Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 09A 09A - Swaps AFN
Afghanistan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AFN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) The government has taken steps to replace wheat imports lost due to border closures with purchases from Central Asia; (ii) On July 15, trade with India through Wagah border post in Pakistan resumed.

Arab Republic of Egypt 09A 09A - Swaps EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EGP Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-6-August,-2020-regarding-allowing-banks-to-own-unlimited-shares-in-payment-service-providers-and-payment-sys.aspx (accessed 12 August 2020). World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) March 20, The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP30,000/day and EGP100,000/month for individuals, and to EGP40,000/day and EGP200,000/per week for corporations; (ii) March 29, The central bank set a daily limit on all ATM disbursement per card to be EGP5,000, and limits to cash withdrawal and deposits at a bank branch to be EGP10,000 per individual, and EGP50,000 per corporate; (iii) The cost of transactions in the EGX will be reduced from 0.15% to 0.125% and from 0.15% to 0.05% for non-residents and Egyptian residents, respectively, and all spot transactions on EGX will be exempt from stamp duty; (iv) The National Bank of Egypt and Bank Misr announced a one-year deposit program with a 15% interest rate; (v) August 6, Allowed banks to own unlimited shares in payment service providers and payment systems operators.

Argentina 09A 09A - Swaps ARS
Argentina 11 11 - Other Economic Measures ARS 0 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 9 May 2020, 26 June 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/232522/20200724 (accesed 31 July 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/230897/20200619 (accessed 2 October 2020).

(i) Capital Flow Management Measures (CFMs) that were already in place since August 2019 have largely protected Argentina so far from the impact of capital outflows; (ii) Adopted anti-price gouging policies, including price controls for food and medical supplies and ringfencing of essential supplies, including certain export restrictions on medical supplies and equipment and centralization of the sale of essential medical supplies.; (iii) April 28, Ordered that the Common Investment Funds (FCI) in pesos must invest at least 75% of their assets in financial instruments and negotiable securities issued in the Argentine Republic; (iv) Extended deadline of filing financial statements for small and medium-sized corporations; (v) May 16, extended validity of Maximum Prices until June 20; (vi) May 18, suspended price increases mobile and fixed telephony, Internet and pay TV services until August 31; June 18, extended until end of the year ; (v) May 19, set the domestic price of a barrel of oil at USD45 with the objective of reactivating the national hydrocarbon industry, guaranteeing the continuity of jobs and promoting self-sufficiency; (vi) June 18, extended the suspension of the closure and disabling of bank accounts until December 31, 2020, inclusive; (vii) July 23, extension of 15 days for presentation and payment of tax returns on earnings and personal and identity assets.

Armenia 09A 09A - Swaps AMD
Armenia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AMD KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/armenia-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 14 May 2020)

May 14, Temporary restrictions on the export of medical masks, gloves and goggles, biohazard suits, medical robes, antiviral medicines, gauze and other medical products.

Australia 09A 09A - Swaps AUD
Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. https://www.fma.gv.at/fma-beendet-die-per-verordnung-erlassenen-einschraenkungen-fuer-leerverkaeufe-in-bestimmten-finanzinstrumenten-die-an-der-wiener-boerse-notieren/ (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On March 18, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to May 18 on April 16; (ii) No amount/estimate: May 18: Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day. (iii) June 16, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Azerbaijan 09A 09A - Swaps AZN
Azerbaijan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AZN 114,147,378 67,145,516 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); The Coronavirus Response Fund. http://covid19fund.gov.az/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020); Eurasianet. https://eurasianet.org/to-fight-coronavirus-azerbaijan-passes-the-hat (accessed 19 April 2020); Coronavirus Response Fund. http://covid19fund.gov.az/en/donation (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) March, Establishment of the Coronavirus Response Fund under the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of March 19, 2020. The government itself is asking for donations from citizens, organizations, and businesses to help it deal with the disease in Azerbaijan. According to President Ilham Aliyev, the basic goal of the fund is for the people of Azerbaijan to within the limits of their capability, demonstrate their civil solidarity and generosity which are foundations of their society. The fund has raised AZN114 million as of July 20; (ii) April, The CBA and commercial banks have shifted to a seven-day work week, including to allow individuals and businesses to convert their manat holdings into foreign currency; (iii) April 23, The CBA also announced that it will extend its guarantees on insurance premiums.

Bangladesh 09A 09A - Swaps BDT
Bangladesh 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BDT Bangladesh Bank. https://www.bb.org.bd/mediaroom/circulars/brpd/jun102020brpd12.pdf (accessed 29 June 2020).

BB instructed banks to waive customers interest for the period from 1 April to 31 May based unclassified loan outstanding balance as at 30 March 2020. According to the instruction, loan balance upto BDT 0.1m, waiver the whole amount of interest; loan balance more than BDT 0.1m to BDT 1m interest, interest waiver @2% annually; loan balance more than BDT 1m; interest waiver @1%. Customer wise maximum amount of waiver is BDT 1.2m.

Belgium 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. https://financien.belgium.be/nl/Actueel/akkoord-onderling-overleg-tussen-de-autoriteiten-van-duitsland-en-belgi%C3%AB-ter-verlenging-van (accessed 02 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. https://www.fsma.be/nl/news/de-fsma-kondigt-de-opschorting-van-het-verbod-op-het-innemen-verhogen-van-nettoshortposities (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing October 22nd, 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) March 30, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) April 8, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until May 17; (v) May 12, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by June 30, 2020; (vi) May 18: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) June 2: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until June 30, 2020.

Bhutan 09A 09A - Swaps BTN/INR
Bhutan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BTN/INR 3,000,000,000 40,368,052 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); Royal Monetary Authority. https://www.rma.org.bt/rgobbond.jsp (accessed 01 October 2020).

(i) Office of Consumer Protection has published market price information of essential commodities as of March 11, to monitor and keep track of price movement in the market and provide information to consumers for informed purchase decision; (ii) March 24, A ban on select food product (e.g., betel leaf, betel nut) import from India has been imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19; (iii) June 29, Import of luxury motor vehicles and bikes have been suspended; (iv) September 4, The Royal Monetary Authority announced the issuance of a 3-year government bond of BTN3,000 million with an annual coupon rate of 6.5% to promote capital market development amid the pandemic [update].

Brazil 09A 09A - Swaps BRL
Brazil 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BRL IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19?fbclid=IwAR3QQSk6OmfE7YbISvq0_ut_FpTD_Bc00gRB-YJ_YA_VB-VlWiYD9PBO0Ro#B (Accessed 29 April 2020). AGB. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/economia/noticia/2020-05/pandemic-brought-down-76-brazils-industrial-sector (accessed 14 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-gdp-fall/brazil-4-7-gdp-this-year-would-be-biggest-fall-since-1900-economy-ministry-idUSKBN22P2J3 (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Economy https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2020/trabalho/julho/decreto-prorroga-por-ate-120-dias-prazos-dos-acordos-do-beneficio-emergencial (accessed 20 July 2020)

(i) With congress declaring a state of “public calamity” on March 20, the government’s obligation to comply with the primary balance target in 2020 has been lifted. (ii) Proposed a bill creating a separate budget (“war-budget”) to expedite fiscal relief assistance and authorize the central bank to buy and sell government and corporate debt securities among other extraordinary measures. (iii) Pandemic leads 76% of Brazil’s industrial sector to cut production. (iv) Brazil’s government lowered its 2020 economic outlook on Wednesday, forecasting a gross domestic product contraction of 4.7%, which would signal the country’s biggest economic crash in more than a century. (v) July 14, the Ministry of Economy announced the extension of the proportional reduction of work and salary agreements and temporary suspension of the Benefit's employment contract via the Emergency Preservation of Employment and Income (BEm)

Brunei Darussalam 09A 09A - Swaps BND
Brunei Darussalam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BND
Cambodia 09A 09A - Swaps KHR
Cambodia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. http://auschamcambodia.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/fourth-round-of-stimulus-measures.pdf (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April, The government has ordered the suspension of white rice exports, to secure domestic supplies; (ii) May 20, suspension of white rice exports has been lifted; (iii) June, The Royal Government will introduce Phase 1 of the IT business registration platform in early June 2020 to facilitate and promote business registration, especially to make it easy for those companies wishing to be registered to obtain loans from the Royal Government’s special financing program.

Canada 09A 09A - Swaps CAD
Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Cook Islands 09A 09A - Swaps NZD
Cook Islands 11 11 - Other Economic Measures NZD
Denmark 09A 09A - Swaps DKK
Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/regeringen-og-erhvervslivet-vil-hjaelpe-dansk-eksport-i-coronakrisen/ (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/ivaerksaettere-faar-hjaelpende-haand-ny-politisk-aftale-letter-omregistrering/ (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) August 11, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) August 21, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021.

European Central Bank 09A 09A - Swaps EUR 29,800,000,000 32,964,601,770 ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/search/html/index.en.html?q=+swap+lines (18 May 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200625~60373986e5.en.html (accessed 9 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200717_1~f143ca1c56.en.html (accessed 23 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200818~6f97d2eefb.en.html (accessed 27 August 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200828~412bf7c3fd.en.html (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) March 20, ECB and Danmarks Nationalbank reactivate swap line of EUR24 billion (increased EUR12 billion) to remain in place for as long as needed; (ii) April 15, ECB and Bulgarian National Bank set up new swap line of EUR2 billion to remain in place until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iii) April 22, ECB and Hrvatska narodna banka set up new swap line of EUR2 billion until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iv) No amount/estimate: June 25, Launched a new Eurosystem repurchase (EUREP) facility to provide euro liquidity to non-euro area central banks. The European Central Bank introduced this facility as a precautionary backstop to address pandemic-related euro liquidity needs outside of the euro area. EUREP will allow a broad set of central banks to borrow euros against euro-denominated debt issued by euro area central governments and supranational institutions. EUREP will be available until June 2021. July 17, ECB and Bank of Albania set up a EUR400 million repo line to provide euro liquidity. July 17, ECB and National Bank of Serbia set up a EUR1 billion repo line to provide euro liquidity; (v) August 18, ECB and National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia set up repo line to remain in place until June 2021 with a size of EUR400 million ; (vi) 28 August, ECB and the Hrvatska narodna banka (Croatian National Bank, HNB) as well as the Banca Naţională a României (National Bank of Romania, BNR) have agreed to extend the respective euro liquidity lines by six months until the end of June 2021 .

European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accesed 20 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-provides-option-apply-annual-transparency-calculations-non-equity (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-renews-its-decision-requiring-net-short-position-holders-report-position-0 (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. https://eba.europa.eu/eba-launches-eu-wide-transparency-exercise (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) March to April, ESMA, EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) April 26, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) September 7, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September; (iv) September 17, The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) September 25, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report [update].

Federated States of Micronesia 09A 09A - Swaps USD
Federated States of Micronesia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) No monetary policy response. With the U.S. dollar its legal tender, the FSM does not have a central bank; and (ii) No exchange rate policy response, given that U.S. dollar is the legal tender of the FSM.

Fiji 09A 09A - Swaps FJD
Fiji 11 11 - Other Economic Measures FJD
Finland 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/1271139/amendments-to-pharmaceutical-legislation-aim-to-ensure-availability-and-sufficiency-of-medicines- (accessed 18 July 2020).

Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases .