|Economy||Measure Code||Measure||Currency Code||Amount (Local)||Amount (USD)||Source||Post Date||Details|
|Afghanistan||05B||05B - Income support||AFN||IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 26 June 2020).||
No amount/estimate: To ease tax compliance, the government extended filing deadlines, initially to May 20, now to July 5 for individual and business taxpayers.
|Afghanistan||07||07 - Central bank financing government||AFN|
|Afghanistan||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||AFN|
|Afghanistan||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||AFN|
|Arab Republic of Egypt||05B||05B - Income support||EGP||Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-21-June-2020-regarding-extending-the-period-of-exempting-local-transfers-in-EGP-from-all-fees-&-commissions-.aspx (accessed 24 June 2020). Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. https://www.petroleum.gov.eg/ar-eg/media-center/news/news-pages/Pages/mop_17062020_01.aspx (accessed 19 June 2020). World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).||
(i) No amount/estimate: March 22, Pension benefits have been increased by 14%; (ii) No amount/estimate: March 22, Expansion of the targeted cash transfer social programs, Takaful and Karama, are also being extended to reach more families; (iii) No amount/estimate: March 22, A targeted support initiative for irregular workers in most severely hit sectors has been announced, which will entail EGP500 in monthly grants for 3 months; (iv) No amount/estimate: March 22, Energy costs have been lowered for the entire industrial sector; (v) No amount/estimate: March 22, Real estate tax relief has been provided for industrial and tourism sectors, (vi) No amount/estimate: March 22, Subsidy pay-out for exporters has been stepped up, and discount on fuel price has been announced for the aviation sector; (vii) March 22, EGP50 billion of the EGP100 billion stimulus has been announced for the tourism sector, which contributes close to 12% of Egypt’s GDP, 10% of employment, and almost 4% of GDP in terms of receipts, as of 2019; (viii) No amount/estimate: The moratorium on the tax law on agricultural land has been extended for 2 years; (ix) No amount/estimate: The stamp duty on transactions and tax on dividends have been reduced; (x) No amount/estimate: Capital gains tax has been postponed until further notice; (xii) No amount/estimate: ATM withdrawal fees have been cancelled; (xiii) EGP1 billion in arrears will be paid out by The Export Subsidy Fund in March and April 2020, plus 10% in cash payments to exporters in June 2020; (xiv) No amount/estimate: Three months extension for the payment of property taxes for companies in the industrial and tourism sector; (xv) No amount/estimate: Extension of the individuals’ annual tax return filing deadline to 16 April instead of 31 March, and exemption of the tax returns online filing subscription fee for the use of the Egyptian Tax Authority online filing portal; (xvi) EGP50 million allocated by the Ministry of Workforce for irregular workers, including women, who lost their job due to the coronavirus; (xvii) June 17, EGP5.3 billion in exemptions to natural gas consumers from penalty fine for late payments. [update]; (xviii) June 21, Extended until September 15, 2020, the exemption from all fees & commissions for local transfers in EGP. [update]
|Arab Republic of Egypt||07||07 - Central bank financing government||EGP|
|Arab Republic of Egypt||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||EGP|
|Arab Republic of Egypt||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||EGP|
|Argentina||05B||05B - Income support||ARS||129,921,000,000||2,070,454,183||Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 May 2020, 19 June 2020, 26, June).||
(i) Increased budget for public investment in road works, economic infrastructure, construction and renovation of houses, schools, kindergartens, and tourism by ARS100 billion; (ii) suspended fees and commissions for ATM operations (deposits, withdrawals, inquiries, etc.) through June 30, 2020; (iii) exempted the payment of employment contributions to sectors criticaly affected by the coronavirus pandemic; (iv) reinforced unemployment insurance; (v) ordered an extraordinary payment to the holders of the Food Card; (vi) May 1, established emergency economic assistance within the framework of the Self-Managed Work Program; (vii) May 1, declared that Emergency Family Income (IFE), Universal Child Allowance (AUH), and the Complementary Salary (SC) are not taxable as part of gross income; (viii) No amount/estimate: May 5, expanded the Emergency Assistance Program for Work and Production to cover more companies and activities; (ix) No amount/estimate: May 6, increased the benefits and number of beneficiaries; (x) No amount/estimate: May 11, updated the amounts of economic aid provided under the Job Insertion Program; (xi) No amount/estimate: May 12, required Banks to refund fees associated with the National Social Security Administration (ANSES) and Emergency Family Income (IFE) benefit; (x) May 14, ARS29 billion federal program which includes the construction of 5,500 new homes, the financing of 42,900 parts that include gas, electricity and sanitary infrastructure works, the granting of microcredits for the acquisition of construction materials and the carrying out of small-scale works, as well as the conditioning of community spaces in popular neighborhoods. Estimated to generate 750 thousand direct and indirect jobs between 2020 and 2021; (xi) No amount/estimate: May 18, announced an increase of 6.12% for all retirees and pensioners according to the scale of the pyramid, which brings the minimum retirement to 16,864 pesos and the maximum credit to 113,479 pesos, also includes increases in non-contributory pensions, the Universal Child Allowance, the Universal Pregnancy Allowance and the Family Allowances; (xii) May 22, ARS21 million for the acquisition of 70,000 new computers, within the framework of the federal connectivity program "Juana Manso" that carries out the educational portfolio; (xiii) No amount/estimate: June 5, ordered payment of 3 thousand pesos for those under the Empower Work Program and did not receive IFE; (xiv) No amount/estimate: June 9, national government extended the right to double compensation for individuals who are dismissed from their jobs without just cause; (xv) No amount/estimate: June 9, exempted temporarily from payment of income tax for overtime, guards and additional personnel of Health, Armed, and Security Forces and other activities related to the health emergency; (xvi) No amount/estimate: created assistance programs for individuals with disabilities affected by COVID-19; (xvii) June 12, ARS900 million, emergency measures to face the COVID-19 pandemic and its sanitary, economic and housing consequences; (xvii) No amount/estimate: June 18, extended until September 30 the suspension of the collection of all charges to operate in ATMs. [update]; (xix) No amount/estimate: June 22, increase of ARS3000 in the monthly non-contributory financial aid under Training and Employment Insurance. [update]
|Argentina||07||07 - Central bank financing government||ARS|
|Argentina||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||ARS|
|Argentina||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||ARS|
|Armenia||05B||05B - Income support||AMD||30,000,000,000||61,348,610||Asbarez. http://asbarez.com/193112/pashinyan-unveils-economic-aid-package-amid-state-of-emergency/ (accessed 16 April 2020).||
(i) No amount/estimate: Subsidize the interest rates of co-financed loans for companies that borrow money from Armenian banks in the national currency to pay salaries, taxes, bills and purchase raw materials; (ii) a package of AMD30 billion (over USD60 million) for urgent social assistance for the impoverished. See Measure 9: No breakdown.
|Armenia||07||07 - Central bank financing government||AMD|
|Armenia||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||AMD|
|Armenia||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||AMD|
|Australia||05B||05B - Income support||AUD||138,411,800,000||86,064,457,181||Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-05/Overview-Economic_Response_to_the_Coronavirus_3.pdf (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/media-release/jobkeeper-update (accessed on 3 June 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/11-billion-support-more-mental-health-medicare-and-domestic-violence-services-0 (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Education, Skills, and Employment (DESE). https://ministers.dese.gov.au/morrison/early-childhood-education-and-care-relief-package (accessed 3 June 2020); DESE. https://ministers.dese.gov.au/tehan/response-child-care-review (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/Fact_sheet_HomeBuilder.pdf (accessed 5 June 2020); DESE. https://ministers.dese.gov.au/tehan/return-child-care-subsidy (accessed 10 June 2020).||
Three economic stimulus packages, i.e. (i) Support for individuals and households including (a) income support for individuals (AUD14,133 million), (b) payment to support households (AUD8,830 million), (c) temporary early release of superannuation (AUD1,150 million), (d) No amount/estimate, temporarily reduce superannuation minimum drawdown rates, (e) lower the social security deeming rates (AUD876 million); (ii) Support for business including (a) JobKeeper payment (AUD70,000 million), (b) boosting cash flow for employers (AUD31,900 million), (c) No amount/estimate, temporary relief for financially distressed businesses, (d) increasing the instant asset write-off (AUD700 million), (e) backing business investment (AUD3,200 million), (f) supporting apprentices and trainees (AUD1,265 million), (g) support for Coronavirus affected regions and communities (AUD1,000 million), (h) support for Australian airlines and airports (AUD715 million); (iii) March 29, (a) AUD150 million will be provided to support Australians experiencing domestic, family and sexual violence due to the fallout from coronavirus; and (b) an additional AUD200 million will be provided to support charities and other community organisations which provide emergency and food relief as demand surges as a result of coronavirus; (iv) April 2, The Commonwealth government has committed to provide free childcare to around one million families and announced targeted support to the education system. The sector is expected to receive AUD1.6 billion over the coming three months from taxpayer subsidies. On May 20, the Ministry of Education announced an additional AUD12.8 million in funding, i.e. (a) AUD12 million provided for child care services that have more than 30% of full-time equivalent staff ineligible for JobKeeper Payments, and (b) AUD800,000 to increase the level of funding for in-home care providers; (v) June 4, The government announced a HomeBuilder program offering AUD25,000 grants to new home builders and renovators from June 4 to December 31, 2020. HomeBuilder will be implemented via a National Partnership Agreement, signed by the Commonwealth and State and Territory governments and is expected to cost AUD680 million; (vi) June 8, The government announced that it will resume the Child Care Subsidy (CCS) to support families to access affordable child care starting July 13 and will pay approximately AUD2 billion this quarter to eligible families.
|Australia||07||07 - Central bank financing government||AUD||50,000,000,000||31,089,999,979|
|Australia||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||AUD|
|Australia||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||AUD||50,000,000,000||31,089,999,979||RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020).||
April, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On May 5, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. May 5 and June 2, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting.
|Austria||05B||05B - Income support||EUR||51,320,000,000||56,769,911,504||BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/en/press/press-releases/2020/June/16-June-2020-government-consultation--%E2%82%AC50-billion-for-rescue,-relief-and-investments-.html (accessed 20 June 2020), https://www.bmafj.gv.at/Services/Presse/Presseaussendungen/PA_17_Juni_2020.html (accessed 19 June 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/mwst-senkung.html (accessed 17 June 2020). https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/kulturpaket.html (accessed 29 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/haertefallfonds.html (accessed 28 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/gemeindepaket.html (accessed 26 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/fixkostenzuschuss.html, https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/kurzarbeit-mittel-erhoeht.html (both accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 20 May 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 24 June 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 21 May 2020).||
(i) EUR15 billion emergency funds for hard-hit industries to provide direct liquidity provisions and subsidies for running costs. On April 27, expanded Phase 2 of the hardship fund, through which SMEs may request up to 6000 Euros from the government; (ii) EUR10 billion for payment deferrals of personal income and corporate income taxes; (iii) No amount/estimate: rent payment deferrals; (iv) No amount/estimate: May 13, proposed a more simple calculation method to determine monetary subsidies by companies to their employees from their own accounts and from the government's funding. Under the new system, no employee should have any losses; (v) May 20, Increased to EUR12 billion (from EUR10 billion on April 13 and EUR5 billion originally) funds for short-time working, self-employed and funds to finance increased costs of caretaking, etc.; (vi) May 21, EUR1.2 billion is being rolled out by authorities as new fiscal measures including tax relief measures for the hospitality sector of EUR500 million and support to non-profit organizations of EUR700 million; (vii) No amount/estimate: May 21, Applications for the fixed subsidy have already started, with the first payments being disbursed by end of May. The Ministry of Finance will reimburse up to 75% of a company's fixed costs for up to 3 months; (vii) May 25, EUR1 billion in grants from the federal government to municipalities, geared towards support for infrastructure investment (e.g. schools, public transportation, energy production); (viii) May 27, increase in the minimum payment amount of the hardship fund to EUR500, and added another EUR500 comeback bonus, dedicated to entrepreneurs having hardships during the pandemic; (ix) May 28, Allocated EUR90 million to support freelance artists up to EUR1000 a month; (x) To jump-start the economy, a new tax incentive was introduced for companies that recruit apprentices, with EUR2,000 per position created between March 16 and October 31 of this year; (xi) June 12, Reduced VAT to 5% to support the catering trade, the cultural sector and the publishing sector; [update] (xii) June 12, Deferred taxes to January 15, 2021. (xiii) June 16, reduced the lowest income tax bracket tax level from 25% to 20%. There will also be a loss carryback, with business losses being offset against profits in 2019 and 2018, so that some of the deferred taxes may not have to be paid back at all. [update] (xiv) June 16, extended Austria's fixed cost subsidy; [update] (xiii) June 16, fiscal package was increased by EUR12 billion to include stimulus measures, including investment in climate protection, affordable housing, health, and digitalisation and a one-off support for unemployed and families. Several specific tax relief measures are aimed at the agricultural and forestry sectors, culture and publishing; [update] (xiv) June 17, Reserved EUR30 million for childcare in the summer from the municipal package. [update]
|Austria||07||07 - Central bank financing government||EUR|
|Austria||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||EUR|
|Austria||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||EUR|
|Azerbaijan||05B||05B - Income support||AZN||1,085,000,000||638,235,294||IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020); Caspian News. https://caspiannews.com/news-detail/azerbaijan-takes-measures-to-mitigate-covid-19-impact-on-economy-social-life-2020-4-6-1/ (accessed 15 April 2020); European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). https://www.ebrd.com/news/2020/ebrd-and-azerbaijans-central-bank-promote-manat-lending-to-coronavirushit-firms.html (accessed 27 May 2020).||
(i) April 6, AZN1 billion (USD588 million) for the government's subsidization of 10% of the interest for one year of existing company loans; (ii) No amount/estimate: April, Tax exemptions for micro-enterprises and value-added tax (VAT) exemption for some food and medicinal products, as well as the raw materials that are necessary for making such stuff; (iii) No amount/estimate: Lump-sum payments in the amount of living wage - AZN190 (USD112) to 200,000 unemployed citizens of the country. The payment is considered for two months. The social package aims to relieve the impact of the novel coronavirus on the social life of people by multiple tools, including creation of 50,000 paid public jobs, tuition support program for students from socially vulnerable families, financial support program for mortgage and credit guarantee mechanism, program to support communal fees, primarily for electricity consumption of the population, and financial support program for vital passenger transport activities; (iv) May 19, USD50 million, or about AZN85 million (of the USD200 million swap with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)) is allocated as support to local firms, including smaller viable enterprises experiencing temporary difficulties.
|Azerbaijan||07||07 - Central bank financing government||AZN|
|Azerbaijan||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||AZN|
|Azerbaijan||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||AZN|
|Bangladesh||05B||05B - Income support||BDT||337,565,000,000||3,973,690,406||Ministry of Finance. https://mof.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mof.portal.gov.bd/page/ed9e8b19_ccba_4cca_94b1_c40013f7a760/MTMPS_2020-21_English.pdf (accessed 29 June 6). Bangladesh Bank. https://www.bb.org.bd/mediaroom/circulars/fepd/may122020fepdl20.pdf (accessed 29 June 2020).||
(i) BTD20 billion, the Ministry of Finance will subsidize interest payments as mentioned in Measure 2 on working capital loans by scheduled banks to businesses; (ii) BDT12.58 billion Cash Transfer to targeted poor people; (iii)BDT8.15 billion expansion of cash allowance programs; (iv) BDT25.03 billion free food distribution; (v) BDT2.51 billion OMS of rice at 10 taka/kg; (vi) BDT21.3 billion construction of home for homeless people; (vii) BDT8.6 billion additional procurement of paddy/rice (2.0 lac ton), (viii) BDT2.0 billion Support for farm mechanization; (ix) BDT95 billion subsidy for agriculture; (x) BDT20 billion employment creation through four State owned entities; (xi) Export Development Fund has been increased by USD1.5 billion; (xii) BDT20 billion subsidy for commercial bank's suspended interest of April-May, 2020; (xiii) No amount/estimate: Expatriate Bangladeshis can get 2% incentives without showing any paper on remittance upto $5,000 (earlier $1,500) and for more than $5,000
|Bangladesh||07||07 - Central bank financing government||BDT||IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 14 April 2020).||
No amount/estimate: The Bangladesh Bank has announced that it will buy treasury bonds and bills from banks.
|Bangladesh||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||BDT|
|Bangladesh||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||BDT|
|Belgium||05B||05B - Income support||EUR||9,000,000,000||9,955,752,212||Service Public Federal Finances. https://finances.belgium.be/fr/douanes_accises/entreprises/corona-informations-et-mesures/mesures-de-soutien-relatives-aux-d%c3%a9lais (accessed 26 June 2020), https://finances.belgium.be/fr/Actualites/diminution-temporaire-taux-tva-secteur-horeca (accessed 14 June 2020). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2020-european-semester-stability-programme-belgium_fr.pdf (accessed 24 May 2020).||
(i) On the other hand, non-health initiatives total EUR9 billion, with EUR5.3 billion for federal and EUR3.7 billion for regional; (ii) In addition, reduced the VAT rate applicable to some restaurant and catering services to 6% until the end of 2020; (iii) June 9, Support measures relating to payment periods have been approved, and extension of the payment periods for VAT and Excessive Duties extend to December 31. [update]
|Belgium||07||07 - Central bank financing government||EUR|
|Belgium||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||EUR|
|Belgium||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||EUR|
|Bhutan||05B||05B - Income support||BTN/INR||30,000,000,000||403,680,518||Official Statement from the Office of the Prime Minister of Bhutan (PMO). https://bit.ly/2yrZXYx (accessed 13 April 2020); PMO. https://bit.ly/3b6ygCh (accessed 6 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020); PMO. https://bit.ly/3efwMrR (accessed 18 June 2020).||
April, The National Resilience Fund has been approved and established. With a fund size amounting to about BTN30 billion, the resources will support the implementation of the following activities: (i) Grant of the Druk Gyalpo’s Relief Kidu to people who have been laid off or placed on reduced salaries to provide them immediate financial support. April 30, The Druk Gyalpo's Relief Kidu has granted BTN150 million as the first disbursement of the Relief Kidu to 13,006 people; (ii) Interest waiver (50% of cost) - effective May 1, the Royal Monetary Authority announced that the interest waiver would also be extended to non-performing loan accounts for a period of three months (April–June). The government will finance 50% of the total interest payment and the financial institutions offered to support the other 50%. On June 11, The government handed over the e-fund payment to financial service providers for loan interest waiver for the month of April. The government is financing 50% of the interest waiver amounting to BTN625.96 million (Total amount of the interest waiver for April stands at BTN1.2 billion) [update]; (iii) Fast-track the implementation of the 12th Five Year Plan and wherever possible frontload the investments; (iv) Business income tax (BIT) and corporate income tax (CIT) filing and tax payment for the income year 2019 will be deferred until June 30; (v) Deferred payment of sales tax and customs duty on essential items (March–June); (vi) Waiver of payment of rent and other charges (April–June) by tourism-related business entities leasing government properties; (vii) May 25, The government will be refunding the 5% sales tax collected on telecom services collected on or after January 16, 2020.
|Bhutan||07||07 - Central bank financing government||BTN/INR|
|Bhutan||07A||07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown||BTN/INR|
|Bhutan||07B||07B - Secondary purchase: government securities||BTN/INR|
|Brazil||05B||05B - Income support||BRL||153,872,372,727||31,510,443,932||Institute of International Finance (IIF) https://www.iif.com/Portals/0/Files/Databases/COVID-19_responses.pdf?ver=2020-04-24-173749-083 (Accessed 29 April 2020). Ministry of Finance https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2020/junho/tesouro-atualiza-o-manual-para-instrucao-de-pleitos-e-inclui-orientacoes-relacionadas-a-ajuda-contra-a-covid-19 (accessed June 25)||
(i) Announced a comprehensive fiscal package worth USD30 billion, that includes expansion and front-loading of social assistance/benefit payments; (ii) expanding the Bolsa Familia program with the inclusion of over 1 million more beneficiaries, cash transfers to informal and unemployed workers, and advance payments of salary bonuses to low income workers; (iii) USD1.5 billion to finance two months of payroll for firms impacted by COVID-19; (iv) Announced several measures, which include bringing forward the 13th pension payment to retirees, expanding the Bolsa Familia program, providing an emergency cash transfer to households; and (v) Introducing temporary tax breaks and credit lines through the state-owned banks, lowering taxes and import levies on essential medical supplies, and assisting state and local governments; (vi) June 23, the Ministry of Economy suspends for up to 6 months payment to the Board of Trustees of the Severance Pay Fund (FGTS) from private urban public transport companies; the impact of suspended payments is approximately BRL51 million (see Category 3B for link); (vii) No amount/estimate; June 19, the National Treasury updated the Manual for Instruction of Claims (MIP) to include specific guidelines and procedures under the Complementary Law No. 173/2020 that established the Federative Program to Combat Coronoavirus and altered the Fiscal Responsiblity Law (LRF) by waiving limits placed on "the Union, the States, the Federal District and Municipalities" in the event of a "public calamity"
|Brazil||07||07 - Central bank financing government||BRL||SPGlobal. https://www.spglobal.com/marketintelligence/en/news-insights/latest-news-headlines/brazil-s-quantitative-easing-program-gets-approval-58531681 (accessed 30 May 2020).||
May 7, Brazil's Congress approved a constitutional amendment to enable BCB to implement quantitative easing program.