Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. https://www.fma.gv.at/fma-beendet-die-per-verordnung-erlassenen-einschraenkungen-fuer-leerverkaeufe-in-bestimmten-finanzinstrumenten-die-an-der-wiener-boerse-notieren/ (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On 18 March 2020, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to 18 May 2020 on 16 April 2020; (ii) No amount/estimate: 18 May 2020, Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day; (iii) 16 June 2020, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. https://financien.belgium.be/nl/Actueel/akkoord-onderling-overleg-tussen-de-autoriteiten-van-duitsland-en-belgi%C3%AB-ter-verlenging-van (accessed 2 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. https://www.fsma.be/nl/news/de-fsma-kondigt-de-opschorting-van-het-verbod-op-het-innemen-verhogen-van-nettoshortposities (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing 22 October 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) 8 April 2020, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until 17 May 2020; (v) 12 May 2020, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by 30 June 2020; (vi) 18 May 2020: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) 2 June 2020: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until 30 June 2020.

Brunei Darussalam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BND
Cambodia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. http://auschamcambodia.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/fourth-round-of-stimulus-measures.pdf (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government has ordered the suspension of white rice exports, to secure domestic supplies; (ii) 20 May 2020, suspension of white rice exports has been lifted.

Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/regeringen-og-erhvervslivet-vil-hjaelpe-dansk-eksport-i-coronakrisen/ (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/ivaerksaettere-faar-hjaelpende-haand-ny-politisk-aftale-letter-omregistrering/ (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) 11 August 2020, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) 21 August 2020, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021.

Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/1271139/amendments-to-pharmaceutical-legislation-aim-to-ensure-availability-and-sufficiency-of-medicines- (accessed 18 July 2020).

9 July 2020, Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases.

France 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR AMF. https://www.amf-france.org/fr/actualites-publications/communiques/communiques-de-lamf/lamf-suspend-linterdiction-de-creer-ou-daugmenter-des-positions-courtes-nettes (accessed 1 June 2020).

18 May 2020, Suspended the ban on creating or increasing net short positions.

Germany 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 18 May 2020).

1 April 2020, Missed rent payments due to COVID-related reasons cannot lead to evictions and rent payments for these tenants will be postponed (in force from 1 April to 30 June). Consumers that cannot finance running consumption costs for their housing units (such as electricity, gas, telecommunication and water) can postpone them without being charged late payment fees or forced to judicial debt collection.

Indonesia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures IDR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 28 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/05/22/indonesia-may-lose-market-confidence-due-to-mounting-debts-world-bank.html (accessed 2 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-tax-digital/indonesia-imposes-10-vat-on-amazon-google-netflix-and-spotify-idUSKBN2481A5?il=0 (accessed 7 July 2020).

(i) Effective 18 March 2020 to 31 May 2020, Temporary elimination of import certification requirements on imports of onions and garlic; (ii) Effective 18 March 2020 to 30 June 2020, Temporary export ban on antiseptic, raw materials to fabricate masks, personal protective equipment (PPE), ethyl alcohol and masks; (iii) Effective 23 March 2020 to 30 June 2020, Temporary elimination of import certification requirements on imports of certain products, e.g. masks and personal protective equipment; (iv) To ease stock market volatility, the regulator OJK has introduced a new share buyback policy (allowing listed companies to repurchase their shares without a prior shareholders’ meeting) and introduced limits on stock price declines. (iv) 22 May 2020, The government announced it willl start start charging 10 percent value-added tax (VAT) on imported digital goods and services, including video and music streaming subscriptions, starting July 1 in an attempt to boost state revenue. On 7 July 2020, authorities confirmed that it is imposing 10% value-added tax on sales by non-resident foreign firms which sell digital products and services in Indonesia worth at least IDR600 million rupiah (USD41,667) a year or which generate yearly traffic from at least 12,000 users.

Ireland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR 1,000,000 1,106,195 IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/e0aa1-minister-for-public-expenditure-and-reform-michael-mcgrath-td-announces-projects-to-be-funded-under-1-million-public-service-innovation-fund/ (accessed 13 August 2020).

28 July 2020, The Minister for Public Expenditure and Reform, announced the 34 diverse projects that have successfully secured funding from this year’s call under the Public Service Innovation Fund (EUR1 million), an initiative of the Our Public Service 2020 reform strategy for development and innovation in the Public Service.

Italy 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 1 May 2020); Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze. http://www.mef.gov.it/ufficio-stampa/comunicati/2020/Arriva-il-nuovo-BTP-Futura-il-primo-titolo-di-Stato-interamente-dedicato-al-retail/ (accessed 16 June 2020); IVAAS. https://www.ivass.it/media/avviso/covid-dividend-2/?com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=3 (accessed 6 August 2020);

(i) No amount/estimate: 24 April 2020, announced a special debt instrument called "BTP ITALIA," which will finance costs arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. The next issue will be 18 May 2020-21. The instruments have maturities of 4 to 8 years, with coupons paid every six months, and capital always guaranteed at maturity; (ii) IVASS (Insurance supervisory authority) followed the EIOPA recommendations and called insurance companies to be prudent about dividends and bonus payments to protect their capital position; insurance companies are asked to provide updated Solvency II ratios on a weekly basis; (iii) CONSOB called a three-month ban on shorting of all shares and lowered a minimum threshold beyond which it is required to communicate the participation in a listed company. These measures are aimed to contain the volatility of the financial markets and to strengthen the transparency of the holdings in the Italian companies listed on the Stock Exchange; (iv) 18 May 2020: Suspended the temporary ban on taking new net short position and the increase in existing net short positions. The Italian Companies and Exchange Commission (CONSOB) first introduced the ban on 17 March 2020. The ban will end on 18 May 2020; (v) 8 June 2020, Announced a new government bond exclusively dedicated to the retail market. This government bond is called the “BTP Futura”, and will solely finance expenses made by the Italian government to deal with the COVID-19 emergency, as well as to support the recovery of the Italian economy. The first issue will be Monday, 6 July 2020, to Friday, 10 July 2020.

Japan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures JPY OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 6 May 2020). BOJ. https://www.boj.or.jp/en/announcements/release_2020/rel201216c.pdf (accessed 16 December 2020).

16 December 2020, The BOJ announced it will purchase USD6 billion in cash from the Ministry of Finance's for it's operations including foreign currency supply to financial institutions. [update]

Lao PDR 11 11 - Other Economic Measures LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 11 June 2020); 9 July 2020, 3 September 2020).

(i) As of 20 August 2020, Cuts in administrative expenses by at least 30% of the annual budget for ministries and central organizations and 10% for local authorities have been approved and intentions to cut unnecessary spending in proportion to revenue shortfall have been signaled; (ii) The Taskforce Committee has launched a fundraising campaign from the public. As of 1 June 2020, about LAK17.5 billion in cash and LAK85.5 billion in kind have been raised.

Luxembourg 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 30 April 2020); WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/covid19_e.htm#faq (accessed 28 May 2020); RTL. https://today.rtl.lu/news/luxembourg/a/1505902.html (accessed 9 May 2020). Luxembourg government. https://mteess.gouvernement.lu/fr/actualites.gouvernement%2Bfr%2Bactualites%2Btoutes_actualites%2Bcommuniques%2B2020%2B10-octobre%2B06-adem-futureskills.html (accessed 9 October 2020)

(i) Temporary suspension of refunds for cancelled package holidays in support of travel agents; (ii) Commitment by Luxembourg banks to offer a 6-month moratorium on loans for SMEs, self-employed and liberal professionals; (iii) The Luxembourg authorities issued guidance on COVID19-related financial crime and AML/CT issues; (iv) To finance measures, the government issued a EUR2.5 billion bond (3.9% of 2019 GDP) at a negative interest rate; (v) Bilateral agreements with France and Belgium regarding the taxation of cross-border workers resorting to telework in the context of the current crisis; (vi) 6 September 2020, Job training for jobseekers with some secondary education. The program lasts three months and is focused on the development of soft skills, digital skills, project management skills, and optional training in office automation or data and coding.

Malaysia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MYR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 3 May 2020, 8 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2020/09/government-prepared-to-implement-additional-economic-stimulus-package-if-necessary-pm/ (16 September 2020); The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/08/25/temporary-measures-bill-for-rm45bil-covid-19-fund-passed (accessed 16 September 2020); The Official Portal of Parliament of Malaysia. https://www.parlimen.gov.my/bills-dewan-rakyat.html?uweb=dr&lang=en (accessed 16 September 2020, 25 September 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2020/08/rm500-million-sukuk-prihatin-launched/ (accessed 16 September 2020); Maybank2u. https://www.maybank2u.com.my/maybank2u/malaysia/en/personal/wealth/sukuk_prihatin.page? (accessed 16 September 2020); Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/09/21/bill-to-finance-govt-expenditure-for-covid-19-passed/1905349 (accessed 2 October 2020); The Official Portal of Parliament of Malaysia. https://www.parlimen.gov.my/bills-dewan-negara.html?uweb=dn&lang=en (accessed 2 October 2020); Channel News Asia. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/malaysia-2021-budget-parliament-third-reading-passed-muhyiddin--13775518 (accessed 8 January 2021); Ministry of Finance. https://www.treasury.gov.my/index.php/en/budget.html (accessed 8 January 2021).

No amount/estimate: (i) 23 March 2020, The SC and Bursa Malaysia suspended short-selling until April 30. 28 April 2020, The suspension was extended through June 30; (ii) 5 June 2020 in Short-term National Economic Recovery Plan or PENJANA: (a) COVID-19 Temporary Measures Act is proposed to minimize disruption to social and economic well-being activities caused by contractual breaches and enforcement of insolvency actions on groups affected by COVID-19 and Movement Control Order (MCO). This is designed to provide sufficient runway for businesses to recover their operations and relief from certain contractual obligations and financial distress for the revival of the economy: (1) 24 August 2020, The Temporary Measures for Government Financing COVID-19 Bill 2020, to set up a MYR45 billion fund for COVID-19 was passed by Dewan Rakyat (Lower House). Apart from setting up the fund, the law will allow the government borrowings to raise the permissible statutory debt level ratio of 55% of GDP to 60%. 21 September 2020, The Bill was passed by Dewan Negara (Upper House); and (2) 25 August 2020, The Temporary Measures for Reducing the Impact of COVID-19 Bill 2020 was passed by the Lower House. 22 September 2020, The Bill was passed by the Upper House; (b) To enable the Rakyat (or people) to join the Government in supporting post recovery measures, the MOF will issue an Islamic debt instrument -- the Sukuk PRIHATIN. Proceeds from the sukuk issuance will be utilized for specific development programs such as connectivity of schools (especially in rural areas), funding for micro enterprises (focused on women entrepreneurs) and research grants for infectious diseases. 18 August 2020, The first digital sukuk was launched with a nominal value of MYR500 million. The profit rate is 2% per annum over two years, maturity date is 22 September 2022; (iii) 1 September 2020, The government is prepared to implement additional economic stimulus package or other initiatives to help the people in facing economic constraints if necessary and if the government’s financial situation allows it; (iv) 15 December 2020, the Supply Bill 2021 (Malaysia's Budget for 2021), has been approved by the Dewan Rakyat. The total amount of fiscal injection envisaged in five stimulus plans over 2020-2021 (MYR55 billion) remains unchanged. Of that, around MYR38 billion have been spent in 2020 and the remainder, MYR17billion, has been allocated to 2021. The Bill will now go to the Senate, before it will be submitted to the Malaysian king for royal assent [update].

Myanmar 11 11 - Other Economic Measures MMK
Netherlands 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Financien Belgium. https://financien.belgium.be/nl/Actueel/overeenkomst-tussen-de-bevoegde-autoriteiten-van-nederland-en-belgi%C3%AB-ter-verlenging-van-de (accessed 5 June 2020). Rijksoverheid. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/19/bij-steun-overheid-moeten-bedrijven-onwenselijke-belastingconstructies-afbouwen (accessed 24 June 2020). Rijksoverheid. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/06/23/eerste-kamer-stemt-in-met-wijziging-wet-gemeentelijke-schuldhulpverlening (accessed 24 June 2020). Rijksoverheid. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/09/15/belastingplan-2021-beter-eerlijker-en-duurzamer-uit-de-crisis (accessed 24 September 2020)

(i) No amount/estimate: June 2, Extended the agreement on tax treatment of cross-border workers until June 30, 2020; (ii) Approved an amendment to the Municipal Debt Assistance Act, allowing municipalities to exchange data from citizens with payment arrears at an early stage with housing corporations, energy, and drinking water companies and health insurers to identify people with debts in time and to offer debt counseling. The amendment will take effect on January 1, 2021; (iii) Imposed new conditions on companies that seek support (including corona-related support) from the Dutch government: (a) the company cannot be located in a country that already has a low tax rate, and (b) the Dutch branches of the company cannot have paid interest or royalties to branches of the group in countries with too low tax rates; (iv) Under the proposed budget for 2021, the lower bracket corporate tax rate is lowered from 16.5% to 15%. It would also expand the number of SMEs eligible for the lower bracket.

New Zealand 11 11 - Other Economic Measures NZD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020).

28 March 2020, The government announced the temporary removal of tariffs on all medical and hygiene imports needed for the COVID-19 response.

Norway 11 11 - Other Economic Measures NOK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020); Ministry of Finance. https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/economic-measures-in-norway-in-response-to-covid-192/id2695355/ (accessed 12 Apr2020); Ministry of Finance.https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/mandate-established-for-management-of-government-bond-fund/id2695345/ (accessed 12April 2020).

(i) The Government Bond Fund bond fund was created with a starting capital of NOK50 billion. The fund will be managed by Folketrygdfondet, a state-owned asset manager; (ii) Urging from the Ministry of Finance to banks and insurance companies to not distribute profits; (iii) Automatic stabilizers: NOK37 billion reduced tax revenues; NOK18  billion,increased expenditure on unemployment benefits; NOK4 billion, increased sickness allowance; (iv) May 2020, The government has announced that oil production will be reduced until the end of the year.

Philippines 11 11 - Other Economic Measures PHP Department of Finance. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/downloads/2020/05may/20200502-EO-113-RRD.pdf (accessed 5 May 2020). Philippine Daily Inquirer. https://business.inquirer.net/297882/bsp-proposed-fist-law-to-buttress-ph-banks-even-if-bad-loans-double (accessed 22 May 2020). BusinesswWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/pagcor-remits-p5b-in-fresh-dividends-to-treasury/ (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) PHP2.9 billion assistance from Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) and Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO) is intended for the purchase of medical equipment and supplies (See (i) in Measure 5A). On 5 June 2020, PAGCOR remitted an additional PHP5 billion in dividends (bringing the total to PHP17 billion); (ii) Banks are also expected to suspend all fees and charges imposed on online banking platforms during the period of regulatory relief. (iii) 2 May 2020, The government imposed a temporary additional 10% levy on imported crude and refined petroleum products to augment resources for COVID-19. (iv) 22 May 2020, The BSP is pushing for the enactment of the proposed Financial Institutions Strategic Transfer (FIST) law, an enhancement of the Special Purpose Vehicle Act that would allow financial institutions to clear up non-performing assets and have additional funds to lend to their clients.

Portugal 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
Singapore 11 11 - Other Economic Measures SGD WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 May 2020). SingaporeBudget.gov. https://www.singaporebudget.gov.sg/budget_2020/budget-measures/budget-summary (accessed 30 May 2020). MAS. https://www.mas.gov.sg/news/media-releases/2020/enhancing-job-opportunities-for-singaporeans-and-staying-open-to-global-talent (accessed 28 August 2020).

(i) 24 April 2020, Temporary relaxation of import licensing requirements for hand sanitizers, masks, thermometers, and protective gear. (ii) 26 May 2020, SGD33 billion under supplementary "Fortitude" budget which includes SGD13 billion for contingencies to allow the government to respond quickly to any unforeseaable developments arising from COVID-19. (iii) 27 August 2020, The MAS increased the minimum qualifying salary for employment pass holders (i.e. foreign workers) in the financial services sector to SGD5,000 to support local hiring.

Spain 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Gabinete de Comunicacion. https://bit.ly/2YRE92n (accessed 21 March 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/2V1YdxM (accessed 1 April 2020);

(i) 17 March 2020, Economic dismissals related to COVID-19 are not allowed. Moreover, if a company reduces activity for reasons related to the COVID crisis, the maximum duration of the affected fixed-term contracts can be prolonged for the same number of months of the crisis; (ii) 31 March 2020, Prohibit evictions due to missed payments for all households until state of emergency lifted. Thereafter, evictions due to missed payments will be prohibited for a maximum of 6 months; (iii) 7 July 2020, Extension of some policies announced in March (moratorium of rent payment of vulnerable households, guarantee of utilities) to end-September. 29 September 2020, The suspension of the eviction procedure and the launches for vulnerable homes is extended until 31 January 2021.

Sweden 11 11 - Other Economic Measures SEK Reuters. https://reut.rs/3dqbdnr (accessed 15 June 2020).

12 June 2020, Sweden's parliament appointed two academics to review the unprecedented period of negative interest rates and massive asset purchases conducted by the central bank between 2015 and 2020.

Switzerland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CHF/CHE/CHW OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 13 April 2020). Federal Council. https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-78872.html (accessed 28 May 2020).

(i) 3 April 2020, the Federal Council announced the coordination of the supply of important medical products; (ii) The Federal Council mentioned the possibility of restricting exports of important medical products and the possibility to impose the production of some of these medical goods; (iii) 20 May 2020, the Federal Council dealt with the gradual phase-out of some COVID measures.

Thailand 11 11 - Other Economic Measures THB BOT. https://www.bot.or.th/Thai/PressandSpeeches/Press/2020/Pages/n6063.aspx (accessed 17 September 2020).

11 September 2020, The BOT released new supervisory guidelines for financial service providers to enhance fair customer service and protect borowers affected by COVID-19.

Timor-Leste 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD
Turkey 11 11 - Other Economic Measures TRY Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 22 May 2020; 5 June 2020); Ministry of Commerce. https://ticaret.gov.tr/haberler/garanti-belgeleri-ve-servis-fislerinde-elektronik-donem (accessed 13 November 2020).

(i) 15 April 2020, Customs tariffs for certain steel products were increased by 5 percentage points for 3 months, to protect output and employment in the domestic industry; (ii) From 18 April 2020, a customs surcharge of 50% is applied to imports of game consoles. From October this surcharge will be reduced to 20%; (iii) 27 April 2020, measures tightening the processing of imported goods in customs under 'red line' rules involving individual examination were implemented; (iv) 2 May 2020, export restrictions on health products and equipment implemented since March are waived. Exports of protective masks and suits remain restricted; (v) 12 May 2020, To support domestic industries affected by the COVID-19 crisis, customs tariffs were augmented by between 1.9-30% for 750 product groups (including textile products, various consumer durables, construction materials etc.); (vi) 20 May 2020, Customs tariff increases were introduced for around 800 additional product lines (including construction equipment, agricultural machinery and food processing and packaging equipment). These surcharges do not apply to imports from EU Customs Union partner countries; (vii) 5 November 2020, Document applications on paper during the COVID-19 epidemic increased the risk of contact. The warranty documents and the delivery documents given when the product is delivered to the service station and the prepared service vouchers can now be given to consumers electronically with a permanent data storage.

United Kingdom 11 11 - Other Economic Measures GBP OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 22 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/3hFCdTb (accessed 5 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/37PxJoj (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/2YkJrV4 (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-has-changed-the-law-so-most-renters-have-a-6-month-notice-period (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cma-acts-to-protect-competition-on-uk-us-airline-routes (accessed 18 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/taskforce-for-safe-return-to-global-travel-launched (accessed 8 October 2020); Financial Reporting Council.https://www.frc.org.uk/news/october-2020/amendments-to-uk-and-ireland-accounting-standards (accessed 22 October 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/admin-fees-removed-for-covid-disrupted-rail-travel-on-advance-tickets (accessed 28 October 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-protections-for-renters-over-duration-of-national-restrictions (accessed 5 November 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/boost-for-restaurants-pubs-and-cafes-as-jenrick-extends-takeaway-services (accessed 12 November 2020).

(i) 5 June 2020, The Corporate Insolvency and Governance Bill has been proposed to introduce new corporate restructuring tools to the insolvency and restructuring regime, temporarily suspend parts of the insolvency law, and to amend Company Law and other legislation; (ii) 6 June 2020, The government extended ban on evicting tenants from social or private accomodation in England and Wales by two months to 23 August 2020 due to the COVID outbreak; (iii) 9 June 2020, People on paternity and maternity leave who return to work in the coming months will be eligible for the government's furlough scheme, the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS), after the 10 June 2020 cut-off date; (iv) 28 August 2020, Legislation has been introduced that requires landlords to give tenants 6 months’ notice before they can evict, until March 2021; (v) 17 September 2020, Due to coronavirus, the Competition and Markets Authority has imposed measures to protect competition on UK-US air routes while it investigates an agreement involving British Airways and American Airlines; (vi) 7 October 2020, A new Global Travel Taskforce to support the travel industry and the safe recovery of international travel has been launched by the government; (vii) 14 September 2020, FCA prepares additional guidance note for mortgage relief for borrowers, confirming its support to those who continue to face payment difficulties due to coronavirus; (viii) October 2020, Amendments to FRS 102 and FRS 105 – COVID-19-related rent concessions – which sets clear requirements for recognising changes in operating lease payments arising from COVID-19-related rent concessions on a systematic basis over the periods the change in lease payments is intended to compensate. These amendments are effective for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2020, with early application permitted; (ix) 26 October 2020, Passengers who have bought an advance ticket which they can subsequently no longer use as a result of COVID restrictions will not have to pay the administration cost of rearranging travel; (viii) 5 November 2020, Renters will be protected during the national restrictions, with no bailiff enforcement action; (x) 11 November 2020, Restaurants, pubs and cafes will get automatic freedoms to provide takeaway services, which was originally set to end in March 2021 but will now be extended for another year.

United States 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/covid19_e.htm#faq (accessed 11 April 2020); The White House. https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-prioritizing-allocating-health-medical-resources-respond-spread-covid-19/ (accessed 18 April 2020). NPR. https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/04/29/847468328/tip-of-the-iceberg-economy-likely-shrank-but-worst-to-come (accessed 29 April 2020). FT. https://www.ft.com/content/ff49e13e-5f04-4443-9248-caaa3cd38443 (accessed 7 May 2020). FT https://www.ft.com/content/2a297508-c8d0-4736-8c2f-9f4d16822f57 (accessed 8 May 2020).FT https://www.ft.com/content/0b582c93-2bec-46db-a6e3-e5026b3faeb0 (accessed 14 May 2020). CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/15/economy/retail-sales-record-drop-april/index.html (accessed 15 May 2020).

US President Donald J. Trump has already declared himself a “war-time” president and invoked war production powers to combat the COVID-19 crisis. (i) Temporary exclusion of certain products from the additional duty of 25% on a list of products (imposed on September 1, 2019). Published on 20 March 2020, but effective retroactively from 1 September 2019; (ii) Presidential Memoranda allocating to domestic use certain personal protective equipment (e.g., N-95 filtering facepiece respirators; other filtering facepiece respirators; elastomeric, air-purifying respirators and appropriate particulate filters/cartridges; PPE surgical masks; and PPE gloves or surgical glove), due to the COVID-19 pandemic; (iii) No amount/estimate: 1 July 2020, 5 federal financial regulatory agencies announced an extension of the swap margin rule compliance dates, allowing an additional year for swap dealers, major swap participants, security-based swap dealers, and major security-based swap participants to implement the initial margin requirements for certain smaller counterparties;

Viet Nam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures VND IMF,MOF, SBV. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020). WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 May 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Vietnam-to-drive-high-tech-startups-with-new-incentives (accessed 24 September 2020).

(i) On 31 March 2020, the State Bank of Vietnam instructed Credit Institutions (CIs) to actively reduce bonus and salary, cut other operating costs, timely adjust business plan (including not pay dividend in cash), and use the saved resources to reduce interests; (ii) The Government cut at least 30% of conference funding, domestic travel expenses and 50% of overseas working missions; (iii) Several fees for securities services have been also reduced or made exempt between 19 March and 31 August 2020 to support the stock market; (iv) Additional measures have been implemented to accelerate public investment disbursement, including permitting direct procurement, transforming PPP projects into public investment projects, etc. and (v) April to May 2020, Temporary measures on (a) export licensing requirements on face masks; and (b) export quotas on rice for national food security. (vi) 24 September 2020, The Government launched an incentives program to support high-tech start-ups and boost the country's growth potential. Starting 5 October 2020, innovative startups in information technology and clean energy, among others, will become eligible for preferential loans, various tax incentives, as well as exemptions from land leases in industrial parks.

Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. https://www.fma.gv.at/fma-beendet-die-per-verordnung-erlassenen-einschraenkungen-fuer-leerverkaeufe-in-bestimmten-finanzinstrumenten-die-an-der-wiener-boerse-notieren/ (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On March 18, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to May 18 on April 16; (ii) No amount/estimate: May 18: Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day. (iii) June 16, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. https://financien.belgium.be/nl/Actueel/akkoord-onderling-overleg-tussen-de-autoriteiten-van-duitsland-en-belgi%C3%AB-ter-verlenging-van (accessed 02 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. https://www.fsma.be/nl/news/de-fsma-kondigt-de-opschorting-van-het-verbod-op-het-innemen-verhogen-van-nettoshortposities (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing October 22nd, 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) April 8, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until May 17; (v) May 12, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by June 30, 2020; (vi) May 18: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) June 2: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until June 30, 2020.

Brunei Darussalam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BND
Cambodia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. http://auschamcambodia.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/fourth-round-of-stimulus-measures.pdf (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April, The government has ordered the suspension of white rice exports, to secure domestic supplies; (ii) May 20, suspension of white rice exports has been lifted; (iii) June, The Royal Government will introduce Phase 1 of the IT business registration platform in early June 2020 to facilitate and promote business registration, especially to make it easy for those companies wishing to be registered to obtain loans from the Royal Government’s special financing program.

Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/regeringen-og-erhvervslivet-vil-hjaelpe-dansk-eksport-i-coronakrisen/ (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/ivaerksaettere-faar-hjaelpende-haand-ny-politisk-aftale-letter-omregistrering/ (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) August 11, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) August 21, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021. [update]

Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/1271139/amendments-to-pharmaceutical-legislation-aim-to-ensure-availability-and-sufficiency-of-medicines- (accessed 18 July 2020).

Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases .

France 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR AMF. https://www.amf-france.org/fr/actualites-publications/communiques/communiques-de-lamf/lamf-suspend-linterdiction-de-creer-ou-daugmenter-des-positions-courtes-nettes (accessed 1 June 2020).

18 May, Suspended the ban on creating or increasing net short positions.