Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 07 07 - Central bank financing government AFN
Afghanistan 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AFN
Afghanistan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AFN
Afghanistan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AFN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) The government has taken steps to replace wheat imports lost due to border closures with purchases from Central Asia; (ii) On 15 July 2020, trade with India through Wagah border post in Pakistan resumed.

Afghanistan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AFN
Afghanistan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) Between March and April 2020, Border closures and suspension of international and domestic flights; (ii) Social distancing measures, including a three-week lockdown of Kabul (28 March 2020) and Ghazni (1 April 2020) and restricting daily movements to those deemed essential; (iii) Lockdowns in over 20 provinces, including Kabul and other cities, were extended for 3 weeks on 17 April; (iv) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown for 3 more months, as well as mandating additional health precautions. As of November, this 6-month lockdown has been lifted, and both domestic and international travel has resumed. However, passengers will still need to carry a COVID-19 negative certificate.

Afghanistan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown that had been in place since late March/early April for 3 more months. All public places are to remain closed, while public transportation facilities carrying more than 4 passengers are not allowed to travel. Restaurants and coffee shops are only allowed to carry out deliveries and take-outs. As of November 2020, this 6-month lockdown has been lifted.

Afghanistan 12C 12C - Others AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) March 26, The government released over 10,000 prisoners to reduce the risk of mass infections in penitentiaries; (ii) As of November, the lockdown has been lifted. Public gatherings are now allowed, while educational institutions have reopened.

Arab Republic of Egypt 07 07 - Central bank financing government EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EGP 11,786,229,548 750,000,000 Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-6-August,-2020-regarding-allowing-banks-to-own-unlimited-shares-in-payment-service-providers-and-payment-sys.aspx (accessed 12 August 2020). Egypt Independent. https://egyptindependent.com/egypt-launches-first-green-bonds-in-middle-east-and-africa-worth-us750-mn/ (accessed 22 October 2020). Financial Regulatory Authority Egypt. http://www.fra.gov.eg/content/efsa_ar/efsa_news/efsa_921.htm (accessed 15 October 2020). World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) 20 March 2020, The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP30,000/day and EGP100,000/month for individuals, and to EGP40,000/day and EGP200,000/per week for corporations; (ii) 29 March 2020, The central bank set a daily limit on all ATM disbursement per card to be EGP5,000, and limits to cash withdrawal and deposits at a bank branch to be EGP10,000 per individual, and EGP50,000 per corporate; (iii) The cost of transactions in the EGX will be reduced from 0.15% to 0.125% and from 0.15% to 0.05% for non-residents and Egyptian residents, respectively, and all spot transactions on EGX will be exempt from stamp duty; (iv) The National Bank of Egypt and Bank Misr announced a one-year deposit program with a 15% interest rate; (v) 6 August 2020, Allowed banks to own unlimited shares in payment service providers and payment systems operators; (vi) 4 October 2020, The Financial Regulatory Authority reduced the fees for examination and study services owed to the authority by 50% for medium and small companies when they apply for the Authority’s approval when taking steps related to the Egyptian stock exchange (such as preparations for an IPO). The change was aimed at incentivizing SMEs to go to the stock exchange for funding; (vii) 20 October 2020, USD750 million in green bonds (first in Middle East and Africa) to finance expenditures related to green projects addressing the impacts of COVID-19 while also taking into account environmental standards.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) Temporarily halting all air travel; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – air travel will resume and public transportation will operate between 4 am and midnight; (iii) As of December 2020, International flights have resumed, and tourists are arriving in small numbers. [update]

Arab Republic of Egypt 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) Encouraging civil servants to work from home in non-essential sectors, and closing all malls, gyms, sporting clubs, in-dining restaurants and cafes; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – restaurants and cafes will open with 25 percent capacity, stores will close at 9 pm while restaurants and cafes will close at 10 pm, public parks and beaches will remain closed until further notice, places of worship will be open for daily prayers but main prayers like Friday prayers and masses will not be allowed, cinemas, theaters, and entertainment venues will operate with 25 percent capacity.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12C 12C - Others EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) 28 April 2020, A Presidential decree published in the Official Gazette declared the state of emergency across the country for three months; (ii) The authorities have taken a host of precautionary measures to improve testing as well as to limit the community spread of the virus, including (a) setting up testing centers, (b) imposing a nighttime curfew, (c) temporarily closing places of worship; (iii) Authorities have also suspended the export of all types of legumes for a period of 3 months and plan to start increasing strategic food reserves to meet domestic demand; (iv) All parks and specialized gardens around Cairo will open to the public starting on 26 August 2020, with a maximum capacity of 50%. Starting 21 September 2020, funeral prayers and wedding ceremonies held in open-air venues have been allowed, for a maximum limit of 300 people; (v) Egypt’s Health Ministry released a 3-stage plan outlining required procedures in preparation for the gradual easing of restrictions within the country.

Argentina 07 07 - Central bank financing government ARS
Argentina 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown ARS
Argentina 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities ARS
Argentina 11 11 - Other Economic Measures ARS Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 9 May 2020, 26 June 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/232522/20200724 (accesed 31 July 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/230897/20200619 (accessed 2 October 2020).

(i) Capital Flow Management Measures (CFMs) that were already in place since August 2019 have largely protected Argentina so far from the impact of capital outflows; (ii) Adopted anti-price gouging policies, including price controls for food and medical supplies and ringfencing of essential supplies, including certain export restrictions on medical supplies and equipment and centralization of the sale of essential medical supplies.; (iii) 28 April 2020, Ordered that the Common Investment Funds (FCI) in pesos must invest at least 75% of their assets in financial instruments and negotiable securities issued in the Argentine Republic; (iv) Extended deadline of filing financial statements for small and medium-sized corporations; (v) 16 May 2020, extended validity of Maximum Prices until June 20; (vi) 18 May 2020, suspended price increases mobile and fixed telephony, Internet and pay TV services until August 31; June 18, extended until end of the year ; (v) 19 May 2020, set the domestic price of a barrel of oil at USD45 with the objective of reactivating the national hydrocarbon industry, guaranteeing the continuity of jobs and promoting self-sufficiency; (vi) 18 June 2020, extended the suspension of the closure and disabling of bank accounts until December 31, 2020, inclusive; (vii) 23 July 2020, extension of 15 days for presentation and payment of tax returns on earnings and personal and identity assets.

Argentina 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures ARS
Argentina 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) ARS IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020).

(i) The country has adopted full closure of borders and a nation-wide quarantine, beginning on 20 March 2020 and lasting until at least 26 April 2020, including closed borders.

Argentina 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace ARS Republic World. https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/south-america/argentina-malls-back-in-business-as-lockdown-eases.html (accessed 16 October 2020).

(i) 11 October 2020, schools and other education activities can be resumed, if certain epidemiological criteria are fulfilled. (ii) 15 October 2020, almost 8 months after lockdown, reopening of large shopping centers and the return of regular internal flights and public transport.

Argentina 12C 12C - Others ARS
Armenia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AMD
Armenia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AMD
Armenia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AMD
Armenia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AMD KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/armenia-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 14 May 2020)

14 May 2020, Temporary restrictions on the export of medical masks, gloves and goggles, biohazard suits, medical robes, antiviral medicines, gauze and other medical products.

Armenia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AMD
Armenia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

16 March 2020, The government declared a national state of emergency, first until 14 April, but subsequently extended to 14 May, 13 June, 13 July, and finally being lifted on 11 September. During the state of emergency, travel bans were imposed on citizens from high-risk countries. Public transportation and other domestic travel was reopened earlier, on 18 May.

Armenia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

16 March 2020, As part of the state of emergency, the government implemented lockdowns and closures of public spaces, as well as social distancing protocols and other health precautions. Retail businesses and restaurants were allowed to reopen earlier, on 18 May.

Armenia 12C 12C - Others AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

Quarantine is still in effect until 11 January 2021, which bans large gatherings and requires 14-day self-isolation and testing for people entering the country.

Australia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936
Australia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AUD
Australia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936 RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-17.html (accessed 8 July 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-20.html (accessed 01 September 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-24.html (accessed 07 October 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2020/sp-gov-2020-11-03.html (accessed 04 November 2020).

(i) April 2020, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On 5 May 2020, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. 5 May, 2 June, 7 July, 1 September, and 6 October 2020, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting. 3 November 2020, RBA announced that it will reduce the 3-year yield target rate from 0.25% to 0.10%; (ii) 3 November 2020, The RBA announced that it intends to purchase AUD100 billion of government bonds issued by the Australian Government as well as by the states and territories over the next six months.

Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD
Australia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/more-flights-helping-australians-return (accessed 19 October 2020).

(i) March 2020, Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) 14 July 2020, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (iii) 16 October 2020, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months;

Australia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Australia 12C 12C - Others AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020); Government of Australia. https://www.australia.gov.au/framework-national-reopening (accessed 27 October 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/tasmania-help-more-australians-return-home (accessed on 09 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.australia.gov.au/content/dam/australia/news-and-updates/framework-national-reopening-nov2020.pdf (accessed 16 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.covid-19.sa.gov.au/emergency-declarations/public-activities (accessed 24 November 2020).

(i) March 2020, Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (ii) March 2020, Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (iii) March 2020, Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (iv) 26 April 2020, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (v) 8 May 2020, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (vi) 30 July 2020, The government published guidance on wearing face masks; (vii) 23 October 2020, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19; (viii) 7 November 2020, The Australian and Tasmanian Governments have agreed to provide an additional 450 spaces in quarantine facilities to help more Australians return home from abroad; (ix) 13 November 2020, The Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory agreed to a new ‘Framework for National Reopening Australia by Christmas’ subject to local health advice; (x) 22 November 2020, The Emergency Management (Stay at Home No.3) Direction 2020 has been released by the government to update rules on public activities and management of places where these activities occur.

Austria 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Austria 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR