update]

Thailand 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace THB OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 22 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-thailand-flights/thailand-to-lift-ban-on-international-flights-in-july-regulator-idUSKBN2402D8 (accessed 30 June 2020).

(i) In Bangkok and its vicinity, leisure and sport facilities, such as boxing arenas, pubs, among others, have suspend their businesses for 14 days until the end of March. In addition, the Bangkok Metropolitan Government announced on 21 March 2020 that most of nonessential commercial services, including shopping malls, restaurants and sport facilities, among others, would be closed from 22 March to 12 April 2020. (ii) The first out of four stages for relaxation of Covid-19 containment measures started on 3 May 2020, by opening low-risk businesses including markets, small eateries, small retail outlets, exercise facilities, and hairdressers; implementation of subsequent stages will depend on the evolution of Covid-19 infection. (iii) 17 May 2020, the second phase of lockdown relaxation took effect with more businesses allowed to resume activities.

Thailand 12C 12C - Others THB OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 22 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020). BOT. https://www.bot.or.th/English/PressandSpeeches/Press/2020/Pages/n2463.aspx (accessed 22 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/thailand-to-lift-nationwide-curfew-on-june-15?cx_testId=20&cx_testVariant=cx_1&cx_artPos=1#cxrecs_s (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) All schools have been closed since 18 March 2020 until further notice. (i) 11 May 2020, The BOT revised its bond issuance program for 2020: (a) Expanded ranges of maximum and minimum issue size per auction to 10,000 – 60,000 million baht for all maturities of BOT bills; and (b) may consider adjusting the auction frequency of the 3- and 6-month BOT bills, and the fixed-coupon bonds, to accommodate the issuance schedule of Treasury Bills and government bonds of comparable maturities. (iii) 12 June 2020, Authorities announced the lifting of the nationwide curfew on 15 June as part of its phase four easing of lockdown measures.

Timor-Leste 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures USD
Timor-Leste 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) USD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The Government has suspended collective passenger transport; Other measures taken were: (ii) Restricting international travel, including the prohibition of entry of foreigners into national territory, except for foreigners born in Timor-Leste, resident citizens, and legal representatives of minors of Timorese nationality; (iii) Imposing compulsory isolation in a health facility or their homes applies to all those infected with COVID-19 until they are discharged, and all individuals who enter the national territory and all those under the supervision of the authorities will remain in isolation for a period of 14 days and voluntary isolation at home to those who are not in compulsory isolation as well as prohibiting meetings or demonstrations involving the agglomeration of more than five people and any social, cultural, and sporting events; (iv) Starting 29 September 2020, Four land borders will be opened for 3 hours every 17 days for the international travels with important purposes.

Timor-Leste 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace USD
Timor-Leste 12C 12C - Others USD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) 27 March 2020, the President declared the State of Emergency, effective from 28 March to 26 April; (ii) 20 April 2020, The government extended it until end-May; (iii) 4 June 2020, The government approved extending the state of emergency decree for another month, but with “a lot of flexibility,” including reopening schools, resuming religious services, and easing some restrictions on commercial trade. Containment and mitigation measures include obligating all individuals to wear a protective mask covering mouth and nose, wash their hands before entering commercial or service establishments, and maintain a safe distance of at least one meter from other people; (iv) 1 July 2020, The government lifted the state of emergency; (v) As of 6 August 2020, the state of emergency has been re-imposed after the first case after 3 months was confirmed. This state of emergency will be in force until 4 September 2020.

Viet Nam 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures VND
Viet Nam 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) VND OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 13 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-vietnam-plan-to-launch-green-lane-for-business-and-official-travel-by-next-year (accessed 16 December 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-vietnam-flights/vietnam-suspends-flights-from-britain-south-africa-over-new-covid-19-variants-idUSKBN29A1HF?il=0 (accessed 6 January 2020).

(i) On 9 March 2020, the government tightened entry restrictions: no tourist visa is issued for Schengen countries, the United Kingdom and some US states; Only business and diplomatic entries are still allowed, but those travellers have to submit health certificate/questionnaire; All foreign and national travellers coming from infected countries have to be quarantined for 14 days; (ii) On 17 March 2020, the government announced that it stops visa issuance to foreign visitors for 30 days fromm 18 March, except for some specific cases, such as diplomats/officials. (iii) From the week of 23 March 2020, all international flights have been suspended until the end of April, except some special occasional flights to bring back Vietnamese nationals. (iv) 29 April 2020, More frequent domestic flights and local trains were introduced to connect big cities and provinces and up to 50% of public transportation has resumed with full operations in low risk provinces. On 15 December 2020, Singapore and Viet Nam announced plans of launching a green lane for business and official travel in early 2021. On 5 January 2021, Authorities announced the suspension of inbound flights from countries with new COVID-19 variants initially including the United Kingdom and South Africa.