Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936
Australia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AUD
Australia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936 RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-17.html (accessed 8 July 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-20.html (accessed 01 September 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-24.html (accessed 07 October 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2020/sp-gov-2020-11-03.html (accessed 04 November 2020).

(i) April 2020, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On 5 May 2020, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. 5 May, 2 June, 7 July, 1 September, and 6 October 2020, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting. 3 November 2020, RBA announced that it will reduce the 3-year yield target rate from 0.25% to 0.10%; (ii) 3 November 2020, The RBA announced that it intends to purchase AUD100 billion of government bonds issued by the Australian Government as well as by the states and territories over the next six months.

Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Austria 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Austria 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. https://www.fma.gv.at/fma-beendet-die-per-verordnung-erlassenen-einschraenkungen-fuer-leerverkaeufe-in-bestimmten-finanzinstrumenten-die-an-der-wiener-boerse-notieren/ (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On 18 March 2020, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to 18 May 2020 on 16 April 2020; (ii) No amount/estimate: 18 May 2020, Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day; (iii) 16 June 2020, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Belgium 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Belgium 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Belgium 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. https://financien.belgium.be/nl/Actueel/akkoord-onderling-overleg-tussen-de-autoriteiten-van-duitsland-en-belgi%C3%AB-ter-verlenging-van (accessed 2 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. https://www.fsma.be/nl/news/de-fsma-kondigt-de-opschorting-van-het-verbod-op-het-innemen-verhogen-van-nettoshortposities (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing 22 October 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) 8 April 2020, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until 17 May 2020; (v) 12 May 2020, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by 30 June 2020; (vi) 18 May 2020: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) 2 June 2020: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until 30 June 2020.

Canada 07 07 - Central bank financing government CAD 348,918,000,000 250,075,613,689
Canada 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown CAD 115,008,000,000 82,428,238,667

BoC purchases of T-bills were in the primary market as they were auctioned; As of 6 January 2021, current T-bill holdings have increased by CAD27.694 billion since the end of February 2020, with the maximum increase occurring on 29 July 2020 at CAD115.008 billion. [update]

Canada 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities CAD 233,910,000,000 167,647,375,022 Bank of Canada. https://www.bankofcanada.ca/rates/banking-and-financial-statistics/bank-of-canada-assets-and-liabilities-weekly-formerly-b2/ (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Government of Canada Bond Purchase Program (GBPP): Purchases will begin with a minimum of CAD5 billion per week across the yield curve. The program will be adjusted as conditions warrant but will continue until the economic recovery is well underway; on 28 October 2020, BoC announced purchases would gradually decline to CAD4 billion per week; As of 6 January 2021, the increase in government bonds owned by BoC has risen to CAD230.394 billion since the purchases in response to COVID-19 began, which is also the peak figure [update]; (ii) 3 June 2020, Bank of Canada began purchasing Government of Canada Real Return Bonds; as of 6 January 2021, the purchased amount is CAD3.516 billion, which is also the peak value (pre-COVID BoC did not hold government real return bonds). [update]

Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Denmark 07 07 - Central bank financing government DKK
Denmark 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown DKK
Denmark 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities DKK
Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/regeringen-og-erhvervslivet-vil-hjaelpe-dansk-eksport-i-coronakrisen/ (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/august/ivaerksaettere-faar-hjaelpende-haand-ny-politisk-aftale-letter-omregistrering/ (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) 11 August 2020, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) 21 August 2020, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021.

Finland 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Finland 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Finland 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/1271139/amendments-to-pharmaceutical-legislation-aim-to-ensure-availability-and-sufficiency-of-medicines- (accessed 18 July 2020).

9 July 2020, Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases.

France 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
France 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
France 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
France 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR AMF. https://www.amf-france.org/fr/actualites-publications/communiques/communiques-de-lamf/lamf-suspend-linterdiction-de-creer-ou-daugmenter-des-positions-courtes-nettes (accessed 1 June 2020).

18 May 2020, Suspended the ban on creating or increasing net short positions.

Germany 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Germany 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Germany 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Germany 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 18 May 2020).

1 April 2020, Missed rent payments due to COVID-related reasons cannot lead to evictions and rent payments for these tenants will be postponed (in force from 1 April to 30 June). Consumers that cannot finance running consumption costs for their housing units (such as electricity, gas, telecommunication and water) can postpone them without being charged late payment fees or forced to judicial debt collection.

Ireland 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Ireland 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Ireland 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Ireland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR 1,000,000 1,106,195 IE. https://www.gov.ie/en/press-release/e0aa1-minister-for-public-expenditure-and-reform-michael-mcgrath-td-announces-projects-to-be-funded-under-1-million-public-service-innovation-fund/ (accessed 13 August 2020).

28 July 2020, The Minister for Public Expenditure and Reform, announced the 34 diverse projects that have successfully secured funding from this year’s call under the Public Service Innovation Fund (EUR1 million), an initiative of the Our Public Service 2020 reform strategy for development and innovation in the Public Service.

Italy 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Italy 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Italy 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Italy 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 1 May 2020); Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze. http://www.mef.gov.it/ufficio-stampa/comunicati/2020/Arriva-il-nuovo-BTP-Futura-il-primo-titolo-di-Stato-interamente-dedicato-al-retail/ (accessed 16 June 2020); IVAAS. https://www.ivass.it/media/avviso/covid-dividend-2/?com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=3 (accessed 6 August 2020);

(i) No amount/estimate: 24 April 2020, announced a special debt instrument called "BTP ITALIA," which will finance costs arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. The next issue will be 18 May 2020-21. The instruments have maturities of 4 to 8 years, with coupons paid every six months, and capital always guaranteed at maturity; (ii) IVASS (Insurance supervisory authority) followed the EIOPA recommendations and called insurance companies to be prudent about dividends and bonus payments to protect their capital position; insurance companies are asked to provide updated Solvency II ratios on a weekly basis; (iii) CONSOB called a three-month ban on shorting of all shares and lowered a minimum threshold beyond which it is required to communicate the participation in a listed company. These measures are aimed to contain the volatility of the financial markets and to strengthen the transparency of the holdings in the Italian companies listed on the Stock Exchange; (iv) 18 May 2020: Suspended the temporary ban on taking new net short position and the increase in existing net short positions. The Italian Companies and Exchange Commission (CONSOB) first introduced the ban on 17 March 2020. The ban will end on 18 May 2020; (v) 8 June 2020, Announced a new government bond exclusively dedicated to the retail market. This government bond is called the “BTP Futura”, and will solely finance expenses made by the Italian government to deal with the COVID-19 emergency, as well as to support the recovery of the Italian economy. The first issue will be Monday, 6 July 2020, to Friday, 10 July 2020.

Japan 07 07 - Central bank financing government JPY
Japan 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown JPY