Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AFN UNESCAP. (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) Between March and April 2020, Border closures and suspension of international and domestic flights; As of November, both domestic and international travel has resumed. However, passengers will still need to carry a COVID-19 negative certificate.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EGP IMF. (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) Temporarily halting all air travel; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – air travel will resume and public transportation will operate between 4 am and midnight; (iii) As of December 2020, International flights have resumed, and tourists are arriving in small numbers.

Argentina 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) ARS IMF. (accessed 27 April 2020).

(i) The country has adopted full closure of borders and a nation-wide quarantine, beginning on 20 March 2020 and lasting until at least 26 April 2020, including closed borders.

Armenia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AMD UNESCAP. (accessed 5 December 2020). Tass News Agency. (accessed 14 January 2021)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government declared a national state of emergency, first until 14 April, but subsequently extended to 14 May, 13 June, 13 July, and finally being lifted on 11 September. During the state of emergency, travel bans were imposed on citizens from high-risk countries. Public transportation and other domestic travel was reopened earlier, on 18 May; (ii) 13 January 2021, Entry restrictions for foreigners in Armenia are withdrawn; all foreigners now can enter both by air and via ground checkpoints, as long as they have a negative PCR test result made within last 72 hours.

Australia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. (accessed on 05 May 2020); Department of Health. (accessed 22 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. (accessed 19 October 2020); Prime Minister's Office. (accessed 12 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) 14 July 2020, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (iii) 16 October 2020, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months; (iv) 8 January 2021, Returning Australians and other travellers to Australia must have a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure; (v) 8 January 2021, All passengers and air crew are required to wear masks on flights and in airports; (vi) 8 January 2021, International passenger caps in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia will be temporarily halved from no later than 15 January 2021 to manage the flow of returning Australians and other travellers who have been potentially exposed to the new variants.

Austria 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR The Local, Austria. 14 January 2021); IMF. (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, lockdowns became stricter and stricter and covering more countries as the situation developed; (ii) By 16 March 2020, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions; (iii) The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from 5 June 2020; (iv) 16 June 2020, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) 12 January 2021, To facilitate contract tracing, authorities at the border entering Austria will require online registration for everyone, including for Austrian citizens and residents, before crossing.

Azerbaijan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AZN IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 8 December 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 8 December 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 8 December 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 8 December 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. (accessed 10 December 2020).

(i) 24 March 2020, The government imposed travel restriction measures, including border closures, restriction of domestic movements, closure of airports and transportation hubs; (ii) 4 May 2020, The authorities began a staged relaxation of restrictions, including reestablishing freedom of private vehicular travel between cities and districts; (iii) 29 May 2020, The majority of the States have temporarily closed the borders and extended the postponement of international flights until 15 June 2020 (except cargo transportation and charter flights); (iv) 19 June 2020, Announced closure of borders until August 1 because COVID-19 cases rose during the first half of June 2020 when Azerbaijan announced to reopen; (v) 07 September 2020, Restrictions on travel to and from Baku, Sumgayit cities and Absheron district are being lifted (except for intercity and inter-district passenger transportation); (vi) 16 October 2020, Passenger transportation services of the Baku Metro are to be suspended starting from 00:00, 19 October 2020 until 06:00, 2 November 2020; (vii) 8 December 2020, The government announced stricter mobility measures starting 14 December 2020 to 18 January 2021, i.e. entry and exit into the various cities around the country.

Bangladesh 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) BDT IMF. (accessed 1 May 2020). Ministry of Public Administration. (accsessed 29 June 2020).

(i) Individuals have been requested not to leave their homes except to collect daily necessities and emergency supplies, and to wear masks when outside; and (ii) A lockdown has been imposed on 75 hotspots in Dhaka where cases have been identified, and a curfew is in operation from 6pm to 6am.

Belgium 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR Brussels Times. (accessed 4 January 2020); IMF. (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) 11 June 2020, Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iii) 18 June 2020, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (iii) 20 December 2020, A closure of borders to and from the United Kingdom has been implemented given the new COVID-19 strain.

Bhutan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) BTN/INR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); PMO. (accessed 20 July 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 11 August 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 02 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 11 September 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed on 13 November 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 15 December 2020); Government of Bhutan. (accessed 12 January 2021).

(i) 6 March 2020, Restriction of entry of foreign tourists initially for two weeks but extended afterwards; (ii) 22 March 2020, Bhutan sealed off its land borders as a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19. For non-Bhutanese, exits are allowed. Incoming non-Bhutanese are scrutinized and quarantined where applicable; (iii) 10 September 2020, The Government released new guidelines on the movement of individuals throughout the country; (iv) 10 November 2020, The Government of Bhutan launched a system based "fit to fly certificate" in place of handwritten certificates to all Bhutanese travelling abroad; (v) 14 December 2020, All incoming passengers to Bhutan are requested to mandatorily declare their health status through an online platform; (vi) 8 January 2021, A revised protocol for stranded individuals has been released, i.e., (a) 3 days of mandatory facility quarantine at the place of origin for emergency travels from Thimphu and Paro to other dzongkhags, (b) 7 days of mandatory facility quarantine at the place of origin for other stranded individuals who need to return to their place of residence, (c) a negative antigen test for travelers from high-risk areas.

Brazil 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) BRL KPMG. (accessed 29 April 2020).

(i) Several travel restrictions for individuals coming to Brazil (Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, and Suriname, Uruguay, the People’s Republic of China, the European Union member states, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, the United Kingdom & Northern Ireland, Australia, Japan, and Malaysia).

Brunei Darussalam 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) BND IMF. (accessed 1 May 2020, 14 May 2020).

(i) The government is actively responding to the risks of the pandemic from spreading further by implementing a range of measures, including strict inbound and outbound travel restrictions and banning all mass gatherings, including weddings and sporting events; (ii) MOH actively rolling out a contact tracing app (“BruHealth”) for residents to download before they are given the green light to visit public places.

Cambodia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) KHR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government has announced foreigners wishing to travel to Cambodia the need to obtain a visa at a Cambodian diplomatic mission abroad, a health certificate before departure, and sufficient travel insurance; (ii) 20 May 2020, The authorities have lifted the entry ban on citizens from Iran, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, and the US; (iii) 11 August 2020, The Inter-Ministerial Commission for Combating COVID-19 issued a press release on the temporary suspension of flights from the Philippines from August 13, 2020 onward; (iv) 11 November 2020, The Ministry of Health issued the updated guidance on travel and the implementation of health measures and quarantine requiring passengers to quarantine at government approved facilities, effective 18 November 2020.

Canada 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) CAD International Monetary Fund. (accessed 10 June 2020).

Travel restrictions

Cook Islands 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) NZD
Denmark 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) DKK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 8 September 2020). Manila Bulletin. (accessed 7 January 2021). Schengen Visa Info. (accessed 14 January 2021). AP News. (accessed 28 January 2021)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down; (ii) 6 January 2021, Denmark is barring entry to residents of the UK and South Africa until 17 January 2021 due to fears over the spread of a new strain of the coronavirus there; (iii) 11 January 2021, Citizens of all countries have been banned from entering Denmark from 9 until 18 January. As of 13 January, this has been extended to 7 February; (iv) 23 January 2021, Suspension of all flights from the United Arab Emirates for five days. [update]

European Central Bank 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR
European Union 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. (accessed 29 April 2020); Council of the EU. (accessed 26 January 2021); EC (accessed 26 January 2021); EC. (accessed 26 January 2021).

(i) Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June 2020 and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions; (ii) 13 October 2020, The European Council adopts a recommendation to coordinate measures affecting free movement with the region. EU member states have agreed on a common approach to travel measures and developed common criteria for mapping risk (for details, see: 3ogFom7). The coordinated approach ensures freedom of movement, increases transparency for citizens and businesses and avoids fragmentation and disruption of services. 25 January 2021, In light of the new coronavirus variant, the EC proposes to update the Council recommendation on the agreed color code for the mapping of risk areas and Stricter measures for travelers from higher-risk areas [update]; (iii) 25 January 2021, EC proposes additional safeguards on travel from outside the EU and updated criteria for applying travel restrictions [update].

Federated States of Micronesia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) USD IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020).

(ii) The national and state governments have introduced travel restrictions; banning or requiring 14-day self-quarantine prior to entry into the Federated States of Micronesia; and restricting residents from traveling abroad; (i) November 30, relaxed outward travel restrictions, allowing residents to travel abroad.

Fiji 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) FJD IMF. (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) The authorities have been proactive in their efforts to keep the virus out of Fiji by early imposition of travel restrictions; (ii) Nationwide curfew and lockdowns have also been put into place.

Finland 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. (accessed 1 May 2020); IMF. (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. (accessed 3 October 2020); (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. (accessed 28 November 2020); Schengenvisainfo. (accessed 6 January 2021); Finland Government. (accessed 27 January 2021).

16 March 2020, The government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on 14 April 2020. On 4 May 2020, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on 14 May 2020, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on 1 June 2020, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on 31 July 2020, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective 16 June 2020, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on 1 October 2020. On 23 June 2020, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of 13 July 2020, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19. On 18 August 2020, the government reinstated travel restrictions on traffic between Finland and several countries based on their 14-day incidence rates. This is in addition to entry restrictions for three countries introduced on 6 August 2020. The government adopted on 11 September 2020 a decision to continue internal border checks and restrictions on border traffic, which entered into force on 19 September 2020 and will continue through 18 October 2020. The government also adopted a resolution on a hybrid strategy for cross-border traffic and travel which requires a rapid increase in cross-border testing capacity and analysis by 10,000 tests/day. This would allow a more flexible approach to border restrictions. On 24 September 2020, the government reintroduced travel restrictions between Finland and several Schengen area countries. On 19 November 2020, the government decided to extend till 13 December 2020 the entry restrictions into Finland due to the acceleration of the COVID-19 epidemic elsewhere. The government continues to recommend that Finnish citizens and residents avoid unnecessary travel to high-risk countries. On 10 December 2020, the government prolonged the current entry restrictions to 12 January 2021, due to a surge in the number of Coronavirus cases in many countries worldwide. Finland continues to restrict entry for all internationals wishing to enter the country from the following select Schengen states. On 22 January 2021, The government decided to tighten internal and external border traffic and recommendations on testing and quarantine [update].

France 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. (accessed 21 May 2020); France Government. (6 January 2020)

(i) The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. On 11 May 2020, France started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. Most major domestic restrictions were lifted as of 22 June 2020. Internal and intra-European travel restrictions have also been lifted; (ii) 28 December 2020, Internal European borders remain open but with some exceptions external borders are closed. All travelers arriving in France will be tested at airports and ports.

Georgia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) GEL UNESCAP. (accessed 13 December 2020). (accessed 28 January 2021)

(i) From 21 March 2020 to 22 May 2020, The country was under a state of emergency closing domestic and international borders. Domestic tourism reopened on 15 June 2020, while international tourists were accepted starting September; (ii) 22 January 2021, Public transport will remain closed in the capital city of Tbilisi, as well as in two large cities of Rustavi and Kutaisi until 1 March. In the port cities of Batumi and Poti, as well as in Zugdidi, Gori and Telavi, municipal transport (albeit available only on workdays) will resume as planned starting 1 February. [update]

Germany 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR OECD. (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 4 June 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 8 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 28 November 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) On 15 April 2020, The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since 16-19 March. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On 2 April 2020, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from 25 March onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April 2020. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting 18 March 2020; (iii) 10 May 2020, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (iv) 6 May 2020, Border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (v) 28 May 2020, Control of lifting the lockdown lies on the federal states. Border controls were eased on 15 May with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on 15 June; (vi) 3 June 2020, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries; (vii) 17 June 2020, Containment measures re-imposed in two municipalities in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia after a resurgence in new COVID-19 cases (“emergency brake"). Restrictions were eased on 6 July; (viii) 22 October 2020, The Federal Foreign Office has issued travel warnings for other regions in Europe due to the increased number of COVID-19 cases. All of Poland and Switzerland as well as large parts of Italy and almost all of Austria are designated as risk areas, effective October 24; (ix) 5 January 2021, Under the extended lockdown until 31 January 2021 (now extended to 14 February 2021), those residing in districts where new infections are above 200 per 100,000 people over the last seven days will be banned from travelling beyond a 15-kilometre radius of the zones; (x) 30 January 2021, Travelers arriving from "virus-variant" countries are not allowed to enter Germany until 17 February 2021. [update]

Hong Kong, China 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) HKD IMF. (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. (accessed 11 November 2020). The Straits Times. (accessed 22 November 2020).

(i) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On 8 June 2020, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city. (ii) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from 25 March 2020. (ii) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (iii) 2 June 2020, Authorities extended restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September 2020. (iv) 11 November 2020, Hong Kong,China and Singapore authorities annouced the resumption of travel between the two cities without mandatory quarantine on 22 November 2020 following a previous travel bubble announcement. On 21 November 2020, Authorities announced the suspension of the travel bubble following escalating cases in Hong Kong, China.

India 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) INR Mint. (accessed 4 January 2020); IMF. (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) 21 March 2020, A temporary ban for a week on international flights landing in the country for a week; (ii) 24 March 2020, The entire country was placed under lockdown for 21 days which, on 14 April 2020, was further extended to 17 May 2020; (iii) 26 March 2020, Extended ban on all international flights till 15 April 2020, excluding approved all-cargo operations and flights; (iv) 27 October 2020, The latest government announcements extended localized lockdowns till 30 November 2020, under the same guidelines as in “Unlock 5.0”; (v) 21 December 2020, India has followed suit in banning travel to and from the United Kingdom in light of the recent COVID-19 strain.

Indonesia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) IDR IMF. (accessed 5 May 2020). OECD. (accessed 5 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 2 June 2020). Reuters. (accessed 9 June 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 28 December 2020). Reuters. (accessed 11 January 2021).

(i) Travel- and transport-related restrictions include temporary bans on domestic and international air and sea travel, screening at ports of entry, and reduced transportation. The government has also banned Indonesia’s traditional annual exodus for Muslim holidays in 2020 in an effort to curb the spread of the virus from Jakarta and other high-risk regions; (ii)) 2 June 2020, The government canceled the haj pilgrimage to Mecca due to COVID-19; (iii) 9 June 2020, Domestic flights resumed at 70% capacity with observance of strict health protocols; (iv) On 28 December 2020, Authorities imposed a two-week ban on international visitors starting 1 January 2020 to prevent the spread of the more contagious coronavirus strain identified in the United Kingdom. The regulation applies to all foreign visitors except for high-level government officials. On 11 January 2021, Authorities extended its ban on international visitors by further two weeks.

Ireland 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IE.; IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. (accessed 31 October 2020); IE. (accessed 5 January 2021); IE. (accessed 6 January 2021); Irish Times. (accessed 7 January 2021); IE.

(i) The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On 27 March 2020, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until 5 May 2020, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August; (ii) On 5 October 2020, the level of restrictions was raised from 2 to 3 due to a surge in new cases (infection incidence rate has tripled from 31 to 109 per 100,000 in the last two weeks), implying traveling restrictions outside county/region, a ban on indoor gatherings and sport events, additional restrictions on restaurants and bars; (iii) On 19 October 2020, the government made a decision to move to the highest level 5 restrictions from the level 3 introduced on 5 October 2020 due to a surge in new cases. This implies traveling restrictions within 5 km, closure of non-essential retail and personal services, a ban on indoor/outdoor gatherings, restaurants and bars can only offer take-away, construction and manufacturing will be allowed to operate, schools and childcare centers will remain open; (vi) 20 December 2020, in response to the identification of a new strain of COVID-19 in the South-East of England, the government has announced a ban on all flights arriving into Ireland from Great Britain with effect from midnight of 20 December 2020; (vii) 22 December 2020, Ireland’s was put on Level 5 restrictions from midnight on 24 December until 12 January with specific adjustments – residents must remain within their county (as opposed to within 5km of their home) apart from travel for work, education or other essential purposes. The government has also agreed that the current restrictions on travel from Britain to Ireland should remain in place until at least 31 December 2020; (viii) 5 January 2021, from 8 January 2021, the “stay at home” advice will become legally enforceable. People must have a “reasonable excuse” to be away from their home; (ix) 7 January 2021, schools will remain closed from 11 January 2021 to reduce mobility in the community.

Islamic Republic of Iran 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) IRR IMF. (accessed 15 December 2020).

(i) Stopped flights from China; (ii) 27 April 2020, reopened all international borders (except Turkmenistan) to revive regional trade; (iii) 28 November 2020, new restrictions like curfew and lockdowns and mandatory wearing of mask in affected regions.

Italy 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. (accessed 2 November 2020); IMF. (accessed 12 November 2020); Reuters. (accessed 14 December 2020); The Local Italy. (accessed 4 January 2020).

(i) Travel is restricted; (ii) People can now travel within their own region, and mobility restrictions across regions has been lifted on 3 June 2020, when international borders also reopen without restriction to and from other EU countries; (iii) Rapid Covid tests are required for travelers coming back from a number of countries in Europe; (iv) 8 October 2020, The Minister of Health, Roberto Speranza, has signed a new Ordinance, which provides for urgent measures to contain and manage the current health emergency. In particular, the Ordinance provides for the obligation of molecular or antigenic testing for those coming from or transiting in some European countries at greater risk for Covid-19 in the 14 days prior to entry into Italy, and the obligation to communicate entry into Italy to the Department of Prevention of the Local Health Authority; (v) A nationwide curfew is in place from 10pm to 5am. Public transportation capacity is reduced to 50%; (vi) Travelling into high risk regions (and between municipalities in these regions) is only permissible for essential work- and health-related reasons; (ix) 4 December 2020, Italy approved new restrictions including halting movement between towns during the Christmas and New Year season, as the country posted its highest daily death toll of the pandemic; (x) 22 December 2020, Italy allows citizens to return from UK despite a travel ban in place until 6 January 2021 due to the new coronavirus strain.

Japan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) JPY IMF. (accessed 6 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. (accessed 1 September 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 7 October 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 30 November 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 28 December 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 14 January 2021); The Japan Times. (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 7 April 2020, Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency for seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from 8 April (including border and travel restrictions); (ii) On 19 June 2020, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy; (iii) 18 June 2020, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On 1 September 2020, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. On 7 October 2020, Authorities announced the lifting of mandatory 14-day quarantine for reentering business travelers with residency status and action plans of travel. On 30 November 2020, Japan and China restarted business travel without compulsory quarantine provided travelers test negative upon arrival and submit an itinerary of activities. On 26 December 2020, Authorities restricted entry from all countries once more to prevent the spread of the more contagious coronavirus strain identified in the United Kingdom. Bilateral business travel arrangements with 11 countries, however, will remain in place. 13 January 2021, 14-day quarantine period will be applied to all those who enter Japan. 14 January 2021, Authorities suspended business travel arrangements with 11 countries. 4 February 2021, A revised quarantine law was passed that allows authorities to demand those entering Japan to isolate themselves for 14 days at home, and those who refuse will be ordered to quarantine at special facilities [update].

Kazakhstan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) KZT UNESCAP. (accessed 6 December 2020)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government imposed stringent border controls and testing requirements at the borders; (ii) Internal flights have resumed, but borders remain closed to non-citizens, as well as international flights from COVID-19 affected countries; (iii) The visa exemption for 56 countries (including EU and France) has been suspended until 1 November.

Kiribati 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD International Monetary Fund (IMF). (accesed 13 April 2020).

(i) January 2020, Travel restrictions have been in place; (ii) 21 March 2020, Borders have been closed except for delivery of essential goods (quarantine requirements apply at all ports).

Kyrgyz Republic 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) KGS IMF. (accesed 26 May 2020, 24 June 2020); CAREC Institute (accessed 26 May 2020, 11 June 2020); Kabar. (accessed 8 August 2020); Kabar. (accessed 11 September 2020). Kabar. (accessed 25 September 2020).

(i) 25 May 2020, Public transport has opened; (ii) April 2020, The authorities have taken drastic measures to prevent the outbreak including (a) the closure of borders with People's Republic of China where 36% of imports of goods originate, and (b) border restrictions with Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan; (iii) From 5 June 2020, domestic flights and public transport between the regions of Kyrgyz Republic restarted; (iv) From 8 June 2020, restriction on visits to religious institutions is lifted; (v) 15 June 2020, International flights resumed; (vi) 7 August 2020, The Kyrgyz Republic resumed its international flights with Turkey and United Arab Emirates; (vii) 10 September 2020, The Kyrgyz Republic resumed its international flights with Kuwait; (viii) The Kyrgyz Republic resumed its international flights with Kazakhstan on 20 September 2020 and with Russian Federation on 21 September 2020.

Lao PDR 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) LAK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 26 May 2020, 13 June 2020); Vientiane Times. (accessed 31 July 2020); Laotian Times. (accessed 12 October 2020); Vientiane Times. (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 4 May 2020: Travel and public transport within each province are now permitted but inter-provincial travel and public transport including air transport; (ii) 18 May 2020: In country travel and public transport are now permitted; (iii) 10 June 2020, The government announced that the last patient has fully recovered and discharged from hospital. Consequently: (a) In-country travel and public transport are fully operational; (b) With the exception of certain checkpoints allowed by the government, border checkpoints for individuals and transportation of goods, will remain closed as will all international borders. However, foreign businessmen, investors, workers for large investment projects as well as diplomats and foreign experts with proper medical certification and authorization can enter the country but have to be quarantined for 14 days; (iv) 1-31 August 2020: (a) Shuttle flights will be suspended; (b) Closure of traditional and local border checkpoints, except those permitted by the government for goods transport. International checkpoints remain closed for regular travellers, except essential crossings for Lao and foreign nationals who are permitted by the task force committee. Transportation of goods via the international checkpoints is allowed as normal; and (c) Suspending the issuing of tourist or visiting visas for those travelling from or transiting via countries where there is COVID-19 outbreak. Foreign diplomats, the staff of international organizations, experts, investors, business people, technical personnel, and workers deemed essential to take up missions in Lao PDR can enter the country upon approval by the task force committee; (v) 1 October 2020, Ban on charter flights will be eased; (vi) As of 3 February 2021, The Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Public Security, in cooperation with authorities in Vientiane and the provinces, especially border provinces, have been urged to strengthen border patrols until 28 February 2021 [update].

Luxembourg 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR Luxembourg COVID-19 portal. (accessed 28 January 2021)

26 January 2021, Anyone, regardless of nationality, aged 6 or over, wishing to travel by air to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, must present upon boarding the negative result (on paper or electronic document) of a test that detects SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, or of a rapid antigen test, performed up to 72 hours before the flight. In addition, any person traveling by air from a third country, that is a country that is not a member of the European Union or the Schengen area, will have to undergo an additional rapid antigen test upon arrival at Luxembourg. In case of refusal to undergo this test, the person will remain in quarantine for a period of 14 days. This measure will be in place for all air travel to Luxembourg from 29 January to 28 February. [update]

Malaysia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MYR IMF. (accessed 15 June 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 18-31 March 2020, extended until 14 April 2020: Borders are closed; (ii) 10 June 2020, borders will remain closed and overseas travel restricted until at least 31 August 2020; (iii) 11 January 2021, Interstate travel across the nation is barred during the Movement Control Order (MCO). For states under MCO, inter-district crossings will not be allowed as well.

Maldives 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MVR IMF. (accessed 19 April 2020); The Edition. (accessed 5 February 2021).

(i) 12 March 2020, The government declared a Public Health Emergency. There are several adopted containment measures, including (a) temporary suspension of on-arrival visa for all passengers arriving to Maldives by air and sea, (b) quarantine for all passengers traveling to Maldives by air except for tourists checking-in to resorts, (c) screening at ports of entry, (d) restrictions on travel between resorts and inhabited islands, (e) ban on all cruise ships from entering and docking; (ii) July 2020, International flights as well as tourism island resorts reopened; (ii) 2 February 2021, The HPA announced vehicle movement restrictions across the Greater Malé Region from 3 February 2021, for a period of 14 days [update].

Marshall Islands 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) USD IMF. (accessed 13 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 24 June 2020).

(i) 24 January 2020, Travel restrictions from affected countries have been imposed; (ii) 8 March 2020, Entry of all international travelers by commercial flight has been suspended; (iii) April 2020, To ensure food and other supplies, container vessels and fuel tankers have been exempted from entry restrictions, but with strict safety requirements including prohibition of human contacts and a minimum of 14 days between departure from ten restricted countries and arrival in Marshall Islands; (iv) May 2020, To ensure continuity of transshipment services, a limited number of carrier vessels and purse seiners can enter Marshall Islands for transshipment, after spending 14 days at sea and only after clearance by corresponding agencies; and (v) Container vessels and fuel tankers that have a history of entering Majuro and Ebeye ports with same crew and corresponding health records can enter ports (no disembarkation) without a 14-day quarantine.

Mexico 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MXN IMF. (accessed 30 April 2020).

Travel restrictions and social distancing measures.

Mongolia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MNT IMF. (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. (accessed 30 July 2020).

13 February 2020, Travel ban was imposed from high-risk countries.

Myanmar 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MMK IMF. (accesed 24 July 2020); Ministry of Hotels and Tourism. (accessed 13 July 2020); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. (accessed 02 September 2020).

(i) April 2020, Travel restrictions have been announced, i.e. suspension of visa issuances and international flights, and closure of several land borders; (ii) 7 July 2020, Myanmar government announced that it is opening for domestic travel, but incoming international travelers will not be allowed until the end of July 2020; (iii) July 2020, Restrictions on visa issuances and international passenger flights have been extended to 31 July 2020; (iv) 2 September 2020, The temporary ban on international commercial flights was extended to 30 September 2020.