Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AFN
Afghanistan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AFN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 6 May 2020)

(i) Screening at ports of entry, quarantine for infected people, and closure of public places for gathering; (ii) Quarantine for infected people; (iii) Closure of public places for gathering; (iv) Social distancing measures, including a three-week lockdown of Kabul (March 28) and Ghazni (April 1) and restricting daily movements to those deemed essentiall (v) Extended the border closures until April 9; (vi) Social distancing measures have included 20 provinces, including Kabul and some other cities, instituting lockdown measures, extended for two weeks on April 12; (vii) social distancing measures have been extended for 3 weeks on April 17; (viii) Both Houses of Afghanistan’s parliament were put on lockdown on April 29 until end of the national lockdown; (ix) The government also released over 5,300 prisoners to reduce the risk of mass infections in penitentiaries; (x) Schools and universities will remain closed until September. [update]

Arab Republic of Egypt 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April 28, A Presidential decree published in the Official Gazette declared the state of emergency across the country for three months; (ii) The authorities have taken a host of precautionary measures to improve testing as well as to limit the community spread of the virus, including (a) setting up testing centers, (b) imposing a nighttime curfew, (c) temporarily closing places of worship, (d) temporarily halting all air travel, (e) encouraging civil servants to work from home in non-essential sectors, (f) closing all malls, gyms, sporting clubs, in-dining restaurants and cafes; (iii) Authorities have also suspended the export of all types of legumes for a period of 3 months and plan to start increasing strategic food reserves to meet domestic deman; (iv) Starting May 4, 2020, hotels have been allowed to operate at 25% capacity until June 2020 and at 50% capacity thereafter; (v) Egypt’s Health Ministry released a 3-stage plan outlining required procedures in preparation for the gradual easing of restrictions within the country.

Argentina 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities ARS
Argentina 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures ARS IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020).

The country has adopted full closure of borders and a nation-wide quarantine, beginning on March 20 and lasting until at least April 26, including closed borders.

Armenia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AMD
Armenia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AMD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 June 2020).

No amount/estimate: The government declared a national state of emergency on March 16, and imposed strict containment measures, including school closures, travel bans on foreign citizens from high risk countries, and imposed fines to those who violate isolation orders during the state of emergency. The state of emergency will be in place until June 14 and encompass movement restrictions. Effective May 4, the movement restrictions are removed and almost all business activities are allowed to operate. This decision is considered a test and stricter restrictions may be implemented again depending on the spread of the virus. Effective June 4, the government declared wearing a face mask in all open public spaces mandatory.

Australia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AUD 50,000,000,000 31,089,999,979 RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020).

April, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On May 5, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. May 5 and June 2, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting.

Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (vi) April 26, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus ; (vii) May 8, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions.

Austria 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines. (ii) As of May 4, the country started to follow a schedule of a gradual reopening of the economy. The government has lifted certain restrictions (e.g. stores, malls, museums, etc. are allowed to reopen, outdoor seating is permitted in restaurants, higher education students can return to school, masks are required in shops and public transport). Ordinary health services are gradually being restarted. The exception is Budapest and Pest county where earlier restrictions, including on movement, still apply due to a still higher incidence of infections. Social distance rules are expected to still be heeded everywhere. All public events are banned till August 15, but sports may be conducted in closed doors, including training. Inward business travel ban is lifted for citizens of the Czech Republic, Poland, South-Korea, Germany, Austria, Slovakia. Twelve international flights have started to depart from Budapest Airport.

Azerbaijan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AZN
Azerbaijan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AZN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020).

(i) To contain the spread of COVID-19, the authorities have introduced a special quarantine regime (until June 15). It includes border closures, required quarantine of returning citizens, prohibition of mass gatherings, and restriction on domestic movements; (ii) The COVID-19 Operational Headquarters has been created under the Cabinet of Ministers, and working groups within various ministries and the CBA have been tasked with developing specific measures. These restrictions are being slowly relaxed starting May 4.

Bangladesh 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BDT
Bangladesh 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BDT Ministry of Public Administration. https://mopa.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mopa.gov.bd/notices/8b82fa43_9c1a_4269_bc9f_dcf378e47fdf/admin1-2020-347-r1.PDF (accsessed 29 June 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020).

(i) March 23, The government declared a general holiday from March 26 to April 4, which has been extended until May 5: government offices, private offices, and courts will be closed, commercial banks will operate shorter hours; (ii) Individuals have been requested not to leave their homes except to collect daily necessities and emergency supplies, and to wear masks when outside; and (iii) A lockdown has been imposed on 75 hotspots in Dhaka where cases have been identified, and a curfew is in operation from 6pm to 6am.

Belgium 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020).

(i) The minority government—which has been granted enhanced executive powers—has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on May 4, to be followed by shops (May 11 and May 18). Schools will also start to gradually reopen from May 18. The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by June 8, while sporting events remain banned until July 31; (iii) June 11, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of June 8. Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; [update] (iv) June 18, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted. [update]

Bhutan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BTN/INR
Bhutan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BTN/INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020).

(i) Bhutan started imposing containment measures immediately after the first case was recorded on March 6, with restriction of entry of foreign tourists initially for two weeks but extended afterwards and closure of schools in three cities; (ii) March 22, Bhutan sealed off its land borders as a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19. For non-Bhutanese, exits are allowed. Incoming non-Bhutanese are scrutinized and quarantined where applicable; (iii) March 27, More containment measures were imposed on public gatherings, travel (within and outside Bhutan), business and entertainment, games and sports and civil service, corporate, private, and other agencies. The quarantine period has been extended to April 21; (iv) Healthcare measures include setting up dedicated hospitals and quarantine centers.

Brazil 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BRL
Brazil 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BRL KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/03/flash-alert-2020-119.html (accessed 29 April 2020).

(i) Several travel restrictions for individuals coming to Brazil (Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, and Suriname, Uruguay, the People’s Republic of China, the European Union member states, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom & Northern Ireland, Australia, Japan, and Malaysia); (ii) Brazil’s population has been advised to stay at home in self-isolation as much as possible; (iii) Businesses have largely adhered to this policy and have requested that their employees work remotely or take early vacation; (iv) No nationwide lockdown, but 23 of Brazil's 27 federative units (states) have imposed confinement measures; (v) Schools are not closed nationwide, but several states and municipalities have closed educational institutions. For example, in São Paulo, schools have been closed since 23/3.

Brunei Darussalam 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BND
Brunei Darussalam 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BND IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020, 14 May 2020).

(i) The government is actively responding to the risks of the pandemic from spreading further by implementing a range of measures, including strict inbound and outbound travel restrictions and banning all mass gatherings, including weddings and sporting events; and (ii) The Ministry of Health (MOH) is also stepping up efforts to track close contacts of positive cases; (vi) MOH actively rolling out a contact tracing app (“BruHealth”) for residents to download before they are given the green light to visit public places.

Cambodia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities KHR
Cambodia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020).

April: (i) The government has announced foreigners wishing to travel to Cambodia the need to obtain a visa at a Cambodian diplomatic mission abroad, a health certificate before departure, and sufficient travel insurance; (ii) Quarantine and self-isolation measures; (iii) Schools and casinos are closed and the government has banned public events with more than 50 participants; (iv) The Khmer New Year break has been cancelled; (v) May 20, The authorities have lifted the entry ban on citizens from Iran, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, and the US.

Canada 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities CAD 184,263,000,000 132,064,504,569 Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 10 June 2020).

Government of Canada Bond Purchase Program (GBPP): Purchases will begin with a minimum of CAD5 billion per week across the yield curve. The program will be adjusted as conditions warrant but will continue until the economic recovery is well underway. As of June 24 ,T-bill holdings have increased by CAD99.41 billion, while goverrnment bond holdings have increased by CAD83.573 billion [update]; June 3, Bank of Canada began purchasing Government of Canada Real Return Bonds; as of June 24, the purchased amount is CAD1.28 billion. [update]

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces; (v) Reopening the economy. On April 28, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Cook Islands 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities NZD
Cook Islands 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NZD COVID-19 Cook Islands Response. https://covid19.gov.ck/?v=1588300681872 (1 May 2020).

(i) April 16, Prime Minister, Hon. Henry Puna, declared the Cook Islands "a COVID-19 free zone", however the country remains in Code Yellow with relaxed restrictions; and (ii) Restrictions have been lifted for the following areas (a) schools are now open, (b) travel between the Pa Enua (Outer Islands) open, (c) churches are now open, (d) social gatherings are no longer limited to 10 people, (e) alcohol retail sales extended until 6pm, (f) non-contact sports may resume, and (g) restaurants & cafes may re-open.

Denmark 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities DKK
Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down. All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of May 20. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by April 15 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions . The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy.

European Central Bank 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020).

Purchases of government bonds are included in Measure 2 (Encourage Private Credit Creation). The amount could not be disaggregated from the EUR 750 billion PEPP program.

European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Federated States of Micronesia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities USD
Federated States of Micronesia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures USD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) The national and state governments have introduced travel restrictions; banning or requiring 14-day self-quarantine prior to entry into the Federated States of Micronesia; and restricting residents from traveling abroad; and (ii) The state of Chuuk closed schools.

Fiji 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities FJD
Fiji 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures FJD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) The authorities have been proactive in their efforts to keep the virus out of Fiji by early imposition of travel restrictions; (ii) They reacted to the first confirmed case with a broad set of measures, including reinforced detection measures, restrictions on movements and gatherings, closures of schools and certain types of businesses (e.g. cinemas, gyms, etc.), a nationwide curfew and lockdowns of affected areas; and (iii) As the number of cases have remained constant since Mid-April, the authorities started relaxing containment and mitigation restrictions at the national level on April 26th; (iv) June 4, no new cases have been detected as of the past 30 days, and the last active case was cleared by authorities.

Finland 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (1 May 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on April 14. On May 4, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on May 14, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on June 1, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on July 31, resumption of public events with more than 500 people.