Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown that had been in place since late March/early April for 3 more months. All public places are to remain closed, while public transportation facilities carrying more than 4 passengers are not allowed to travel. Restaurants and coffee shops are only allowed to carry out deliveries and take-outs. As of November 2020, this 6-month lockdown has been lifted.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) Encouraging civil servants to work from home in non-essential sectors, and closing all malls, gyms, sporting clubs, in-dining restaurants and cafes; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – restaurants and cafes will open with 25 percent capacity, stores will close at 9 pm while restaurants and cafes will close at 10 pm, public parks and beaches will remain closed until further notice, places of worship will be open for daily prayers but main prayers like Friday prayers and masses will not be allowed, cinemas, theaters, and entertainment venues will operate with 25 percent capacity.

Argentina 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace ARS Republic World. https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/south-america/argentina-malls-back-in-business-as-lockdown-eases.html (accessed 16 October 2020).

(i) 11 October 2020, schools and other education activities can be resumed, if certain epidemiological criteria are fulfilled. (ii) 15 October 2020, almost 8 months after lockdown, reopening of large shopping centers and the return of regular internal flights and public transport.

Armenia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

16 March 2020, As part of the state of emergency, the government implemented closures of public spaces. Retail businesses and restaurants were allowed to reopen earlier, on 18 May.

Australia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Austria 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines; (ii) 13 April 2020, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May; (iii) Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since 1 June 2020; (iv) The authorities eventually announced a 4-week partial lockdown effective on 3 November 2020. Compared to the first lockdown, the second lockdown is relatively more lenient. While restaurants and bar are ordered to be closed, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools remain open.

Azerbaijan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AZN
Bangladesh 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace BDT Ministry of Public Administration. https://mopa.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mopa.gov.bd/notices/8b82fa43_9c1a_4269_bc9f_dcf378e47fdf/admin1-2020-347-r1.PDF (accsessed 29 June 2020). News on Air. http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Bangladesh-extends-closure-of-educational-institutions-till-Nov.-14&id=403295 (accessed 30 October 2020). Aljazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/11/13/bangladesh-extends-school-shutdown-over-second-covid-19-wave (accessed 13 November 2020).

(i) 23 March 2020, The government declared a general holiday from March 26 to April 4, which has been extended until May 5: government offices, private offices, and courts will be closed, commercial banks will operate shorter hours; (ii) 29 October 2020, extends closure of educational institutions till Nov. 14; (ii) November 13, school lockdowns extended to December 19.

Belgium 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR Belgium News. https://news.belgium.be/fr/petra-de-sutter-prolonge-les-contrats-rosetta-en-raison-de-la-covid-19 (accessed 14 January 2021); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on 4 May 2020, to be followed by shops (11 May 2020 and 18 May 2020); (ii) 23 December 2020, Extended the contracts of young federal agents so as not to put federal public services in diffuculty amidst the pandemic.

Bhutan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace BTN/INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); PMO. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/?p=1606 (accessed 20 July 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/?p=1664 (accessed 11 August 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/31-08-20-press-release-pmo/ (accessed 02 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/10-09-20-press-release-on-the-completion-of-the-unlocking-period-pmo/ (accessed 11 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/10-11-20-notification-for-putting-in-place-system-to-generate-typed-automated-covid-19-certificate-moh/ (accessed on 13 November 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/22-12-20-second-nationwide-lockdown-pmo/ (accessed 23 December 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/29-12-20-extension-of-nationwide-lockdown-pmo/ (accessed 29 December 2020); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/04-01-20-press-release-on-easing-nationwide-lockdown-2-0-pmo/ (accessed 5 January 2021); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/10-01-21notification-to-the-general-public-thimphu-thromde/ (accessed 14 January 2021); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/15-01-21-press-release-on-the-unlocking-of-18-dzongkhags-pmo/ (accessed 1 February 2021); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/27-01-2021-announcement-on-opening-of-shops-and-business-entities-in-the-mega-zones-of-north-and-south-in-thimphu-pmo/ and https://www.gov.bt/covid19/5726-2/ (accessed 1 February 2021); Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/29-01-21-press-release-on-unlocking-thimphu-and-beyond-starting-monday-february-1-2021-pmo/ (accessed 2 February 2021).

(i) 27 March 2020, Containment measures were imposed on business and entertainment, games and sports and civil service, corporate, private, and other agencies. The quarantine period has been extended to 21 April 2020; (ii) 19 June 2020, Easing of restrictions, which will be done in phases, in low risk businesses; (iii) 19 June 2020, All government, corporate, and allied agencies are called to discontinue "work from home" starting 22 June 2020; (iv) 10 January 2021, Shops opened on 24 December 2020 in various zones within Thromde were advised to close by 12 January 2021 and allow the other shops in those zones to open, giving them the fair chance to clear their stocks before the expiry dates; (v) 27 January 2021, Shops and business entities have been allowed to reopen [update].

Brazil 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace BRL IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19?fbclid=IwAR3QQSk6OmfE7YbISvq0_ut_FpTD_Bc00gRB-YJ_YA_VB-VlWiYD9PBO0Ro#B (Accessed 29 April 2020). AGB. https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/economia/noticia/2020-05/pandemic-brought-down-76-brazils-industrial-sector (accessed 14 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-gdp-fall/brazil-4-7-gdp-this-year-would-be-biggest-fall-since-1900-economy-ministry-idUSKBN22P2J3 (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Economy https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2020/trabalho/julho/decreto-prorroga-por-ate-120-dias-prazos-dos-acordos-do-beneficio-emergencial (accessed 20 July 2020)

(i) Brazil’s population has been advised to stay at home in self-isolation as much as possible; (ii) Businesses have largely adhered to this policy and have requested that their employees work remotely or take early vacation; (iii) No nationwide lockdown, but 23 of Brazil's 27 federative units (states) have imposed confinement measures.

Brunei Darussalam 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace BND
Cambodia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace KHR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) June 2020, The Royal Government introduced Phase 1 of the IT business registration platform in early June 2020 to facilitate and promote business registration, especially to make it easy for those companies wishing to be registered to obtain loans from the Royal Government’s special financing program; (ii) 8 July 2020, Phnom Penh Capital Administration Notification on Reopening of Clubs and KTVs in Phnom Penh by Transforming into Restaurants.

Canada 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Social distancing measures; (ii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iii) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces.

Cook Islands 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace NZD COVID-19 Cook Islands Response. https://covid19.gov.ck/?v=1588300681872 (1 May 2020).

16 April 2020, Prime Minister, Hon. Henry Puna, declared the Cook Islands "a COVID-19 free zone", however the country remains in Code Yellow with relaxed restrictions; and (ii) Restrictions have been lifted for the following areas (a) schools are now open, (b) travel between the Pa Enua (Outer Islands) open, (c) churches are now open, (d) social gatherings are no longer limited to 10 people, (e) alcohol retail sales extended until 6pm, (f) non-contact sports may resume, and (g) restaurants & cafes may re-open

Denmark 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20210105/latest-denmark-moves-to-highest-covid-19-alert-level-amid-concerns-over-b117-variant (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by 15 April 2020 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions. As of 8 October 2020, all current restrictions will be in place until 31 October.

European Central Bank 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR
European Union 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented.

Federated States of Micronesia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace USD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

The state of Chuuk closed schools.

Fiji 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace FJD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) Closing of certain types of businesses were implemented at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Finland 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020).

On 13 August 2020, the government adopted resolutions on recommendations for wearing face coverings and face masks, and for remote work. The government has imposed new restrictions starting 22 October 2020 on the opening and licensing hours of food and beverage service businesses [update from 8 October 2020]. As of 20 November 2020, restrictions on the activities of food and beverage service businesses in five regions will continue due to their epidemiological conditions.

France 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 3 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/state-of-health-emergency-reinstated-in-france/ (accessed 15 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/france-coronavirus-new-restrictions/ (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020); France Government. https://www.gouvernement.fr/en/coronavirus-covid-19 (6 January 2020).

(i) In response to the recent uptick in infections, limits on large gatherings have been extended until the end of October 2020, testing ramped up, and mask mandates tightened with the use of masks obligatory in most public spaces and indoor areas (including workplaces). A digital contact tracing application was launched by the government on 2 June 2020. Selective regional restrictions have also been imposed in high-infection areas including Paris. (ii) 14 October 2020, announced a curfew in nine major urban centers starting 16 October 2020 as a new state of health emergency was declared to combat a second wave of coronavirus infections. A curfew will apply to the Paris region and eight major urban centers: Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Aix-Marseille, Rouen, Montpellier, St Etienne and Toulouse. (iii) 28 October 2020, announced a national lockdown starting 30 October 2020. Schools remain open but non-essential retail and services are ordered to close. While intra EU borders remain open, extra-European borders are closed, and circulation between France’s regions is not allowed; (iv) 28 December 2020, a nightly curfew between 8 pm and 6 am has been enforced; work from home or staggered work patterns is encouraged; kindergarten to high schools are open during lockdown; Shops, services (private and public), and public libraries are open, but bars, restaurants, cinemas, theatres, museums and gyms remain closed.

Georgia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace GEL UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Georgia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20280820.pdf (accessed 8 December 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 January 2021). Civil.ge. https://civil.ge/archives/392589 (accessed 28 January 2021)

(i) From 21 March 2020 to 22 May 2020, The country was under a state of emergency mandating social distancing, mask wearing, as well as the closure of schools and shops (other than groceries and gas stations). (ii) June 8, Restaurants with indoor seating, selected hotels, and currency exchange offices were allowed to reopen; (iii) 13 July 2020, Outdoor cultural events and indoor rehearsals are allowed; (iii) As of 15 October 2020, Restaurants and entertainment facilities are banned from operating past 10pm; (iv) From 16-30 January 2021, shops and businesses will reopen, but only during the weekdays. The curfew between 9 a.m. and 5 a.m. will be maintained until end-January; (v) 22 January 2021, All kinds of shops and shopping malls will reopen in the cities, while open and closed marketplaces will also be back to work starting 15 February. Finally, the ban on gyms, swimming pools, as well as the restrictions in place in Georgia’s ski resorts – originally set to open on 1 February – have been kept in effect until further notice. [update]

Germany 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/world/europe/german-children-start-new-school-year-amid-virus-fears?gallery_image=undefined#big (accessed 4 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-merkel/germany-agrees-stricter-anti-covid-measures-for-virus-hot-spots-idUSKBN26U1I7 (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/coronavirus/reisewarnung-europa-1791502 (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/suche/pressekonferenz-von-bundeskanzlerin-merkel-buergermeister-mueller-und-ministerpraesident-soeder-nach-der-besprechung-der-bundeskanzlerin-mit-den-regierungschefinnen-und-regierungschefs-der-laender-1820256 (accessed 28 November 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany/germany-to-extend-covid-19-restrictions-until-jan-10-merkel-idUSKBN28C175 (accessed 13 December 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/resource/blob/997532/1827366/69441fb68435a7199b3d3a89bff2c0e6/2020-12-13-beschluss-mpk-data.pdf?download=1 (accessed 4 January 2021). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.de/20210105/germany-toughens-and-extends-coronavirus-lockdown-until-end-of-january (accessed 7 January 2021). German government. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/verordnung-zu-homeoffice-1841120 (accessed 30 January 2021)

(i) Restaurants are closed; (ii) A gradual reopening of stores began on 20 April 2020. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from 8 May onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (iii) 28 May 2020, Shops are allowed to reopen; (iv) 27 January 2021, Employers are obliged to offer their employees home office wherever possible. This measure is valid until March 15. [update]

Hong Kong, China 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1313249/hong-kong-to-ban-dining-in-public-gatherings-of-more-than-two (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-hong-kong-reverses-virus-ban-on-restaurant-dining (accessed 31 July 2020); News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2021/02/20210203/20210203_183603_577.html?type=ticker (accessed 5 February 2021.

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (ii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until 7 May 2020. (iiii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on 4 May 2020 and the first phase of school reopening slated on 27 May 2020. (iv) Cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on 21 May 2020. (v) 13 July 2020, Authorities reimposed a one-week shutdown of 12 types of establishments such as gyms and gaming centres, and limits on restaurant takeaway operations after 6 PM. (vi) As of 28 July 2020, Authorities further tightened restrictions with a ban on dine-services at restaurants which was later modified to a restriction to 50% capacity. (vii) 3 February 2021, The Leisure & Cultural Services Department today announced that some of its leisure venues will reopen on February 9 [update].

India 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) Businesses and workplaces are included both in the strict lockdowns in 12C, as well as with the relaxing of these measures.

Indonesia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace IDR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 5 May 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/covid-19-jakarta-eases-restrictions-in-transition-phase-strict-health-protocols-remain (accessed 4 June 2020).

The government has adopted various containment measures including workplace restrictions. On 4 June 2020, The government eased restrictions in Jakarta by gradually allowing workplaces, places of worship, shopping centres and recreational venues with strict health guidelines such as a 50% capacity limit and ensuring physical distancing.

Ireland 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/publication/aabc99-daily-briefing-on-the-governments-response-to-COVID-19-friday-27-mar/#observe-social-distancing; IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); Government of Ireland. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/e5e599-government-publishes-roadmap-to-ease-COVID-19-restrictions-and-reope/#; IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#I (accessed 15 December 2020); IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/066ce-ireland-placed-on-full-level-5-restrictions-of-the-plan-for-living-with-COVID-19/ (accessed 6 January 2021).

(i) The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On 27 March 2020, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until 5 May 2020, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August; (ii) The authorities have started a five-phase reopening on 18 May 2020. Phase (1) included the return of outdoor workers, and small groups of family and friends were permitted to meet in the open; in phase (2) effective as of 8 June 2020, small retail outlets and marts where social distancing is possible reopened. With declining infections and increased testing, the authorities have accelerated the initial reopening plan: in phase (3), which took effect on 29 June 2020, most businesses have reopened with social distancing measures put in place; in phase (4) effective as of 20 July 2020, envisages a continued phased return to work across all sectors. The final phase was delayed due to the rebound in community transmission. In August, government adapted a medium-term national framework for living with COVID-19. It consists of five levels depending on the pandemic indicators, with lower level having less social restriction; (iii) On 5 October 2020, the level of restrictions was raised from 2 to 3 due to a surge in new cases (infection incidence rate has tripled from 31 to 109 per 100,000 in the last two weeks), implying traveling restrictions outside county/region, a ban on indoor gatherings and sport events, additional restrictions on restaurants and bars; (iv) On 19 October 2020, the government made a decision to move to the highest level 5 restrictions from the level 3 introduced on 5 October 2020 due to a surge in new cases. This implies traveling restrictions within 5 km, closure of non-essential retail and personal services, a ban on indoor/outdoor gatherings, restaurants and bars can only offer take-away, construction and manufacturing will be allowed to operate, schools and childcare centers will remain open; (v) After 6 weeks (in December), Ireland's second lockdown ended moving from Level 5 to Level 3 restrictions - non-essential retail outlets, churches, gyms, hairdressers and other businesses allowed to open. Social distancing measures remain in place and household visit are prohibited until 18 December 2020; (vi) 22 December 2020, Ireland was put on Level 5 restrictions from midnight on 24 December until 12 January with specific adjustments - non-essential retail may remain open but the retail sector will be requested to defer January sales events, gyms, leisure centers and swimming pools may remain open for individual training only, outdoor golf and tennis are permitted with a maximum of 2 household participants, hotels may only open for essential non-social and non-tourist purposes except for guests who already have a booking and are due to check in up to and including 26 December. Transitional arrangements were also put in place for the Christmas period.

Islamic Republic of Iran 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace IRR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020). Aljazeera. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/10/31/iran-to-implement-new-restrictions-as-covid-19-cases-surge (accessed 06 Nov 2020).

(i) closed schools and malls, key religious sites, banned cultural and religious gatherings, released a high number of prisoners; (ii) 25 March 2020, partial lockdown announced, closing of businesses and government offices for two weeks; (iii) Staggered reopening of businesses that are low or average risk in terms spreading the virus; (iv) 31 October 2020, new restrictions as cases surge: (a) cinemas, cafes, gyms and pools in those counties will remain shut for 10 days, (b) events and gatherings will also be suspended, (c) educational facilities will move classes online.

Italy 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. https://www.politico.eu/article/italy-coronavirus-restrictions-conte/ (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 12 November 2020).

(i) Non-essential productive activities are closed across the country, with exceptions for supermarket and grocery stores, pharmacies, banks, public transport and essential public services; (ii) Since reopening on 4 May 2020, manufacturing and construction reopened under new safety rules (e.g., staggered shifts, spaced workstation, temperature checks, masks); (iii) In addition to retail shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers reopened on 18 May 2020 (the initial reopening plan was June 1); (iv) Sports facilities reopened on 25 May 2020, followed by cinemas and theatres on 15 June 2020; (v) Following the increase in confirmed cases beginning in early August, the government reintroduced some containment measures, including closing night clubs, capacity limits at cultural sites; (vi) Across the country, museums, cinemas, theatres, pools, and gyms are shut; (vii) In addition, the areas with the highest level of infections must close all bars, restaurants, and most non-essential shops. In low risks area, bars and restaurants must close by 6pm with a maximum of four persons per table.

Japan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace JPY Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Japan-to-call-emergencies-in-7-more-prefectures-including-Osaka (accessed 13 January 2021); Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Japan-s-COVID-penalty-law-five-things-to-know (accessed 4 February 2021).

(i) 7 January 2021, Prime Minister Suga declared a state of emergency once more asking bars and restaurants to close early, in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba until 7 February 2021. On 13 January, state of emergency was expanded to seven more prefectures (Osaka, Hyogo, Kyoto, Gifu, Aichi, Fukuoka, and Tochigi) ; (ii) 3 February 2021, Prefectural governors will be allowed to issue orders to business operators, such as bars and karaoke joints to close or shorten operating hours and impose fines of up to JPY300,000 on violators [update].

Kazakhstan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace KZT UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Kazakhstan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 6 December 2020)

(i) During the state of emergency, non-essential businesses had to remain closed; (ii) The State Commission On Ensuring the State of Emergency is preparing a list of businesses that will resume their activities, which includes industrial enterprises, construction and road construction companies, transport companies, banks and public service centres.

Kiribati 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Kyrgyz Republic 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace KGS IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 26 May 2020); CAREC Institute (accessed 26 May 2020).

(i) 21 May 2020, Large shopping centers have opened; (ii) 25 May 2020, Cafes and restaurants fitting no more than 50 people have been allowed to resume operation in Bishkek.

Lao PDR 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace LAK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020)

(i) April 2020, Entertainment venues remain closed; (ii) 4 May 2020: (a) The new loosened measures allow the reopening of public offices and some private sector businesses and is expected to last until 17 May 2020; (b) Restaurants, hotels, resorts, guesthouses, coffee shops, barbershops, beauty salons as well as wholesale and retail outlets can resume their businesses, however, large-scale manufacturing plants and investment projects with large number of employees must abide by strict preventative measures introduced by the National Taskforce; (iii) 18 May 2020: (a) The new loosened measures allow public offices and businesses to resume and are expected to last until 1 June 2020; (b) Restaurants, food vendors, retail and wholesale outlets, fresh markets, supermarkets, personal care services as well as development projects, companies and factories are also permitted to resume operations, but must abide by strict preventative measures introduced by the National Taskforce; and (c) Border checkpoints, night markets, and entertainment venues remain closed; and (d) Price control of essential goods is still in place; (iv) 10 June 2020: (a) All schools have resumed but must ensure hygiene and distancing practices; (b) All indoor and outdoor sporting activities are now permitted and audiences are allowed, however, entertainment venues remain closed.

Luxembourg 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 January 2021). KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/luxembourg-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 21 May 2020).

25 November 2020, the government introduced new restrictions including closures of restaurants and bars.

Malaysia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MYR MF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 23 May 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/social-activities-barred-during-mco-to-reduce-covid-19-transmission-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/economic-activities-will-continue-to-function-during-state-of-emergency-pm-muhyiddin/ (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 4 May 2020, The authorities started easing the MCO by allowing most businesses to reopen. However, 7 states out of 14 have opted for a more delayed approach; (ii) 11 January 2021: (a) The five sectors identified as essential economic sectors and allowed to operate are industrial and manufacturing, construction, services, trade and distribution, as well as plantations and commodities; (b) Eateries and hawker stalls are only allowed to operate on a take-away basis, while areas under the Conditional Movement Control Order (CMCO) and RMCO will be allowed to operate as usual with standard operating procedures (SOPs) in place; (c) Supermarkets, health services such as clinics, hospitals and pharmacies, and banks will also be allowed to operate in areas placed under MCO, but with very strict SOPs; (iii) 12 January 2021, The country’s economic activities will continue to function throughout the duration of the state of emergency, but is subject to compliance with the SOPs and the re-implementation of the MCO. Internationally recognized national regulatory organizations, namely Bank Negara Malaysia, the Securities Commission Malaysia, and Bursa Malaysia will continue to play their role as regulatory catalysts, and facilitators of companies and markets.

Maldives 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MVR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 19 April 2020, 22 July 2020); The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/16934 (accessed 29 May 2020); The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/19431 (accessed 12 October 2020); The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/21703 (accesed 27 January 2021).

(i) 12 March 2020, Requirement on all guest houses and city hotels operating in the Maldives to temporally suspend all tourist check-ins since March 17; (ii) 18 May 2020, Allowing certain commercial businesses to open and operate; (iii) July 2020, While guesthouses in inhabited islands are opened since July for locals/residents in COVID-19 free islands, guesthouses will be opened for tourists in August; (iv) 28 September 2020, Guesthouses will be allowed to reopen on October 15, albeit with mandatory departure testing required for all tourists holidaying at inhabited islands in Maldives. Tourists visiting guesthouses are required to undergo PCR testing upon arrival in Maldives; (v) 24 January 2021, The Health Protection Agency (HPA) granted permission to reopen cinemas in Maldives from 25 January 2021 onwards [update].

Marshall Islands 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace USD
Mexico 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MXN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) Closure of schools and shutdown of non-essential activities; (ii) On 14 May 2020, the government announced plans to begin the normalization of economic activities, including a green-yellow-orange-red color system for states to represent the extent of activities allowed (e.g. states with most active cases are red and would remain in a forced quarantine), the resumption of school and labor activities in municipalities free of infection, and the addition of construction, mining, and transport equipment manufacturing as essential activities.

Mongolia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MNT Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/249516 (accessed 14 January 2021); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/250330 (accessed 19 January 2021).

(i) 11 January 2021, 18 categories of businesses (mostly in the tourism, entertainment, and leisure sectors) remain closed for an indefinite period of time; (ii) 18 January 2021, Resumption of operations of electronics and furniture stores, mobile phone trade and repair centers, street booths and ski resorts effective 18 January 2021, adhering to infection protection regimes and requirements.

Myanmar 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MMK