Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,319,000,000 234,866,150,442 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_997 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. On May 20, a Regulation establishing SURE entered into force. Countries will be able to use loans also in support of some health-related measures, esp. in the workplace. SURE will become available once all Member States have provided the required guarantees proportionally to gross national income, and will remain available until end-2022 (with the possibility to adjust this deadline) ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules. On May 8, the European Commission adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The amended Temporary Framework will be in place until the end of December 2020, except for recapitalization measures which has an extended period by the end of June 2021. The Commission will assess before these dates if they need to be extended; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (vi) June 8, European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot fund issued grants of EUR140 million to innovative companies [update]; (vii) Proposed modifications to its 2020 budget to make EUR 11.5 billion available for the hardest hit regions, and to support businesses, including those outside of EU borders. These modifications are stopgap measures to provide support while waiting for the European Commission to ratify a budget containing the "Next Generation EU" recovery instrument [update].

Hong Kong, China 05B 05B - Income support HKD 257,550,000,000 33,167,634,673 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020). News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200602/20200602_205003_920.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020). News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200608/20200608_192340_279.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) Tax and fee reliefs and other one-off relief measures (HKD79.5 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (ii) Cash payout to permanent residents aged 18 or above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP); (iii) Employment subsidy scheme (HKD80 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (iv) Sector-specific relief measures (HKD21 billion or 0.7% of GDP); (v) Temporary job creation (HKD6 billion or 0.2% of GDP); (vi) cash payouts to permanent residents aged 18 and above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP). (vii) No amount/estimate: June 2, Introduction of a subsidy scheme for employment agencies that provide foreign domestic helper placement services from the Anti-Epidemic Fund. [update] (viii) June 8, Authorities announced further support for the travel industry by enhancing the Green Lifestyle Local Tour Incentive Scheme (increased funding of HKG50 million) and extending the subsidy initiative for tourist guides (for 6 monyhs until April 27, 2021). [update]

Mongolia 05B 05B - Income support MNT 4,640,599,439,412 1,683,500,000 ADB. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-documents/54174/54174-001-rrp-en.pdf (accessed 26 May 2020).

March: (i) Measures supporting citizens (USD154.6 million), which includes (a) Personal Income Tax exemption (USD63.2 million); (b) Job retention allowance (USD18.4 million); (c) Child money program (USD12.4 million); (d) VAT refunds (USD14.4 million); (e) Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi Dividends Payout (USD46.2 million). Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi is a state-owned enterprise where each Mongolian citizen owns a share ; (ii) Support to vulnerable businesses and fiscal stimulus measures (USD1,567.9 million), which includes (a) Exemption on social insurance (USD288.2 million); (b) Social insurance penalty exemption (USD4.2 million); (c) Corporate Income Tax exemption (USD10.8 million); (d) Exemption for tax penalties and fines (USD5.4 million); (e) Rental relief (USD7.2 million); (f) Import tax and duties exemption of food products (USD3.6 million); (g) Cashmere sector support (USD118.1 million); (h) Discount on agricultural equipment (USD12.3 million); (i) Capital projects (of which two-thirds does not yet have financing) (USD1,079.1 million).

People's Republic of China 05B 05B - Income support CNY
Republic of Korea 05B 05B - Income support KRW 37,900,000,000,000 31,063,374,798 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 24 April 2020).

(i) February, The government announced emergency support of KRW20 trillion for households and damaged industries, such as tourism and export industries; (ii) In March 17: The National Assembly approved (a) loans and guarantees for small businesses, indirect support of wage and rent for small merchants (KRW4.1 trillion), (b) consumption coupons for the poor, emergency family care and employment retention support (KRW3.5 trillion), and (c) support for issuing local gift certificate, local government grants for infection prevention (KRW1.2 trillion); (iii) March 31, The government announced an emergency relief payment plan of KRW9.1 trillion (USD7.4 billion) to address the virus outbreak. The government plans to pay relief checks to households in the bottom 70% income bracket (around 14 million households), of up to KRW1 million (USD820) per household. For this, a second supplementary budget was submitted to the National Assembly and passed on April 30; and (iv) No amount/estimate: Some local governments have announced cash support for people (a) Gyeonggi province announced KRW100,000 (USD82) to all residents, and (b) Seoul and Daejeon have a similar plan without specific criteria.

Taipei,China 05B 05B - Income support TWD 173,900,000,000 5,771,560,379 News articles: https://bit.ly/2A2ytcS; https://bit.ly/3cjQfGU (both accessed 8 May 2020); https://bit.ly/2ZPydJn (accessed 27 May 2020); KPMG. https://bit.ly/2LvD7ms (accessed 14 May 2020); Executive Yuan. https://english.ey.gov.tw/Page/61BF20C3E89B856/07dd64bc-5609-426c-bcb0-9aec3aabcab7 (accessed 5 June 2020).

(i) Under the TWD60 billion budget, the authorities will assign NTD40.4 billion to subsidize a wide range of industrial sectors that have been hit by the COVID-19 spread, such as the service industry, the manufacturing industry, the tourism industry, the transportation industry, the agriculture/fishing industry, and the arts/cultural industry; (ii) Of the TWD150 billion special budget, NTD133.5 billion will go toward helping with the recovery of local businesses and other entities and providing relief to self-employed workers, according to the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS); (iii) No amount/estimate: Aiming at alleviating the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the authorities introduced several supportive tax measures including (a) deferral of tax payments or by installments for affected enterprises and individuals, (b) extension of tax filing and payment deadline under special circumstances (e.g. quarantine or isolation), and (c) corporate income tax 200% deduction on certain salary expenses; (iv) No amount/estimate: May 27, The Ministry of Transportation and Communications will provide travel subsidies to encourage domestic travel effective July 1. The ministry is planning campaigns that will subsidize the group travel sector to the tune of NTD600–NTD700 (USD20–USD23) per person per day, while the independent travel sector will enjoy a subsidy of NTD1,000 per room per night; (v) No amount/estimate: The authorities announced a "triple stimulus" voucher program that allows people to purchase NTD3,000 (USD100) worth of vouchers for just NTD1,000. By encouraging spending and stimulating the economy, the program will help the economy to turn the crisis into opportunity and safely weather the coronavirus pandemic [update].

Turkmenistan 05B 05B - Income support TMT
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,179,000,000 234,711,283,186 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings.

Hong Kong, China 05B 05B - Income support HKD 257,500,000,000 33,161,195,606 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020).

(i) Tax and fee reliefs and other one-off relief measures (HKD79.5 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (ii) Cash payout to permanent residents aged 18 or above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP); (iii) Employment subsidy scheme (HKD80 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (iv) Sector-specific relief measures (HKD21 billion or 0.7% of GDP); (v) Temporary job creation (HKD6 billion or 0.2% of GDP); (vi) cash payouts to permanent residents aged 18 and above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP).

Mongolia 05B 05B - Income support MNT
People's Republic of China 05B 05B - Income support CNY
Republic of Korea 05B 05B - Income support KRW 37,900,000,000,000 31,063,374,798 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 24 April 2020).

(i) February, The government announced emergency support of KRW20 trillion for households and damaged industries, such as tourism and export industries; (ii) In March 17: The National Assembly approved (a) loans and guarantees for small businesses, indirect support of wage and rent for small merchants (KRW4.1 trillion), (b) consumption coupons for the poor, emergency family care and employment retention support (KRW3.5 trillion), and (c) support for issuing local gift certificate, local government grants for infection prevention (KRW1.2 trillion); (iii) March 31, The government announced an emergency relief payment plan of KRW9.1 trillion (USD7.4 billion) to address the virus outbreak. The government plans to pay relief checks to households in the bottom 70% income bracket (around 14 million households), of up to KRW1 million (USD820) per household. For this, a second supplementary budget bill will be submitted to the National Assembly in April; and (iv) No amount/estimate: Some local governments have announced cash support for people (a) Gyeonggi province announced KRW100,000 (USD82) to all residents, and (b) Seoul and Daejeon have a similar plan without specific criteria.

Taipei,China 05B 05B - Income support TWD 173,900,000,000 5,771,560,379 News articles: https://bit.ly/2A2ytcS; https://bit.ly/3cjQfGU (both accessed 8 May 2020); KPMG. https://bit.ly/2LvD7ms (accessed 14 May 2020).

(i) Under the TWD60 billion budget, the authorities will assign NTD40.4 billion to subsidize a wide range of industrial sectors that have been hit by the COVID-19 spread, such as the service industry, the manufacturing industry, the tourism industry, the transportation industry, the agriculture/fishing industry, and the arts/cultural industry; (ii) Of the TWD150 billion special budget, NTD133.5 billion will go toward helping with the recovery of local businesses and other entities and providing relief to self-employed workers, according to the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS) [update]; (iii) Aiming at alleviating the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the authorities introduced several supportive tax measures including (a) Deferral of tax payments or by installments for affected enterprises and individuals, (b) Extension of tax filing and payment deadline under special circumstances (e.g. quarantine or isolation), and (c) Corporate income tax 200% deduction on certain salary expenses [update].

Turkmenistan 05B 05B - Income support TMT
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,179,000,000 234,711,283,186 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings.

Hong Kong, China 05B 05B - Income support HKD 257,500,000,000 33,161,195,606 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) Tax and fee reliefs and other one-off relief measures (HKD79.5 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (ii) Cash payout to permanent residents aged 18 or above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP); (iii) Employment subsidy scheme (HKD80 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (iv) Sector-specific relief measures (HKD21 billion or 0.7% of GDP); and (v) Temporary job creation (HKD6 billion or 0.2% of GDP).

Mongolia 05B 05B - Income support MNT
People's Republic of China 05B 05B - Income support CNY
Republic of Korea 05B 05B - Income support KRW 37,900,000,000,000 31,063,374,798 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 20 April 2020).

(i) February, The government announced emergency support of KRW 20 trillion for households and damaged industries, such as tourism and export industries; (ii) In March 17: The National Assembly approved (a) loans and guarantees for small businesses, indirect support of wage and rent for small merchants (KRW4.1 trillion), (b) consumption coupons for the poor, emergency family care and employment retention support (KRW3.5 trillion), and (c) support for issuing local gift certificate, local government grants for infection prevention (KRW1.2 trillion); (iii) March 31, The government announced an emergency relief payment plan of KRW9.1 trillion (USD7.4 billion) to address the virus outbreak. The government plans to pay relief checks to households in the bottom 70% income bracket (around 14 million households), of up to KRW1 million (USD820) per household. For this, a second supplementary budget bill will be submitted to the National Assembly in April; and (iv) No amount/estimate: Some local governments have announced cash support for people (a) Gyeonggi province announced KRW100,000 (USD82) to all residents, and (b) Seoul and Daejeon have a similar plan without specific criteria.

Taipei,China 05B 05B - Income support TWD
Turkmenistan 05B 05B - Income support TMT