Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Brunei Darussalam 07 07 - Central bank financing government BND
Brunei Darussalam 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown BND
Brunei Darussalam 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BND
Cambodia 07 07 - Central bank financing government KHR
Cambodia 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown KHR
Cambodia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities KHR
Indonesia 07 07 - Central bank financing government IDR 788,840,000,000,000 51,915,901,682
Indonesia 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown IDR 622,630,000,000,000 40,977,128,270 The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/04/23/bank-indonesia-buys-108m-of-government-bonds-at-auction-first-time-since-rule-change.html (accessed 27 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-28-Mei-2020.aspx (accessed 2 June 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-5-Juni-2020.aspx (accessed 10 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-economy/indonesia-unveils-40-billion-bond-scheme-to-fund-recovery-from-pandemic-idUSKBN2471AZ?il=0 (accessed 6 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_225220.aspx (accessed 16 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_226420.aspx (accessed 19 August 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_227120.aspx (accessed 2 October 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_227520.aspx (accessed 5 November 2020).

(i) 21 April 2020, BI directly purchased IDR1.7 trillion (USD108 million) worth of sharia sovereign bonds during an auction held by the government for the first time. As of 8 October 2020, BI has purchased IDR60.18 trillion in the primary market through auction schemes, greenshoe options and private placements under the April 16 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance; (ii) No amount/estimate: In line with BI's expanded financial stability mandate as mentioned in (v) of Measure 1A, BI is authorized to finance the deposit insurance agency (LPS) for bank solvency problems. (vi) 6 July 2020, BI agreed to directly purchase IDR397.6 trillion worth of government bonds at 0% interest and be a standby buyer for IDR177 trillion in auctions at 1 percentage point below the benchmark rate to help finance the central government's pandemic response efforts under the July 7 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance. As of 8 October 2020, BI has made IDR229.68 trillion in primary market purchases through private placements under this agreement.

Indonesia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities IDR 166,210,000,000,000 10,938,773,412 Bank Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_223020.aspx; https://www.bi.go.id/id/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/BI-Terbitkan-Ketentuan-Pelaksanaan-Lelang-SUN-dan-atau-SBSN-Jangka-Panjang-di-Pasar-Perdana.aspx (accessed 27 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020).

From January to April 2020, IDR166.21 trillion purchases of government securities (SBN) in the secondary market by BI.

Lao PDR 07 07 - Central bank financing government LAK
Lao PDR 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown LAK
Lao PDR 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities LAK
Malaysia 07 07 - Central bank financing government MYR 9,162,448,069 2,132,885,160
Malaysia 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown MYR
Malaysia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities MYR 9,162,448,069 2,132,885,160 Bank Negara Malaysia. https://www.bnm.gov.my/-/bnm-statement-of-assets-liabilities-29-january-2021 (accessed 19 February 2021).

29 January 2021, The Malaysian Government Papers purchased by the Bank Negara Malaysia amounted to MYR11.14 billion. This is equal to an increase of MYR9.16 billion from 31 December 2019 (total of MYR1.98 billion) [update].

Myanmar 07 07 - Central bank financing government MMK
Myanmar 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown MMK
Myanmar 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities MMK
Philippines 07 07 - Central bank financing government PHP 1,622,000,000,000 31,864,151,062
Philippines 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown PHP 1,560,000,000,000 30,646,162,550 BSP. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/publications/media.asp?id=5329 (accessed 7 April 2020). BSP. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/publications/media.asp?id=5336 (accessed 21 May 2020). PDI. https://business.inquirer.net/305953/ph-debt-to-breach-p10-trillion-in-2020-nearly-p12-trillion-in-2021 (accessed 26 August 2020). BusinessWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/bsp-can-lend-more-to-govt-under-bayanihan-ii/ (accessed 15 September 2020). BusinessWorld. https://www.bworldonline.com/monetary-board-approves-p540-billion-advance-to-ng/ (accessed 2 October 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-philippines-cenbank/philippine-govt-seeks-another-11-bln-funding-support-from-c-bank-idUSL4N2J91GT (accessed 3 January 2021).

(i) 23 March 2020, To further support the Filipino people during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Monetary Board authorized the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) to purchase government securities from the Bureau of Treasury (BTR) under a repurchase agreement in the amount of PHP300 billion with a maximum repayment period of 6 months. On 26 August 2020, The BTR stated programmed borrowings from the BSP total PHP500 trillion (out of a ceiling of PHP540 billion) in 2020 and PHP1 trillion in 2021. After the passage of the Bayanihan 2 Law on 11 September 2020, the cap on provisional advances by the BSP to the national government has effectively increased to 30% of the government's average revenue for fiscal years 2017-2019 or from PHP540 billion to PHP850 billion. On 30 September 2020, The BSP approved an additional PHP540 billion provisional advance to the national government following the Treasury's repayment of the initial PHP300 billion advance (this brings the total borrowing to PHP840 billion versus the PHP850 billion ceiling). 29 December 2020, The Treasury announced it is seeking another PHP540 billion loan from the BSP; (ii) 26 March 2020, The BSP remitted PHP20 billion pesos in dividends to the national government despite no longer being required to do so under its newly amended charter.

Philippines 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities PHP 62,000,000,000 1,217,988,512 BSP. http://www.bsp.gov.ph/publications/media.asp?id=5352 (accessed 1 May 2020). Bank for International Settlements. https://www.bis.org/review/r200427a.htm (accessed 28 April 2020).

(i) 24 March 2020, BSP opened a daily one-hour window to purchase selected highly traded and liquid government securities from banks at market prices; (ii) From 8 April 2020, all peso-denominated government securities issuances could be purchased by the BSP. Window will remain open between April and June 2020, or until market conditions return to normal; (iii) As of 22 April 2020, PHP62 billion in government securities (GS) have been purchased by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) as part of expanded GS purchases that began on 24 March 2020.

Singapore 07 07 - Central bank financing government SGD 53,700,000,000 37,910,342,393
Singapore 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown SGD 53,700,000,000 37,910,342,393 SingaporeBudget.gov. https://www.singaporebudget.gov.sg/budget_2020/fortitude-budget/fortitude-budget-statement (accessed 30 May 2020). Singapore, Ministry of Finance. https://www.mof.gov.sg/singaporebudget/budget-speech (accessed 17 February 2021).

(i) As of 26 May 2020, the President has given in-principle support to draw up to SGD52 billion from past reserves to fund COVID-19 measures; 16 February 2021, Of the SGD52 billion budget, the government expects to utilize SGD42.7 billion; (ii) In FY2021, an additional SGD11 billion has been committed for the COVID-19 Resilience Package which will be drawn from past reserves, bringing the total to SGD53.7 billion or a net increase of SGD1.7 billion [update].

Singapore 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities SGD
Thailand 07 07 - Central bank financing government THB 100,000,000,000 3,114,510,647
Thailand 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown THB
Thailand 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities THB 100,000,000,000 3,114,510,647 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

The BOT purchased government bonds in excess of THB100 billion in March 2020 to ensure the normal functioning of the government bond market.

Timor-Leste 07 07 - Central bank financing government USD
Timor-Leste 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown USD
Timor-Leste 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities USD
Viet Nam 07 07 - Central bank financing government VND
Viet Nam 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown VND
Viet Nam 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities VND
Brunei Darussalam 07 07 - Central bank financing government BND
Brunei Darussalam 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown BND
Brunei Darussalam 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BND
Cambodia 07 07 - Central bank financing government KHR
Cambodia 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown KHR
Cambodia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities KHR
Indonesia 07 07 - Central bank financing government IDR 788,840,000,000,000 51,915,901,682
Indonesia 07A 07A - Direct lending & reserve drawdown IDR 622,630,000,000,000 40,977,128,270 The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/04/23/bank-indonesia-buys-108m-of-government-bonds-at-auction-first-time-since-rule-change.html (accessed 27 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-28-Mei-2020.aspx (accessed 2 June 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-5-Juni-2020.aspx (accessed 10 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-economy/indonesia-unveils-40-billion-bond-scheme-to-fund-recovery-from-pandemic-idUSKBN2471AZ?il=0 (accessed 6 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_225220.aspx (accessed 16 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_226420.aspx (accessed 19 August 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_227120.aspx (accessed 2 October 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_227520.aspx (accessed 5 November 2020).

(i) 21 April 2020, BI directly purchased IDR1.7 trillion (USD108 million) worth of sharia sovereign bonds during an auction held by the government for the first time. As of 8 October 2020, BI has purchased IDR60.18 trillion in the primary market through auction schemes, greenshoe options and private placements under the April 16 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance; (ii) No amount/estimate: In line with BI's expanded financial stability mandate as mentioned in (v) of Measure 1A, BI is authorized to finance the deposit insurance agency (LPS) for bank solvency problems. (vi) 6 July 2020, BI agreed to directly purchase IDR397.6 trillion worth of government bonds at 0% interest and be a standby buyer for IDR177 trillion in auctions at 1 percentage point below the benchmark rate to help finance the central government's pandemic response efforts under the July 7 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance. As of 8 October 2020, BI has made IDR229.68 trillion in primary market purchases through private placements under this agreement.

Indonesia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities IDR 166,210,000,000,000 10,938,773,412 Bank Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_223020.aspx; https://www.bi.go.id/id/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/BI-Terbitkan-Ketentuan-Pelaksanaan-Lelang-SUN-dan-atau-SBSN-Jangka-Panjang-di-Pasar-Perdana.aspx (accessed 27 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020).

From January to April 2020, IDR166.21 trillion purchases of government securities (SBN) in the secondary market by BI.