Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
European Central Bank 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
European Central Bank 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020).

Purchases of government bonds are included in Measure 2 (Encourage Private Credit Creation). The amount could not be disaggregated from the EUR 750 billion PEPP program.

European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
European Union 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
European Union 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 20 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-provides-option-apply-annual-transparency-calculations-non-equity (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-renews-its-decision-requiring-net-short-position-holders-report-position-0 (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. https://eba.europa.eu/eba-launches-eu-wide-transparency-exercise (accessed 1 October 2020); FT. https://www.ft.com/content/4ec5d621-1135-48a7-b912-de915d2de515?accessToken=zwAAAXVPLh7Akc9OxdYhETVIp9O5Et6RXS3lFQ.MEUCIATZrWfA6MA5322wlGt8kobRZL9ONyIytpHOHp3nHuVEAiEAuVCaDLqA3_jeNtEAlUCbj2FrOk6VIWgpKdwdKpMsaEE&sharetype=gift?token=48efc3f6-ecb0-467a-a5b2-868aa9f496ff (accessed 22 October 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1954 (accessed 29 October 2020).

(i) March to April 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) 26 April 2020, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) 7 September 2020, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September 2020; (iv) 17 September 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) 25 September 2020, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report; (vi) 13 October 2020, EC has decided to prolong and extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. All sections of the Temporary Framework are prolonged for six months until 30 June 2021, and the section to enable recapitalization support is prolonged for three months until 30 September 2021; (vii) 19 October 2020, EU hired banks to start selling new 10- and 20-year bonds under the SURE programme and under the EU EUR750 billion recovery fund; (viii) 21 October 2020, EC issued a EUR17 billion inaugural social bond under the EU SURE instrument to help protect jobs and keep people in work. The issuing consisted of two bonds, with EUR10 billion due for repayment in October 2030 and EUR7 billion due for repayment in 2040. So far, 17 Member States will receive financial support under the SURE instrument; financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favorable terms from the EU to Member States.