Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936
Australia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AUD
Australia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936 RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-17.html (accessed 8 July 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-20.html (accessed 01 September 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-24.html (accessed 07 October 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2020/sp-gov-2020-11-03.html (accessed 04 November 2020).

(i) April 2020, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On 5 May 2020, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. 5 May, 2 June, 7 July, 1 September, and 6 October 2020, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting. 3 November 2020, RBA announced that it will reduce the 3-year yield target rate from 0.25% to 0.10%; (ii) 3 November 2020, The RBA announced that it intends to purchase AUD100 billion of government bonds issued by the Australian Government as well as by the states and territories over the next six months.

Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD
Australia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/more-flights-helping-australians-return (accessed 19 October 2020).

(i) March 2020, Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) 14 July 2020, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (iii) 16 October 2020, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months;

Australia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Australia 12C 12C - Others AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020); Government of Australia. https://www.australia.gov.au/framework-national-reopening (accessed 27 October 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/tasmania-help-more-australians-return-home (accessed on 09 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.australia.gov.au/content/dam/australia/news-and-updates/framework-national-reopening-nov2020.pdf (accessed 16 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.covid-19.sa.gov.au/emergency-declarations/public-activities (accessed 24 November 2020).

(i) March 2020, Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (ii) March 2020, Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (iii) March 2020, Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (iv) 26 April 2020, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (v) 8 May 2020, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (vi) 30 July 2020, The government published guidance on wearing face masks; (vii) 23 October 2020, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19; (viii) 7 November 2020, The Australian and Tasmanian Governments have agreed to provide an additional 450 spaces in quarantine facilities to help more Australians return home from abroad; (ix) 13 November 2020, The Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory agreed to a new ‘Framework for National Reopening Australia by Christmas’ subject to local health advice; (x) 22 November 2020, The Emergency Management (Stay at Home No.3) Direction 2020 has been released by the government to update rules on public activities and management of places where these activities occur.

Austria 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Austria 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Austria 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Austria 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, lockdowns became stricter and stricter and covering more countries as the situation developed; (ii) By 16 March 2020, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions; (iii) The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from 5 June 2020; (iv) 16 June 2020, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries.

Austria 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines; (ii) 13 April 2020, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May; (iii) Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since 1 June 2020; (iv) The authorities eventually announced a 4-week partial lockdown effective on 3 November 2020. Compared to the first lockdown, the second lockdown is relatively more lenient. While restaurants and bar are ordered to be closed, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools remain open.

Austria 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) Anti-COVID19 measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts; (ii) By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, the Bundesliga was allowed to restart; (iii) 15 June 2020, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 24 July 2020, pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas; (v) In September 2020, this tightening extended to indoors and public institutions; (vi) The authorities eventually announced a partial second lockdown between 3 November and 6 December 2020. Industry and manufacturing continue to open while restaurants, bars, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools are closed. This lockdown was subsequently tightened from 17 November 2020. [update]

Belgium 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Belgium 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Belgium 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Belgium 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR Brussels Times. https://www.brusselstimes.com/news/belgium-all-news/health/146417/belgium-could-extend-uk-travel-ban-by-weeks-border-closure-annelies-verlinden-eu-ambassadors-boris-johnson-matt-hancock-channel-eurotunnel-dover/ (accessed 4 January 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) 11 June 2020, Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iii) 18 June 2020, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (iii) 20 December 2020, A closure of borders to and from the United Kingdom has been implemented given the new COVID-19 strain. [update]

Belgium 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on 4 May 2020, to be followed by shops (11 May 2020 and 18 May 2020).

Belgium 12C 12C - Others EUR Brussels Times. https://www.brusselstimes.com/news/belgium-all-news/health/148163/belgium-starts-large-scale-coronavirus-vaccination-campaign-pfizer-biontech-official-vaccine-rollout-health-minister-frank-vandenbroucke-european-medicines-agency-ema-moderna-commission/ (accessed 7 January 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes; (ii) The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by 8 June 2020, while sporting events remain banned until 31 July 2020; (iii) 11 June 2020, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of 8 June 2020; (iv) 23 July 2020, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (v) 20 August 2020, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted; (vi) Schools, except universities, have fully reopened in September, with in-person classes; (vii) Containment measures have been ramped up significantly since early October amidst a sharp resurgence of cases and hospitalizations culminating in a new lockdown from 2 November 2020; (viii) While non-essential shops were allowed to reopen from 1 December 2020, other restrictions and social distancing rules will remain in place until January 15, 2021 [update]; (ix) 5 January 2020, Belgium has started its large-scale coronavirus vaccination campaign [update].

Canada 07 07 - Central bank financing government CAD 348,918,000,000 250,075,613,689
Canada 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown CAD 115,008,000,000 82,428,238,667

BoC purchases of T-bills were in the primary market as they were auctioned; As of 6 January 2021, current T-bill holdings have increased by CAD27.694 billion since the end of February 2020, with the maximum increase occurring on 29 July 2020 at CAD115.008 billion. [update]

Canada 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities CAD 233,910,000,000 167,647,375,022 Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Government of Canada Bond Purchase Program (GBPP): Purchases will begin with a minimum of CAD5 billion per week across the yield curve. The program will be adjusted as conditions warrant but will continue until the economic recovery is well underway; on 28 October 2020, BoC announced purchases would gradually decline to CAD4 billion per week; As of 6 January 2021, the increase in government bonds owned by BoC has risen to CAD230.394 billion since the purchases in response to COVID-19 began, which is also the peak figure [update]; (ii) 3 June 2020, Bank of Canada began purchasing Government of Canada Real Return Bonds; as of 6 January 2021, the purchased amount is CAD3.516 billion, which is also the peak value (pre-COVID BoC did not hold government real return bonds). [update]

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD
Canada 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

Travel restrictions

Canada 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Social distancing measures; (ii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iii) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces.

Canada 12C 12C - Others CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Reopening the economy. On 28 April 2020, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 07 07 - Central bank financing government DKK
Denmark 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown DKK
Denmark 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities DKK
Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK
Denmark 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). Manila Bulletin. https://mb.com.ph/2021/01/06/denmark-bars-south-african-residents-over-new-virus-strain/ (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down; (ii) 6 January 2021, Denmark is barring entry to residents of the UK and South Africa until 17 January 2021 due to fears over the spread of a new strain of the coronavirus there. [update]

Denmark 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20210105/latest-denmark-moves-to-highest-covid-19-alert-level-amid-concerns-over-b117-variant (accessed 7 January 2021)

(i) All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of 20 May 2020. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by 15 April 2020 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions. As of 8 October 2020, all current restrictions will be in place until 31 October; (iii) 5 January 2021, The COVID-19 risk level used by authorities is to be increased from level 4 to level 5. This level indicates “widespread infection in society”, as well as “a risk that treatment capacity at hospitals will be exceeded”. Along with this, the limit on assembly in public will be reduced from 10 to 5 people. [update]

Denmark 12C 12C - Others DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201007/denmark-extends-covid-19-restrictions-as-new-cases-in-copenhagen-drop (accessed 8 September 2020)

(i) The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy; (ii) As of 26 October 2020, Denmark has reduced the maximum number of people who are allowed to gather in public from 50 to 10, subject to exemptions for essential activities, etc. This measure will be initially effective for 4 weeks.

Finland 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Finland 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Finland 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Finland 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 3 October 2020); https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020); Schengenvisainfo. https://www.schengenvisainfo.com/news/finland-extends-entry-restrictions-to-january-12/ (accessed 6 January 2021).

16 March 2020, The government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on 14 April 2020. On 4 May 2020, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on 14 May 2020, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on 1 June 2020, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on 31 July 2020, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective 16 June 2020, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on 1 October 2020. On 23 June 2020, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of 13 July 2020, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19. On 18 August 2020, the government reinstated travel restrictions on traffic between Finland and several countries based on their 14-day incidence rates. This is in addition to entry restrictions for three countries introduced on 6 August 2020. The government adopted on 11 September 2020 a decision to continue internal border checks and restrictions on border traffic, which entered into force on 19 September 2020 and will continue through 18 October 2020. The government also adopted a resolution on a hybrid strategy for cross-border traffic and travel which requires a rapid increase in cross-border testing capacity and analysis by 10,000 tests/day. This would allow a more flexible approach to border restrictions. On 24 September 2020, the government reintroduced travel restrictions between Finland and several Schengen area countries. On 19 November 2020, the government decided to extend till 13 December 2020 the entry restrictions into Finland due to the acceleration of the COVID-19 epidemic elsewhere. The government continues to recommend that Finnish citizens and residents avoid unnecessary travel to high-risk countries. On 10 December 2020, the government prolonged the current entry restrictions to 12 January 2021, due to a surge in the number of Coronavirus cases in many countries worldwide. Finland continues to restrict entry for all internationals wishing to enter the country from the following select Schengen states [update].

Finland 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 31 October 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 28 November 2020).

On 13 August 2020, the government adopted resolutions on recommendations for wearing face coverings and face masks, and for remote work. The government has imposed new restrictions starting 22 October 2020 on the opening and licensing hours of food and beverage service businesses [update from 8 October 2020]. As of 20 November 2020, restrictions on the activities of food and beverage service businesses in five regions will continue due to their epidemiological conditions.

Finland 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 6 January 2021).

10 December 2020, The Government adopted a resolution on Finland's COVID-19 vaccine strategy: Vaccination will be offered based on medical risk assessments with priority given to healthcare and social welfare workers caring for COVID-19 patients, homecare workers, elderly persons, and persons at high risk for severe disease due to underlying health conditions.Finland is participating in the European Union's joint vaccine procurement [update].