Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AFN IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) The government has taken steps to replace wheat imports lost due to border closures with purchases from Central Asia; (ii) On July 15, trade with India through Wagah border post in Pakistan resumed.

Arab Republic of Egypt 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EGP 11,786,229,548 750,000,000 Central Bank of Egypt.,-2020-regarding-allowing-banks-to-own-unlimited-shares-in-payment-service-providers-and-payment-sys.aspx (accessed 12 August 2020). Egypt Independent. (accessed 22 October 2020). Financial Regulatory Authority Egypt. (accessed 15 October 2020). World Bank. (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) March 20, The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP30,000/day and EGP100,000/month for individuals, and to EGP40,000/day and EGP200,000/per week for corporations; (ii) March 29, The central bank set a daily limit on all ATM disbursement per card to be EGP5,000, and limits to cash withdrawal and deposits at a bank branch to be EGP10,000 per individual, and EGP50,000 per corporate; (iii) The cost of transactions in the EGX will be reduced from 0.15% to 0.125% and from 0.15% to 0.05% for non-residents and Egyptian residents, respectively, and all spot transactions on EGX will be exempt from stamp duty; (iv) The National Bank of Egypt and Bank Misr announced a one-year deposit program with a 15% interest rate; (v) August 6, Allowed banks to own unlimited shares in payment service providers and payment systems operators; (vi) October 4, The Financial Regulatory Authority reduced the fees for examination and study services owed to the authority by 50% for medium and small companies when they apply for the Authority’s approval when taking steps related to the Egyptian stock exchange (such as preparations for an IPO). The change was aimed at incentivizing SMEs to go to the stock exchange for funding; (vii) October 20, USD750 million in green bonds (first in Middle East and Africa) to finance expenditures related to green projects addressing the impacts of COVID-19 while also taking into account environmental standards. [update]

Argentina 11 11 - Other Economic Measures ARS Yale. (accessed 9 May 2020, 26 June 2020); IMF. (accessed 27 April 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. (accesed 31 July 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. (accessed 2 October 2020).

(i) Capital Flow Management Measures (CFMs) that were already in place since August 2019 have largely protected Argentina so far from the impact of capital outflows; (ii) Adopted anti-price gouging policies, including price controls for food and medical supplies and ringfencing of essential supplies, including certain export restrictions on medical supplies and equipment and centralization of the sale of essential medical supplies.; (iii) April 28, Ordered that the Common Investment Funds (FCI) in pesos must invest at least 75% of their assets in financial instruments and negotiable securities issued in the Argentine Republic; (iv) Extended deadline of filing financial statements for small and medium-sized corporations; (v) May 16, extended validity of Maximum Prices until June 20; (vi) May 18, suspended price increases mobile and fixed telephony, Internet and pay TV services until August 31; June 18, extended until end of the year ; (v) May 19, set the domestic price of a barrel of oil at USD45 with the objective of reactivating the national hydrocarbon industry, guaranteeing the continuity of jobs and promoting self-sufficiency; (vi) June 18, extended the suspension of the closure and disabling of bank accounts until December 31, 2020, inclusive; (vii) July 23, extension of 15 days for presentation and payment of tax returns on earnings and personal and identity assets.

Armenia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AMD KPMG. (accessed 14 May 2020)

May 14, Temporary restrictions on the export of medical masks, gloves and goggles, biohazard suits, medical robes, antiviral medicines, gauze and other medical products.

Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On March 18, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to May 18 on April 16; (ii) No amount/estimate: May 18: Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day. (iii) June 16, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Azerbaijan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AZN 114,147,378 67,145,516 IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); The Coronavirus Response Fund. (accessed 19 April 2020); Eurasianet. (accessed 19 April 2020); Coronavirus Response Fund. (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) March, Establishment of the Coronavirus Response Fund under the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of March 19, 2020. The government itself is asking for donations from citizens, organizations, and businesses to help it deal with the disease in Azerbaijan. According to President Ilham Aliyev, the basic goal of the fund is for the people of Azerbaijan to within the limits of their capability, demonstrate their civil solidarity and generosity which are foundations of their society. The fund has raised AZN114 million as of July 20; (ii) April, The CBA and commercial banks have shifted to a seven-day work week, including to allow individuals and businesses to convert their manat holdings into foreign currency; (iii) April 23, The CBA also announced that it will extend its guarantees on insurance premiums.

Bangladesh 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BDT Bangladesh Bank. (accessed 29 June 2020).

BB instructed banks to waive customers interest for the period from 1 April to 31 May based unclassified loan outstanding balance as at 30 March 2020. According to the instruction, loan balance upto BDT 0.1m, waiver the whole amount of interest; loan balance more than BDT 0.1m to BDT 1m interest, interest waiver @2% annually; loan balance more than BDT 1m; interest waiver @1%. Customer wise maximum amount of waiver is BDT 1.2m.

Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. (accessed 02 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing October 22nd, 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) April 8, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until May 17; (v) May 12, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by June 30, 2020; (vi) May 18: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) June 2: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until June 30, 2020.

Bhutan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BTN/INR 3,000,000 40,368 IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); Royal Monetary Authority. (accessed 01 October 2020).

(i) Office of Consumer Protection has published market price information of essential commodities as of March 11, to monitor and keep track of price movement in the market and provide information to consumers for informed purchase decision; (ii) March 24, A ban on select food product (e.g., betel leaf, betel nut) import from India has been imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19; (iii) June 29, Import of luxury motor vehicles and bikes have been suspended; (iv) September 4, The Royal Monetary Authority announced the issuance of a 3-year government bond of BTN3,000 million with an annual coupon rate of 6.5% to promote capital market development amid the pandemic.

Brazil 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BRL IMF. (Accessed 29 April 2020). AGB. (accessed 14 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Economy (accessed 20 July 2020)

(i) With congress declaring a state of “public calamity” on March 20, the government’s obligation to comply with the primary balance target in 2020 has been lifted. (ii) Proposed a bill creating a separate budget (“war-budget”) to expedite fiscal relief assistance and authorize the central bank to buy and sell government and corporate debt securities among other extraordinary measures. (iii) Pandemic leads 76% of Brazil’s industrial sector to cut production. (iv) Brazil’s government lowered its 2020 economic outlook on Wednesday, forecasting a gross domestic product contraction of 4.7%, which would signal the country’s biggest economic crash in more than a century. (v) July 14, the Ministry of Economy announced the extension of the proportional reduction of work and salary agreements and temporary suspension of the Benefit's employment contract via the Emergency Preservation of Employment and Income (BEm)

Brunei Darussalam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BND
Cambodia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KHR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April, The government has ordered the suspension of white rice exports, to secure domestic supplies; (ii) May 20, suspension of white rice exports has been lifted; (iii) June, The Royal Government will introduce Phase 1 of the IT business registration platform in early June 2020 to facilitate and promote business registration, especially to make it easy for those companies wishing to be registered to obtain loans from the Royal Government’s special financing program.

Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Cook Islands 11 11 - Other Economic Measures NZD
Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) August 11, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) August 21, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021.

European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. (accesed 20 April 2020); Yale. (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. (accessed 1 October 2020); EC. (accessed 15 October 2020); FT. (accessed 22 October 2020); EC. (accessed 29 October 2020).

(i) March to April, ESMA, EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) April 26, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) September 7, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September; (iv) September 17, The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) September 25, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report; (vi) October 13, EC has decided to prolong and extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. All sections of the Temporary Framework are prolonged for six months until 30 June 2021, and the section to enable recapitalisation support is prolonged for three months until 30 September 2021; (vii) October 19, EU hired banks to start selling new 10- and 20-year bonds under the the SURE programme and under the EU EUR750 billion recovery fund [update]; (viii) October 21, EC issued a EUR17 billion inaugural social bond under the EU SURE instrument to help protect jobs and keep people in work. The issuing consisted of two bonds, with EUR10 billion due for repayment in October 2030 and EUR7 billion due for repayment in 2040. So far, 17 Member States will receive financial support under the SURE instrument; financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favourable terms from the EU to Member States [update].

Federated States of Micronesia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) No monetary policy response. With the U.S. dollar its legal tender, the FSM does not have a central bank; and (ii) No exchange rate policy response, given that U.S. dollar is the legal tender of the FSM.

Fiji 11 11 - Other Economic Measures FJD US Embassy in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. (accessed 29 October 2020).

October 16, The Fijian Government and the United States signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), first of its kind with the United States to promote trade and investment ties between the two countries. [update]

Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. (accessed 18 July 2020).

Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases .

France 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR AMF. (accessed 1 June 2020).

May 18, Suspended the ban on creating or increasing net short positions

Georgia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures GEL
Germany 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (accessed 18 May 2020).

April 1, Missed rent payments due to COVID-related reasons cannot lead to evictions and rent payments for these tenants will be postponed (in force from April 1 to June 30). Consumers that cannot finance running consumption costs for their housing units (such as electricity, gas, telecommunication and water) can postpone them without being charged late payment fees or forced to judicial debt collection.

Hong Kong, China 11 11 - Other Economic Measures HKD
India 11 11 - Other Economic Measures INR 382,500,000,000 5,146,926,607 RBI. (accessed 17 September 2020). Securities and Exchange Board of India. (accessed 17 July 2020), (accessed 8 July 2020); Ministry of Finance. (accessed 21 May 2020); WTO. (accessed 5 May 2020). IMF. (accessed 1 October 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) Amendments introduced to the export policy of several products; (ii) May 17, Enhancements to the Ease of Doing Business Act and decriminalisation of Companies Act violations; (iii) July 7, Decided to partially modify circular No. SEBI/HO/DDHS/CIR/P/2020/41 (dealing with investor grievance report, financial results and accounts maintained by issuers under ILDM Regulations) and extended the timelines for submission to July 31, 2020; (iv) July 15, Decided to permit Listers who listed or intend/propose to list NCDs/NCRPS/CPs to use available financials as of December 31,2019, pre-coronavirus; (v) August 31, Announced that various State Governments have offered to sell securities by way of an auction, for an aggregate face value of INR82.5 billion; (vi) August 7, The Reserve Bank announced the constitution of an Expert Committee under the chairmanship of Shri K.V. Kamath to make recommendations on the required financial parameters to be factored in the resolution plans under the ˜Resolution Framework for Covid19-related Stress; (vii) August 31, Announced the re-issue of various fixed-rate government equities (stocks) at different years and percentages, for a total of INR300 billion through price-based action; (viii) September 22, the Parliament adopted the amendment to the Indian Bankruptcy Code, with no insolvency cases until March 25, 2021.

Indonesia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures IDR WTO. (accessed 28 April 2020). IMF. (accessed 5 May 2020). The Jakarta Post. (accessed 2 June 2020). Reuters. (accessed 7 July 2020).

(i) Effective 18 March 2020 to 31 May 2020, Temporary elimination of import certification requirements on imports of onions and garlic; (ii) Effective 18 March 2020 to 30 June 2020, Temporary export ban on antiseptic, raw materials to fabricate masks, personal protective equipment (PPE), ethyl alcohol and masks; (iii) Effective 23 March 2020 to 30 June 2020, Temporary elimination of import certification requirements on imports of certain products, e.g. masks and personal protective equipment; (iv) To ease stock market volatility, the regulator OJK has introduced a new share buyback policy (allowing listed companies to repurchase their shares without a prior shareholders’ meeting) and introduced limits on stock price declines. (iv) May 22, The government announced it willl start start charging 10 percent value-added tax (VAT) on imported digital goods and services, including video and music streaming subscriptions, starting July 1 in an attempt to boost state revenue. On July 7, authorities confirmed that it is imposing 10% value-added tax on sales by non-resident foreign firms which sell digital products and services in Indonesia worth at least IDR600 million rupiah (USD41,667) a year or which generate yearly traffic from at least 12,000 users.

Ireland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR 1,000,000 1,106,195 IE. (accessed 13 August 2020).

July 28, The Minister for Public Expenditure and Reform, announced the 34 diverse projects that have successfully secured funding from this year’s call under the Public Service Innovation Fund (EUR1 million), an initiative of the Our Public Service 2020 reform strategy for development and innovation in the Public Service .

Islamic Republic of Iran 11 11 - Other Economic Measures IRR IMF. (accessed 15 May 2020).

(i) Sukuk bonds and the National Development Fund used to partly fund recovery and relief measures; (ii) April 15, government announced its biggest-ever initial public offering, selling its residue shares in 18 companies (including 12 percent share of Social Welfare Fund (SHASTA), the largest public company); (iii) expanded contacless payments and increased the limits for bank transactions in order to reduce circulation of banknotes and exchange of debit cards; (iv) May 7, estimated privatization proceeds are at around IRR165 trillion (0.6% of GDP) from banks and insurance companies and IRR70 trillion (0.2% of GDP) from SHASTA.

Italy 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 1 May 2020); Yale. (accessed 1 May 2020); Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze. (accessed 16 June 2020); IVAAS. (accessed 6 August 2020);

(i) No amount/estimate: Apri l 24, announced a special debt instrument called "BTP ITALIA," which will finance costs arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. The next issue will be May 18-21, 2020. The instruments have maturities of 4 to 8 years, with coupons paid every six months, and capital always guaranteed at maturity; (ii) IVASS (Insurance supervisory authority) followed the EIOPA recommendations and called insurance companies to be prudent about dividends and bonus payments to protect their capital position; insurance companies are asked to provide updated Solvency II ratios on a weekly basis; (iii) CONSOB called a three-month ban on shorting of all shares and lowered a minimum threshold beyond which it is required to communicate the participation in a listed company. These measures are aimed to contain the volatility of the financial markets and to strengthen the transparency of the holdings in the Italian companies listed on the Stock Exchange; (iv) 18 May : Suspended the temporary ban on taking new net short position and the increase in existing net short positions. The Italian Companies and Exchange Commission (CONSOB) first introduced the ban on March 17, 2020. The ban will end on May 18, 2020; (v) 8 June, Announced a new government bond exclusively dedicated to the retail market. This government bond is called the “BTP Futura”, and will solely finance expenses made by the Italian government to deal with the COVID-19 emergency, as well as to support the recovery of the Italian economy. The first issue will be Monday, July 6, 2020, to Friday, July 10, 2020.

Japan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures JPY OECD. (accessed 6 May 2020).

May 27, The Cabinet approved a new stimulus package worth JPY117 trillion, mostly comprising financial aid for companies along with JPY33 trillion in direct spending, to be funded by a second supplementary budget; this brings the total amount of stimulus from all economic packages to JPY234 trillion (over 40% of GDP).

Kazakhstan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KZT OECD. (accessed 21 May 2020). Astana Times. (accessed 17 July 2020)

(i) Quotas on exports of key food products (wheat and flour) as well as all other restrictions on food product exports will be lifted on 1 June; (ii) As part of the recovery package, Kazakhstan will abandon its 10% flat tax rate and switch to a progressive personal income tax; (iii) July 16, The Kazakh National Bank and the Kazakh Ministry of Finance are planning to issue short-term government securities up to KZT1 trillion on a regular basis until the end of 2020 to maintain economic activity.

Kiribati 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Kyrgyz Republic 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KGS IMF. (accesed 13 April 2020). Ministry of Finance. (accessed 6 September 2020).

(i) No amount/estimate: February, The NBKR raised the policy interest rate by 75 basis points to 5% amid global uncertainty and the increase in inflation; (ii) Banks and NBFIs should create a loan loss reserve equal to 100% for the amount of overdue accrued interest payments on loans that have been given the status of non-accrual of interest income when overdue arrears are 270 days or more (from the now 90 days); (iii) As of September 5, the republican budget received KGS6,300.20 million from the issuance of government securities: (a) KGS991.34 million ST-bills, and (b) KGS5,308.86 million ST-bonds.

Lao PDR 11 11 - Other Economic Measures LAK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020, 11 June 2020); 9 July 2020, 3 September 2020).

(i) As of August, Cuts in administrative expenses by at least 30% of the annual budget for ministries and central organizations and 10% for local authorities have been approved and intentions to cut unnecessary spending in proportion to revenue shortfall have been signaled; (ii) The Taskforce Committee has launched a fundraising campaign from the public. As of June 1, about LAK17.5 billion in cash and LAK85.5 billion in kind have been raised.

Luxembourg 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR OECD. (accessed 30 April 2020); WTO. (accessed 28 May 2020); RTL. (accessed 9 May 2020). Luxembourg government. (accessed 9 October 2020)

(i) Temporary suspension of refunds for cancelled package holidays in support of travel agents; (ii) Commitment by Luxembourg banks to offer a 6-month moratorium on loans for SMEs, self-employed and liberal professionals; (iii) The Luxembourg authorities issued guidance on COVID19-related financial crime and AML/CT issues; (iv) To finance measures, the government issued a EUR2.5 billion bond (3.9% of 2019 GDP) at a negative interest rate. One quarter of the lenders come from the insurance sector. The other investors are based in the eurozone, Great Britain, and Switzerland; (v) Bilateral agreements with France and Belgium regarding the taxation of cross-border workers resorting to telework in the context of the current crisis; (vi) September 6, Job training for jobseekers with some secondary education. The program lasts three months and is focused on the development of soft skills, digital skills, project management skills, and optional training in office automation or data and coding. [update]

Malaysia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MYR IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020, 3 May 2020; Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (16 September 2020); The Star. (accessed 16 September 2020); The Official Portal of Parliament of Malaysia. (accessed 16 September 2020, 25 September 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 16 September 2020); Maybank2u. (accessed 16 September 2020); Malay Mail. (accessed 2 October 2020); The Official Portal of Parliament of Malaysia. (accessed 2 October 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) March 23, The SC and Bursa Malaysia suspended short-selling until April 30. April 28, the suspension was extended through June 30; (ii) June 5 in Short-term National Economic Recovery Plan or PENJANA: (a) COVID-19 Temporary Measures Act is proposed to minimize disruption to social and economic well-being activities caused by contractual breaches and enforcement of insolvency actions on groups affected by COVID-19 and Movement Control Order (MCO). This is designed to provide sufficient runway for businesses to recover their operations and relief from certain contractual obligations and financial distress for the revival of the economy: (1) August 24, The Temporary Measures for Government Financing COVID-19 Bill 2020, to set up a MYR45 billion fund for COVID-19 was passed by Dewan Rakyat (Lower House). Apart from setting up the fund, the law will allow the government borrowings to raise the permissible statutory debt level ratio of 55% of GDP to 60%. September 21, The Bill was passed by Dewan Negara (Upper House); and (2) August 25, The Temporary Measures for Reducing the Impact of COVID-19 Bill 2020 was passed by the Lower House. September 22, The Bill was passed by the Upper House; (b) To enable the Rakyat (or people) to join the Government in supporting post recovery measures, the MOF will issue an Islamic debt instrument -- the Sukuk PRIHATIN. Proceeds from the sukuk issuance will be utilized for specific development programs such as connectivity of schools (especially in rural areas), funding for micro enterprises (focused on women entrepreneurs) and research grants for infectious diseases. August 18, The first digital sukuk was launched with a nominal value of MYR500 million. The profit rate is 2%per annum over two years, maturity date is September 22, 2022; (iii) September 1, The government is prepared to implement additional economic stimulus package or other initiatives to help the people in facing economic constraints if necessary and if the government’s financial situation allows it.

Maldives 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MVR Ministry of Finance. (accessed 13 April 2020); IMF. (accessed 13 April 2020); Ministry of Finance. (accessed 26 May 2020); The Edition. (accessed 16 September 2020); Maldives Immigration. (accessed 22 October 2020).

(i) April, Reduce recurrent expenditure by MVR1 billion; (ii) September 13, The Ministry of Finance decided to reassess and amend the state budget declared for the year 2020 due to the significant reduction in revenue generated by the state in the wake of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; (iii) September 27, The Minister of Tourism inaugurated the “Maldives Border Miles” program, aimed to boost tourism in Maldives. This is the first of its kind loyalty program developed in the entire world, and this program will be officially implemented on 1 December 2020 [update].

Marshall Islands 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD IMF. (accessed 13 April 2020).

April, Since U.S. dollar is the legal tender of Marshall Islands, there is no monetary measure and no exchange rate and BOP measures.

Mexico 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MXN IMF. (Assessed on 30 April 2020); (accessed June 8).

(i) On April 5, President Lopez Obrador outlined his government’s policy priorities to combat the economic effects of COVID-19, including more health spending and strengthening of the social safety net; (ii) May 29, Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit suspended deadlines for institutions subject to supervision by the National Commission of Insurance and Bonds.

Mongolia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MNT IMF. (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. (accessed 2 July 2020).

(i) Feb 13, Temporary suspension of coal exports to the People's Republic of China; (ii) June 30, Re-opening of children playground centers except of PC game centers, summer camps, religious and cultural centers, cinema theatres, snooker centers, and karaokes. However, public protests and mass gathered sports contests will remain prohibited. By reviving the operations, it is expected to keep around 10,000 jobs.

Myanmar 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MMK