Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 12C 12C - Others AFN UNESCAP. (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) March 26, The government released over 10,000 prisoners to reduce the risk of mass infections in penitentiaries; (ii) Social distancing measures, including a three-week lockdown of Kabul (28 March 2020) and Ghazni (1 April 2020) and restricting daily movements to those deemed essential; (iii) Lockdowns in over 20 provinces, including Kabul and other cities, were extended for 3 weeks on 17 April; (iv) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown for 3 more months, as well as mandating additional health precautions. As of November, the lockdown has been lifted. Public gatherings are now allowed, and educational institutions have reopened.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12C 12C - Others EGP IMF. (accessed 1 October 2020); Anadolu Agency. (accessed 28 January 2021).

(i) 28 April 2020, A Presidential decree published in the Official Gazette declared the state of emergency across the country for three months; (ii) The authorities have taken a host of precautionary measures to improve testing as well as to limit the community spread of the virus, including (a) setting up testing centers, (b) imposing a nighttime curfew, (c) temporarily closing places of worship; (iii) Authorities have also suspended the export of all types of legumes for a period of 3 months and plan to start increasing strategic food reserves to meet domestic demand; (iv) All parks and specialized gardens around Cairo will open to the public starting on 26 August 2020, with a maximum capacity of 50%. Starting 21 September 2020, funeral prayers and wedding ceremonies held in open-air venues have been allowed, for a maximum limit of 300 people; (v) Egypt’s Health Ministry released a 3-stage plan outlining required procedures in preparation for the gradual easing of restrictions within the country; (vi) 25 January 2021, Egypt started its COVID-19 vaccination plan [update].

Argentina 12C 12C - Others ARS
Armenia 12C 12C - Others AMD UNESCAP. (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government declared a national state of emergency, first until 14 April, but subsequently extended to 14 May, 13 June, 13 July, and finally being lifted on 11 September. As part of the state of emergency, the government implemented lockdowns as well as social distancing protocols and other health precautions; (ii) Quarantine is still in effect until 11 January 2021, which bans large gatherings and requires 14-day self-isolation and testing for people entering the country.

Australia 12C 12C - Others AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. (accessed 30 July 2020); Government of Australia. (accessed 27 October 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. (accessed on 09 November 2020); Australian Government. (accessed 16 November 2020); Australian Government. (accessed 24 November 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. (accessed 26 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (ii) March 2020, Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (iii) March 2020, Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (iv) 26 April 2020, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (v) 8 May 2020, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (vi) 30 July 2020, The government published guidance on wearing face masks; (vii) 23 October 2020, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19; (viii) 7 November 2020, The Australian and Tasmanian Governments have agreed to provide an additional 450 spaces in quarantine facilities to help more Australians return home from abroad; (ix) 13 November 2020, The Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory agreed to a new ‘Framework for National Reopening Australia by Christmas’ subject to local health advice; (x) 22 November 2020, The Emergency Management (Stay at Home No.3) Direction 2020 has been released by the government to update rules on public activities and management of places where these activities occur; (xi) 25 January 2021, Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has provisionally approved the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for use in Australia [update].

Austria 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. (accessed 14 December 2020); The Local Austria. (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) Anti-COVID19 measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts; (ii) By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, the Bundesliga was allowed to restart; (iii) 15 June 2020, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 24 July 2020, pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas; (v) In September 2020, this tightening extended to indoors and public institutions; (vi) The authorities eventually announced a partial second lockdown between 3 November and 6 December 2020. Industry and manufacturing continue to open while restaurants, bars, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools are closed. This lockdown was subsequently tightened from 17 November 2020; (vii) 17 January 2021, Austria extended the coronavirus lockdown until 7 February 2021 and tightened existing measures.

Azerbaijan 12C 12C - Others AZN IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); Cabinet Ministers. (accessed 20 May 2020). US Embassy in Azerbaijan. (accessed 15 July 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 10 December 2020).

(i) To contain the spread of COVID-19, the authorities have introduced a special quarantine regime (until 15 June 2020). It includes border closures, required quarantine of returning citizens, prohibition of mass gatherings; (ii) The COVID-19 Operational Headquarters has been created under the Cabinet of Ministers, and working groups within various ministries and the CBA have been tasked with developing specific measures. These restrictions are being slowly relaxed starting 4 May 2020; (iii) July 2020, Because of the increasing cases of infections, the government announced the decision to prolong a strict quarantine regime until 20 July 2020 and special quarantine regime until 1 August 2020. (iv) 8 December 2020, The special quarantine regime in the country is extended until 06:00 of 31 January 2021. During this period, all commercial facilities, public services institutions, including restaurants, cafes and tea houses are authorized to serve customers on delivery services and online sale only.

Bangladesh 12C 12C - Others BDT
Belgium 12C 12C - Others EUR Brussels Times. (accessed 16 January 2021); Brussels Times. (accessed 7 January 2020); IMF. (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes; (ii) The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by 8 June 2020, while sporting events remain banned until 31 July 2020; (iii) 11 June 2020, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of 8 June 2020; (iv) 23 July 2020, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (v) 20 August 2020, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted; (vi) Schools, except universities, have fully reopened in September, with in-person classes; (vii) Containment measures have been ramped up significantly since early October amidst a sharp resurgence of cases and hospitalizations culminating in a new lockdown from 2 November 2020; (viii) While non-essential shops were allowed to reopen from 1 December 2020, other restrictions and social distancing rules will remain in place until 15 January 2021. As of 15 January 2021, these restrictions, including closure of certain shops, remote work requirements, curfews, etc. have been extended until 1 March 2021; (ix) 5 January 2020, Belgium has started its large-scale coronavirus vaccination campaign.

Bhutan 12C 12C - Others BTN/INR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); PMO. (accessed 20 July 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 11 August 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 02 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 11 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed on 13 November 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 23 December 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 29 December 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 5 January 2021); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 14 January 2021); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 1 February 2021); Government of Bhutan. and (accessed 1 February 2021); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 2 February 2021).

(i) 6 March 2020, School closure in three cities; (ii) 27 March 2020, More containment measures were imposed on public gatherings, travel (within and outside Bhutan). The quarantine period has been extended to 21 April 2020; (iii) May 2020, Healthcare measures include setting up dedicated hospitals and quarantine centers; (v) 19 June 2020, Easing of restrictions, which will be done in phases, in schools, institutes, and colleges, except pre-primary levels, sports, trainings and workshops, religious and social functions, parks and public spaces, and public transport; (iv) 11 August 2020, Government announces nationwide lockdown. 1 September 2020, The government announced a phased easing of lockdown restrictions between 1 and 10 September 2020; (v) 23 December 2020, A nationwide lockdown has been enforced for seven days [update]; (v) 29 December 2020, The government announced an extension of the nationwide lockdown until further notice; (vi) 4 January 2021, The government has decided to roll out the measures to ease nationwide lockdown starting 6 January 2021; (vii) 15 January 2021, Government announced lifting of restrictions in 18 Dzongkhags [update]; (viii) 1 February 2021, Lockdown has been lifted and various activities are already allowed, including inter-dzongkhag movement and re-opening of schools [update].

Brazil 12C 12C - Others BRL IMF. (Accessed 29 April 2020). AGB. (accessed 14 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Economy (accessed 20 July 2020); (accessed 29 January 2021). REuters (accessed 29 January 2021)

(i) Schools are not closed nationwide, but several states and municipalities have closed educational institutions. For example, in São Paulo, schools have been closed since 23 March 2020; (ii) 28 January 2021, Brazil's Treasury Secretary, Bruno Funchal, claimed that the government's most effective economic policy right now is a vaccination program against the COVID-19 virus, not employment protection schemes or reviving emergency cash transfers; (vii) 19 January 2021; no amount/estimate, Brazilian pharmaceutical company União Quimica and Russian sovereign wealth fund RDIF filed for emergency use approval of Russia's Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine from Brazilian health regulator Anvisa, but were told more documentation was needed; the company plans to press ahead with production of the vaccine with a view to exporting it to parts of South America (Argentina is already using the vaccine, and it is registered for use in Bolivia, Venezuela, and Paraguay).

Brunei Darussalam 12C 12C - Others BND IMF. (accessed 1 May 2020, 14 May 2020).

The Ministry of Health (MOH) is also stepping up efforts to track close contacts of positive cases;

Cambodia 12C 12C - Others KHR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); Government of Cambodia. (accessed 19 November 2020); Open Development Cambodia. (accessed 19 November 2020); Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. (accessed 16 November 2020); Cambodianess. (accessed 20 November 2020).

April 2020: (i) Quarantine and self-isolation measures were put in place; (ii) Schools and casinos are closed and the government has banned public events with more than 50 participants; (ii) The Khmer New Year break has been cancelled; (iii) November 19, The Government announced that schools, museums and cinemas will reopen on 23 November 2020 and that events involving gatherings such as weddings, religious ceremonies or festivals will be allowed to take place.

Canada 12C 12C - Others CAD International Monetary Fund. (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Reopening the economy. On 28 April 2020, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Cook Islands 12C 12C - Others NZD COVID-19 Cook Islands Response. (1 May 2020).

30 October 2020, decided to lift the requirement for incoming travellers to spend 14 days in supervised quarantine on arrival.

Denmark 12C 12C - Others DKK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 8 September 2020). Ministry of Finance. (accessed 5 February 2021)

(i) All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of 20 May 2020. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places; (ii) The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy; (iii) As of 26 October 2020, Denmark has reduced the maximum number of people who are allowed to gather in public from 50 to 10, subject to exemptions for essential activities, etc. This measure will be initially effective for 4 weeks; (iv) 5 January 2021, The COVID-19 risk level used by authorities is to be increased from level 4 to level 5. This level indicates “widespread infection in society”, as well as “a risk that treatment capacity at hospitals will be exceeded”. Along with this, the limit on assembly in public will be reduced from 10 to 5 people; (v) 13 January 2021, The national lockdown, which has been in place since 25 December 2020, is extended until 7 February 2021; (vi) 3 February 2021, the government is launching a corona passport that can be used to document vaccination against COVID-19 in connection with travel, e.g. for business travelers. The solution will be launched on at the end of February. [update]

European Central Bank 12C 12C - Others EUR
European Union 12C 12C - Others EUR EC. (accessed 20 January 2021); EC. (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. (accessed 20 January 2021).

(i) 2 December 2020, To sustainably manage the pandemic over the winter months, the EC adopted “Staying Safe from COVID-19 during Winter" strategy recommending continued vigilance and caution throughout the winter period and into 2021 when the roll out of safe and effective vaccines will take place. Recommended control measures concern physical distancing and limiting social contacts, testing and contact tracing, and safe travel, among others; (ii) 19 January 2021, To step up the fight against the pandemic, The EC called on Member States to accelerate the roll-out of vaccination across the EU, continue to apply physical distancing, limit social contacts, fight disinformation, coordinate travel restrictions, ramp up testing, and increase contact tracing and genome sequencing to face up to the risk from new variants of the virus.

Federated States of Micronesia 12C 12C - Others USD
Fiji 12C 12C - Others FJD TravelPulse. (accessed 14 January 2021); IMF. (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) The Government reacted to the first confirmed case with a broad set of measures, including reinforced detection measures, restrictions on movements and gatherings, closures of schools and certain types of businesses (e.g. cinemas, gyms, etc.), a nationwide curfew and lockdowns of affected areas; (ii) As the number of cases have remained constant since Mid-April, the authorities started relaxing containment and mitigation restrictions at the national level on April 26th; (iii) 4 June 2020, no new cases have been detected as of the past 30 days, and the last active case was cleared by authorities; (iv) 21 June 2020, Phase 2 of Fiji’s COVID-safe Economic Recovery Plan leads to the gradual easing of some restrictions (e.g. national curfew, limitations on public gatherings) and the reopening of schools and certain recreational facilities under strict conditions; (v) The reopening of the economy under Phase 2 has been tied up with the launch of CareFIJI, a contact-tracing mobile application; (vi) 16 July 2020, The repatriation of Fijian citizens in July led to a resurgence of border cases – all quarantined in government-designated facilities; (vii) 13 January 2021, Tourism Fiji announced that it has created the “Care Fiji Commitment,” a program featuring enhanced safety, health and hygiene protocols for a post-pandemic world as it prepares to reopen borders to travelers sometime in the future.

Finland 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. (accessed 6 January 2021); Schengenvisainfo. (accessed 6 January 2021).

10 December 2020, The Government adopted a resolution on Finland's COVID-19 vaccine strategy: Vaccination will be offered based on medical risk assessments with priority given to healthcare and social welfare workers caring for COVID-19 patients, homecare workers, elderly persons, and persons at high risk for severe disease due to underlying health conditions.Finland is participating in the European Union's joint vaccine procurement.

France 12C 12C - Others EUR
Georgia 12C 12C - Others GEL UNESCAP. (accessed 13 December 2020). (accessed 28 January 2021)

(i) Under the state of emergency from March-May 2020, citizens were also subject to a 9pm-6am curfew. When going outside, they were also expected to carry identity documents at all times; (iii) As of 9 November 2020, curfew will be re-imposed from 10pm-5am due to a recent resurgence in cases. The curfew between will be maintained until end-January 2021. Development of the pandemic curve will guide the government’s further decisions; (ii) On 15 June 2020, The government released an expanded list of high-risk groups who would be able to avail mandatory, free-of-charge COVID-19 testing; (iii) During 3-15 January 2021, there will be an official public holiday, which means that none of the public or private organizations will work, except for banks and strategic state services. All the containment measures effective during November 28 and December 24 will be reinstituted; (iv) 22 January 2021, Schools will remain closed in the capital city of Tbilisi, as well as in two large cities of Rustavi and Kutaisi until 1 March. In the port cities of Batumi and Poti, as well as in Zugdidi, Gori and Telavi, physical attendance at schools will resume as planned starting 1 February.

Germany 12C 12C - Others EUR OECD. (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 4 June 2020); Reuters. (accessed 30 July 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 28 November 2020).

(i) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April 2020; Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since 15 March 2020. Larger events were cancelled until end-August 2020; (ii) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on 22 March 2020 across the country, extended until at least 4 May; (iii) 10 May 2020, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on 22 March has been extended until 5 June but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (iv) 28 May 2020, Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August 2020. Social distancing rules extended until 29 June; (v) 16 June 2020, The government launched a Corona-Warn app that allows users to trace potential contact with COVID-infected individuals. Its use is voluntary; (vi) July 2020, A general contact restriction of keeping distance and wearing masks in stores and public transport should continue until further notice; (vii) 29 July 2020, Free and compulsory coronavirus testing begins at Berlin's Tegel airport. Other airports such as Frankfurt have been offering tests over the previous weeks, but additional preparations are being made to test passengers arriving from countries deemed high risk; (viii) 8 August 2020, Mandatory corona tests for returnees from risk areas begins. Tests are free for the travelers; (ix) 3 August 2020, New school year begins with children returning to school in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania region. Germany's 16 states had agreed that schools will reopen full-time after the summer break; (x) 27 August 2020, Returnees from risk areas should be able to end their quarantine at the earliest with a test from the fifth day after their return. The federal states will set the minimum fine for violations of the mask requirement of at least EUR50. There is a ban on major events, where contact tracking and compliance with hygiene regulations, are not possible until at least the end of 2020; (xi) 9 October 2020, The prime minister and mayors from 11 cities agreed to impose stricter measures if infections exceed a threshold of 50 cases per 100,000 population in a week; (xii) 25 November 2020, Christmas celebrations will be limited to a maximum of 10 people (children under 14 are not included in the count); (xiii) 2 December 2020, Restrictive measures currently expiring by the 20th, will be extended until 10 January 2021 in order to stem a tide of new COVID-19 infections. As of 19 January 2021, this has been extended to 14 February 2021. Schools, leisure and sporting facilities and most shops will remain shut, and people will be allowed to meet up with only one other individual from another household under the new rules, instead of five people previously.

Hong Kong, China 12C 12C - Others HKD IMF. (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 5 June 2020). Reuters. (accessed 14 July 2020). Reuters. (accessed 23 July 2020). PDI. (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. (accessed 31 July 2020).

Authorities imposed (i) School closures in early 2020 but reopened on 27 May 2020; (ii) A ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (ii) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting 18 May 2020 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on 21 May 2020. (iii) 2 June 2020, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September 2020. (iv) 13 July 2020, Authorities reimposed tighter social distancing measures including limiting gatherings to 4 people. (v) 23 July 2020, Authorities expanded stricter containment measures including mandatory mask-wearing in all indoor public areas including malls and markets. As of 28 July 2020, Authorities further tightened restrictions by limiting public gatherings to no more than 2 people.

India 12C 12C - Others INR DW Online. (accessed 7 January 2020); IMF. (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) 5 March 2020, Schools closed in some of the municipalities and states, including Delhi until the end of March, which was eventually expanded to all educational institutions in the country; (ii) 12 March 2020, Partial shutdowns was imposed on educational institutions, stadiums, cinema halls, and sports clubs and gathering of people were banned in some of the states, including Delhi; (iii) 15 April 2020, the government announced several relaxation measures in geographical areas designated as non-hotspot, with effect from 20 April 2020; (iv) 30 May 2020, the government issued ‘Unlock 3.0’ guidelines for a phased re-opening of most activities across the country and limiting the lockdown only to containment zones for a month until 30 June 2020. However, states have been empowered to prohibit certain activities if they deem it necessary; (v) On 29 August 2020, the government issued new guidelines (‘Unlock 4.0’) to further re-open the economy in September, removing restrictions on metro rail, and allowing for social, academic, sports, entertainment, and other congregations of up to 100 people. Education institutions will remain closed until end-September, with lockdowns continuing to be implemented in containment zones; (vi) 3 January 2020, India approves two COVID vaccines for emergency use: the Oxford University-AstraZeneca vaccine and the locally developed vaccine COVAXIN.

Indonesia 12C 12C - Others IDR IMF. (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. (accessed 5 May 2020). The Straits Times. (accessed 4 June 2020).

The government has adopted various containment measures, including school closures, other restrictions on public events, and obligations on masks. On 4 June 2020, The government an easing of restrictions in Jakarta by gradually allowing workplaces, places of worship, shopping centres and recreational venues with strict health guidelines such as a 50% capacity limit and ensuring physical distancing.

Ireland 12C 12C - Others EUR
Islamic Republic of Iran 12C 12C - Others IRR
Italy 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. (accessed 12 November 2020); Reuters. (accessed 14 December 2020), (accessed 4 January 2021); The Local Italy. (accessed 4 January 2021); Reuters. (accessed 20 January 2021); NPR. accessed 28 January 2021); France24. (accessed 4 February 2021).

(i) The nation-wide lockdown, announced in early March, was extended until 3 May 2020; (ii) Public gathering is banned; (iii) The nation-wide lockdown expired on 4 May 2020; (iv) All schools and universities remain shut; (v) The government moved forward some of the reopening plans; (vi) Regional governments are allowed the discretion to adjust the dates in both direction; (vii) Mask wearing in public places (both in and outdoors) is required through end January 2021. Fines were raised for those who do not follow anti-contagion and quarantine rules; (viii) Rapid Covid tests have been authorized for use in schools to identify and quarantine infected individuals, thereby avoiding the need to close entire schools. Schools remain open but older students will switch to remote learning; (ix) 4 December 2020, Italy approved new restrictions to avoid a surge in novel coronavirus infections over Christmas and the New Year, banning midnight mass and halting movement between towns (reflected in 12A); (x) 27 December 2020, Italy kicked off COVID19 vaccinations in Rome; (xi) 3 January 2021, Italy postponed the reopening of its ski resorts on Saturday until later this month, after regional authorities asked for more time to meet coronavirus regulations; (xii) 13 January 2021, Italy announced that it would extend the COVID state of emergency to end of April 2021; (xiii) 26 January 2021, Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte handed in his resignation to the president on issues over his handling of the second wave of COVID-19 and recovery funds from the European Union [update]; (ix) 4 February 2021, Restaurants and museums reopen as Italy relaxes coronavirus curbs [update].

Japan 12C 12C - Others JPY IMF. (accessed 6 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters; (accessed 25 May); Reuters. (accessed 2 June 2020); Nikkei Asian Review. (accessed 11 June 2020); Reuters. (accessed 18 June 2020); Reuters. (accessed 19 June 2020); Nikkei Asia. (accessed 7 January 20210); Nikkei Asia. (accessed 13 January 2021); Nikkei Asia. (accessed 4 February 2021); Nikkei Asia. (accessed 4 February 2021).

(i) March 2020, The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to 23 July–8 August 2021; (ii) 7 April 2020, Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency for seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from 8 April; the declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies; (iii) 13 May 2020, The Prime Minister has lifted the state of emergency ahead of schedule in 39 prefectures and kept it in place for 8 others including Tokyo (the lifting of which will be decided on 21 May 2020); (iv) 21 May 2020, The government lifted the state of emergency in Osaka, Kyoto, and Hyogo while keeping it in place for Tokyo and four other prefectures; (v) 25 May 2020, The government announced the lifting of the state of emergency for Tokyo and four remaining prefectures by 1 June 2020; (vi) 2 June 2020, Tokyo issued a stay-home alert after a jump in new virus infections. On 11 June 2020, the alert was lifted. On 19 June 2020, gatherings of up to 1,000 people in indoor/outdoor events were allowed; (vii) 7 January 2021, Prime Minister Suga declared a state of emergency once more asking residents to stay at home at night and workers to telecommute in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba until 7 February 2021. On 13 January, state of emergency was expanded to seven more prefectures (Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Gifu, Aichi, Fukuoka, and Tochigi). 2 February 2021, The government announced that the state ofemergency in 10 prefectures, including Tokyo, will be extended by a month to March 7 [update]; (viii) 3 February 2021, Bills to fine violators of social distancing rules were passed and are expected to take effect by mid-February. Infected people will be fined up to JPY500,000 if they refuse hospitalization or leave hospital before recovery. Fines of up to JPY300,000 will be imposed on individuals who do not cooperate with public health officials conducting infection tests or interviews [update].

Kazakhstan 12C 12C - Others KZT Anadolu Agency. (accessed 21 January 2021)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government declared a state of emergency, extended to and eventually lifted on May 11. Large cities were put under lockdown with entry/exit bans, while social distancing measures were required. Schooling was moved online, and will last after May 11. Lockdowns were reinstated from 5 July to 2 August; (ii) 19 January 2021, the government announced that mass vaccination will start on 1 February.

Kiribati 12C 12C - Others AUD International Monetary Fund (IMF). (accesed 13 April 2020).

(i) 17 March 2020, A press release to prevent speculations and panic was released and government task forces have been formed to address commodities and cargo buffers, communication and awareness, isolation centers and containment efforts, and border control; (ii) 28 March 2020, A state of public emergency has been declared and schools are suspended.

Kyrgyz Republic 12C 12C - Others KGS World Trade Organization (WTO). (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. (accesed 13 April 2020, 17 May 2020); Kabar. (accessed 9 September 2020)

(i) Effective 22 March 2020 for 6 months (a) temporary export ban on wipes, other antibacterial products, and disinfectants, and (b) temporary export ban on certain food products like wheat, meslin, etc.; (ii) April 2020, The authorities have taken drastic measures to prevent the outbreak including (a) the quarantine of people coming from abroad, (b) a lockdown of all non-essential activities, and (c) a curfew; (iii) 10 May 2020, The state of emergency ended and the curfew was lifted while the quarantine regime will work until the stabilization of the epidemiological situation; (iv) As of 8 September 2020, the Ministry of Education said that in the first quarter of the 2020-2021 academic year in Kyrgyz Republic, only 1st grades are taught in the traditional format. The rest of them are taught remotely. At the same time, 62 schools of the Republic are allowed to teach children of all classes in the traditional mode. These are small-scale or elementary schools located in areas where no cases of coronavirus infection have been detected.

Lao PDR 12C 12C - Others LAK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020); Laotian Times. (accessed 12 October 2020).

(i) April 2020: (a) Schools remain closed; (b) Price control of essential goods is still in place; and (c) The Taskforce Committee for COVID-19 Epidemic Prevention, Control and Response is monitoring latest developments and coordinates the authorities’ response. A separate Taskforce Committee and its seven working groups are in place to address the economic impact of the crisis; (ii) 4 May 2020: (a) A nationwide lockdown has been partially lifted; and (b) large gatherings are still suspended and banned; (iii) 18 May 2020: (a) Some classes at primary, lower and upper secondary schools can resume on May 18 while all others are slated to open on June 2; and (b) All indoor and outdoor sporting activities are now permitted; (iv) 10 June 2020: (a) Large gatherings, including for traditional ceremonies and celebrations are now allowed; and (b) Price control of essential goods is still in place; (v) 1-31 August 2020, Prevention measures will be continuously imposed like closure of entertainment venues, karaoke, and gaming shops; (vi) 1 October 2020, The government has extended its COVID-19 prevention measures until October 31.

Luxembourg 12C 12C - Others EUR OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. (accessed 14 January 2021). KPMG. (accessed 21 May 2020).

(i) People have been encouraged to self-isolate and should only leave the house for essential activities such as food shopping, going to work (note: working-from-home if possible), going to doctors and to help vulnerable people; (ii) All schools, universities and kindergartens have been closed since 16 March. As of 4 September 2020, the government announced a plan for school reopening, including more autonomy for schools to implement specific measures depending on the local health situation; (ii) To achieve a well-sequenced lifting of the lockdown restrictions and avoid a second wave of COVID-19 infections, the government envisages to perform large-scale testing on a voluntary basis, including cross-border commuters; (ii) All public gatherings are prohibited; (iii) All cultural and recreational events (incl. sport events) are suspended; (iv) 20 May 2020, The Luxembourg Ministry for the Economy has set-up a hotline and website with information for enterprises, which includes a FAQ on existing measures for companies, including SMEs (financial support and partial employment); (v) 16 July 2020, Mandatory face masks for both public and private gatherings of more than 20 people in case physical distance of 2 meters cannot be guaranteed; (vi) 16 July 2020, Fines for customers of bars and restaurants if they disregard the precautionary measures; (vii) 22 September 2020, the government extended restrictive measures until year-end and introduced new measures that include: (a) reducing the isolation period for infected people with; (b) allowing the processing of personal data that will be kept for a period of three months and then anonymized; and (c) making it mandatory for airlines to automatically transfer to health authorities forms completed by passengers to facilitate contact tracing; (viii) 29 October 2020, the government introduced temporary measures to address the recent spike in cases, including: (a) 11pm-6am curfew (until 30 November 2020), (b) a 4-person limit on the number of house guests, and (c) mandatory face masks at gatherings of more than 4 people. On 25 November 2020, the curfew was extended until mid-December, and the limit on the number of people at private gatherings was further reduced (see Measure 12B). As of 26 December 2020, the curfew was expanded to 9am-6am, effective until 15 January 2021 [update]; (ix) 4 December 2020, the government announced its COVID-19 vaccination strategy, focusing on (a) centralized procurement and distribution, (b) voluntary and free vaccination for residents and cross-border workers, and (c) continued monitoring of the vaccines' safety and efficacy; (ix) 25 November 2020, the government is imposing a 2-person limit on private gatherings.

Malaysia 12C 12C - Others MYR WTO. (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020, 3 May 2020, 23 May 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 9 June 2020). Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 11 September 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 20 March 2020, Temporary export ban on face masks; (ii) A Movement Control Order (MCO) was put in place on 18-31 March 2020 and subsequently extended until 14 April 2020: schools, universities and non-essential businesses are closed; all public gatherings are banned; and 10 May 2020, MCO has become conditional movement control order (CMCO). It will be extended until 9 June 2020; (iii) 7 June 2020, The implementation of the Recovery Movement Control Order (RMCO) from 10 June to 31 August 2020 was announced; (iv) From 24 June 2020, schools will start gradually reopening; (v) 28 August 2020, The government extended the RMCO until 31 December 2020; (vi) 11 January 2021: (a) Social activities involving mass gatherings such as weddings, conferences, religious parades including Thaipusam, meetings, seminars, courses and group sports are not allowed during the MCO period. However, for Perlis and Sarawak, which are under the RMCO, social activities will be allowed, subject to strict standard operating procedure compliance; (b) For states under MCO, movement will be restricted to a 10-km radius, while only two household members will be allowed in the same car while out shopping for essentials; (vii) 12 January 2021: (a) An emergency was proclaimed. It will be enforced until 1 August 2021, or earlier if the COVID-19 pandemic is contained and brought under control in Malaysia; and (b) The general election, state elections and by-elections will not be held during the period of the COVID-19 emergency proclaimed today and to remain in force until 1 August 2021; (viii) 16 January 2021, The government agreed to set up an Emergency Management Technical Committee to ensure the smooth management of the emergency nationwide.

Maldives 12C 12C - Others MVR IMF. (accessed 19 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 4 June 2020, 22 July 2020); The Edition. (accessed 29 May 2020). The Edition. (accessed 31 July 2020); The Edition. (accessed 7 August 2020); The Edition. (accessed 4 September 2020); The Edition. (accessed 17 September 2020); The Edition. (accessed 12 October 2020); The Edition. (accessed 12 October 2020); The Edition. (accessed 22 October 2020); The Edition. (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 12 March 2020, School closures; (ii) 15 April 2020, The greater Malé region was placed on lockdown; (iii) 13 May 2020, The lockdown was extended to May 28 (third extension since its implementation); (iv) 28 May 2020: (a) The state of Public Health Emergency was extended until June 29; and (b) Phase one of lockdown easing started, with a relaxation in temporary permissions for leaving homes; (v) Since 1 July 2020, the country is in phase three of the lockdown ease plan. This phase permits movement in the Greater Malé Region from 5 AM to 11 PM, and only gatherings of less than 30 people are to be allowed in public spaces; (vi) 30 July 2020, Authorities mandated wearing face masks in public spaces of the capital city of Malé in response to a surge in COVID-19 cases in Maldives. Individuals in public spaces without masks would be fined by MVR1,000 starting from August 1; (vii) 4 August 2020, The Health Protection Agency (HPA) implemented a curfew over the Greater Malé Region; (viii) 3 September 2020, The Ministry of Education extended the closure of schools in the Greater Malé Region by an additional two weeks in connection to the surge of COVID-19 cases in the area; (ix) 6 September 2020, The extension of the State of Public Health Emergency until October 6 was announced; (x) 4 October 2020, Ministry of Education reopened schools in the Greater Malé Region and commenced teaching for grades 9 to 12 only, while online lessons were provided for students of lower grades; (xi) 6 October 2020, The State of Public Health Emergency was extended until November 5; (xii) 17 October 2020, The Ministry of Education revealed that classes for grades starting from six to all levels below, shall not restart within 2020, for schools throughout the Greater Malé Region; (xiii) 2 February 2021, The HPA ordered a two-week shutdown of all colleges and preschools in the Greater Malé area, and announced to tighten curfew hours from 3 February 2021, for a period of 14 days [update].

Marshall Islands 12C 12C - Others USD RMI National Disaster Management Office (NDMO). (accessed 3 February 2021).

As of 29 January 2021, the National Disaster Committee (NDC) will submit a recommendation to the Cabinet for the extension of State of Emergency (SOE), including an updated RMI National Pandemic Response Plan and Budget, and Travel Advisory, as it expires on 7 February 2021 [update].

Mexico 12C 12C - Others MXN
Mongolia 12C 12C - Others MNT IMF. (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. (accessed 30 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. (accessed 8 January 2021); Mongolian News Agency. (accessed 14 January 2021).

(i) 13 February 2020, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures; (ii) 29 July 2020, The government discussed and approved terms and arrangement for the re-opening of all levels of educational institutions, i.e., classes will be given in a combination of a physical classroom learning and online lessons and online classes of all levels of educational institutions will begin from September 1; (iii) 21 December 2020, The government announced a strict-lockdown regime from 23 December 2020 until 6 January 2021. 4 January 2021, The government extended the lockdown until 11 January 2021; (iv) 11 January 2021, The public emergency readiness or strict lockdown in Ulaanbaatar city has been lifted to transition back into the heightened state of readiness.

Myanmar 12C 12C - Others MMK IMF. (accesed 24 July 2020); Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. (accessed 13 July 2020); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (accessed 02 September 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government announced measures to limit the spread of the virus including quarantine requirements and ban of mass public gatherings; (ii) April 2020, Yangon and Mandalay will be under lockdown during the long holidays (10–19 April 2020); (iii) Government employees have been instructed not to travel home and will be compensated for this period; (iv) A National Central Committee on Prevention, Control and Treatment of 2019 Novel Coronavirus has been established to coordinate the authorities’ response. A second committee, the Control and Emergency Response Committee on COVID-19, was setup on March 30 to help with stricter administrative measures to control the spread of the virus, including quarantine migrant workers coming from neighboring countries.