Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 05A 05A - Health support AFN 6,200,000,000 78,788,431 UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) As of 27 August 2020, The government has so far allocated AFN6.2 billion in the budget for emergency health needs, such as (a) establishing testing labs, including at border crossings, (b) boosting hospitalization and care capacity, and (c) procuring the most critical medical supplies.

Arab Republic of Egypt 05A 05A - Health support EGP 9,083,900,000 578,041,092 Ahram Online. http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/388732/Egypt/Politics-/EGP--million-disbursed-to-support-doctors-infected.aspx (accessed 29 October 2020). OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

(i) 22 March 2020, EGP8 billion has been allocated to support the healthcare sector, targeted at providing urgent and necessary medical supplies, and disbursing bonuses for medical staff working in quarantine hospitals and labs; (ii) 22 March 2020, To support medical professionals, including doctors working in university hospitals, a 75% allowance over the wages has been announced; (iii) 24 March 2020, EGP1 billion (USD63.5 million) additional funding was announced, specifically for health services and various measures to increase the country’s capacity to absorb the sudden increase of critical patients that the outbreak might bring; (iv) 2 April 2020, additional USD7.9 million designated for emergency response activities related to the COVID-19 outbreak; (v) 19 October 2020, The Egyptian Doctors Syndicate announced that it has disbursed EGP71 million to support almost 3,600 doctors who have been infected by the coronavirus since February. The syndicate added that it also disbursed EGP5 million to support the families of the doctors who died of COVID-19.

Argentina 05A 05A - Health support ARS 6,000,000,000 95,617,530 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 5 May 2020). Argentine Government. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/el-gobierno-extendio-el-subsidio-de-contencion-familiar-dispuesto-en-2006 (accessed 14 August 2020). Argentine Government. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/227193/20200327 (accessed 25 September 2020). MENAFN. https://menafn.com/1101062851/Argentina-inks-deal-with-Russia-to-purchase-25-mln-doses-of-coronavirus-vaccine&source=30 (accessed 06 November 2020).

(i) authorized ARS 6 billion to Argentine provinces to strengthen municipal health systems and finances; (ii) increase in budget items for therapeutic communities, homes with coexistence and homes for care and community accompaniments; (iii) No amount/estimate: 8 August 2020, Established a subsidy of ARS 15,000 for the relatives of people who died due to COVID-19, who at the time of their death, were unemployed, worked in the informal economy or were monotaxists; (iv) No amount/estimate: 15 September 2020, Extended the Stimulus Allowance for Healthcare workers by 90 days and expanded the scope of the allowance to reach 700,000 people when before it reached 500,000. This is a monthly 5,000 Peso allowance for healthcare workers. (v) No amount/estimate: 3 November 2020, purchase of 25 million doses of Russian COVID-19 vaccine "Sputnik V".

Armenia 05A 05A - Health support AMD
Australia 05A 05A - Health support AUD 141,362,800,000 87,899,388,980 Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/24-billion-health-plan-fight-covid-19 (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/covid-19-supporting-senior-australians-and-those-who-care-for-them (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/senator-the-hon-richard-colbeck/media/new-covid-19-payment-to-keep-senior-australians-in-residential-aged-care-safe (accessed 3 June 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/11-billion-support-more-mental-health-medicare-and-domestic-violence-services-0 (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/3-million-to-boost-the-national-coordinated-covid-19-research-response (accessed 3 June 2020); Office of the Prime Minister of Australia. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/update-coronavirus-measures-15may20 (accessed on 20 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/additional-20-million-for-mental-health-and-suicide-prevention-research (accessed 26 May 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/commonwealth-and-states-sign-131-billion-five-year-hospitals-agreement (accessed 4 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/additional-funding-to-reinforce-australias-aged-care-sector (accessed 1 September 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/australia-secures-onshore-manufacturing-agreements-two-covid-19-vaccines (accessed 08 September 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/2-billion-extend-critical-health-services-across-australia (accessed 18 September 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/australia-secures-a-further-50-million-doses-of-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 05 November 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/national-cabinet-2 (accessed 16 November 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/10-million-for-high-potential-covid-19-related-clinical-trials-0 (accessed 4 Jan 2021).

(i) 11 March 2020, The Australian Government has unveiled a comprehensive AUD2.4 billion health package to protect all Australians, including vulnerable groups such as the elderly, those with chronic conditions and Indigenous communities, from the coronavirus (COVID-19); (ii) 21 March 2020, The National Cabinet announced additional funding of AUD444.6 million for the aged care sector to ensure the continuity of the aged care workforce. 5 May 2020, The Australian Government is providing an additional AUD205 million in specific COVID-19 aged care funding. 31 August 2020, an additional AUD563.3 million has been allocated to the aged care sector; (iii) 29 March 2020, (a) AUD669 million will be provided to expand Medicare-subsidised telehealth services for all Australians, with extra incentives to GPs and other health practitioners also delivered; and (b) AUD74 million will be provided to support the mental health and wellbeing of all Australians; (iv) 15 April 2020, AUD3 million further funding to support frontline health workers with training and information on the treatment of coronavirus; (v) 15 May 2020, The government announced AUD48.1 million funding for the National Mental Health and Wellbeing Pandemic Response Plan; (vi) 25 May 2020, An additional AUD20 million is announced for Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Research; (vii) 29 May 2020, The Commonwealth will invest an estimated AUD131.4 billion in the new 2020‑25 National Health Reform Agreement to provide additional funding to public hospitals over five years from 2020–21; (viii) July 8, AUD325.7 million investment in new home care packages by the government for older Australians; (ix) 7 September 2020, The Australian government will invest AUD3.2 billion in a supply and production agreement with pharmaceutical companies to provide free vaccines by 2021, if trials prove successful; (x) 18 September 2020, The government announced to extend a range of COVID-19 health measures, including mental health interventions until 31 March 2021 amounting to more than AUD2 billion; (xi) No amount/estimate: 13 November 2020, National Cabinet endorsed the Australian COVID-19 Vaccination Policy, which sets out the roles and responsibilities of the Commonwealth, states and territories in rolling out COVID-19 vaccination. National Cabinet welcomed the Commonwealth Government’s announcement that Australia had secured access to 134.8 million doses of four leading vaccine candidates; (xii) 3 January 2021, AUD10.1 million from the government's Medical Research Future Fund’s Clinical Trials Activity Initiative is allocated for high potential COVID-19 related clinical trials.

Austria 05A 05A - Health support EUR 339,000,000 375,000,000 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) Additional capacities for mobile and stationary care (EUR100 million); (ii) EUR60 million are granted to the health system; (iii) EUR 130 million are given to hospitals for equipment and to finance over-time payments; (iv) EUR36 million are disbursed to incentivize eligible research on COVID-19 by Austrian firms; (v) EUR13 million on medical supplies.

Azerbaijan 05A 05A - Health support AZN 58,300,000 34,294,118 Ministry of Emergency Situations. http://www.fhn.gov.az/index.php?eng/news/xeber/2020/7/6/36724//1 (accessed 17 July 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. https://cabmin.gov.az/az/article/969/ (accessed 07 August 2020); Cabinet of Ministers. https://nk.gov.az/az/article/1333/ (accessed 14 January 2021); Cabinet of Ministers. https://nk.gov.az/az/article/1341/ (accessed 14 January 2021).

(i) No amount/estimate: 6 July 2020, Installation of 10 modular hospital complexes in various regions of the country. It is expected to create 2,000 additional beds for the treatment of coronavirus patients; (ii) 6 August 2020, The government reported that medical personnel involved in the fight against COVID-19 received increased salaries from March to June 2020. 64,038 medical staff have so far received salaries of AZN58.3 million. On 8 January 2021, the measure has been extended to 31 March 2021; (iii) No amount/estimate: 6 August 2020, The government reported that 215 medical staff with extensive experience in COVID-19 from Turkey, the Russian Federation, People's Republic of China, Italy, and Cuba were brought to the country to work with Azerbaijan's medical personnel; (iv) 12 January 2021, The import of new vaccines against coronavirus (COVID-19) and syringes for these vaccines will be exempt from duty for a period of 1 to 2 years from 1 January 2021.

Bangladesh 05A 05A - Health support BDT 65,100,000,000 766,333,137 Ministry of Finance. https://mof.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mof.portal.gov.bd/page/ed9e8b19_ccba_4cca_94b1_c40013f7a760/MTMPS_2020-21_English.pdf (accessed 29 June 6). Beximco Pharma. https://beximcopharma.com/beximco-news/latest-news/item/659-beximco-pharma-signs-mou-with-the-serum-institute-of-india-and-the-government-of-bangladesh-for-supply-of-a-covid-19-vaccine.html (accessed 06 Nov 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 January 2021).

(i) BDT1 billion Special Honorarium for doctors, nurses, medical workers; (ii) BDT7.5 billion compensation in case infection/death; (iii) No amount/estimate: November 5, signs MOU with Beximco Pharma for the supply and distribution of 30 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine; (iv) January 2021, BDT56.6 billion the government increased the COVID-19 Emergency Response and Pandemic Preparedness Project costs mostly reflecting the procurement, preservation and distribution of vaccines.

Belgium 05A 05A - Health support EUR 1,436,570,000 1,589,126,106 European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/cases1/20213/291129_2233241_19_2.pdf, https://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/cases1/20213/290856_2233132_21_2.pdf (both accessed 16 January 2021); EU Reporter. https://www.eureporter.co/frontpage/2021/01/14/commission-approves-e23-million-belgian-measures-to-support-production-of-coronavirus-relevant-products/ (accessed 15 January 2021); Belgium Government. https://news.belgium.be/fr/le-gouvernement-federal-se-prononce-en-faveur-dun-vaste-plan-de-soutien-socio-economique (accessed 11 November 2020); European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2020-european-semester-stability-programme-belgium_fr.pdf (accessed 24 May 2020).

(i) EUR6.4 billion in total measures as part of the fiscal package outlined in the Stability Program to adress the crises. Key fiscal support measures include: boosting health expenditure and increasing support for those in temporary unemployment and self-employed. In addition, EUR3.8 billion (increased from EUR1.7 billion) regional governments' support to affected firms and sectors, and transfers to affected households. Of the total EUR10.2 billion packages, around EUR1.2 billion are dedicated to health initiatives, with EUR1 billion for federal intiatives and EUR0.2 billion for regional; (ii) 6 November 2020, Retained the right to reimbursement of health care costs until 31 December 2021, while offering payment plans for self-employed workers who have obtained a deferral of payment of social contributions; (iii) 6 November 2020, EUR200 million is planned for hospital staff (salaried and self-employed workers), aimed at providing support measures. Further, additional budget of EUR13.07 million for consumer vouchers in the healthcare sector and extension of the validity of consumer vouchers until the end of 2021; (iv) 14 January 2021, Two Belgian measures, for a total of EUR23.5 million, have been approved by the European Commission to support the production of products relevant to the coronavirus outbreak in the Walloon region.

Bhutan 05A 05A - Health support BTN/INR 2,000,000,000 26,912,035 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); Ministry of Health. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/?p=1658 (accessed 22 July 2020).

(i) April 2020, An additional resource of BTN2 billion will be provided to the Ministry of Health to meet health-related spending; (ii) No amount/estimate: 20 July 2020, The government announced the exemption of COVID19 testing fees for the following categories of travellers: (a) undergraduate students and (b) referred patients and patient attendants approved by the referral committee.

Brazil 05A 05A - Health support BRL 35,588,040,000 7,287,825,093 Ministry of Economy https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2020/marco/ministerio-da-economia-anuncia-medidas-para-diminuir-o-impacto-do-coronavirus-no-pais (accessed March 20) Ministry of Economy https://www.gov.br/economia/pt-br/assuntos/noticias/2020/marco/equipe-economica-reforca-em-mais-r-22-bilhoes-plano-de-combate-aos-efeitos-do-coronavirus (Accessed March 21) OECD . Https://oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed May 28).

(i) 16 March 2020, Allocated BRL4.5 billion to directly fight coronavirus; (ii) 18 March 2020, Ministry of Economy announced another BRL2.3 billion to directly fight the pandemic; (iii) An additional 0.4% of GDP have been assigned to the public healthcare system, in addition to transfers to state and municipal governments who bear the main responsibility for public healthcare; (iv) Taxes and import duties on goods used by hospitals have been zeroed and import procedures eased. (v) Field hospitals are being built and efforts are underway to procure respirators and augment ICU capacity; (vi) The Health Ministry opened 5,800 vacancies for doctors; (vii) Resident doctors will receive a 20% bonus, worth USD130;

Brunei Darussalam 05A 05A - Health support BND
Cambodia 05A 05A - Health support KHR 243,346,363,636 60,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020).

April 2020, Additional fiscal resources to the health sector of around USD60 million are expected.

Canada 05A 05A - Health support CAD 25,174,000,000 18,042,644,687 Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/05/government-provides-tariff-relief-to-importers-of-certain-medical-goods.html (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Immediate public health response--CAD50 million; COVID-19 response fund--CAD1.025 billion; Personal protective equipment and supplies-CAD2 billion; Safe Restart Agreement--CAD19.351 billion; Personal protective equipment for essential workers--CAD511 million; Support for Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada--CAD88 million; Reducing import costs for critical medical goods--CAD 281 million; Health and Social Support for Northern Communities--CAD115 million; Medical research and vaccine development--CAD1.127 billion; Consular assistance--CAD100 million; Virtual care and mental health tools--CAD241 million; Enhancing public health in Indigenous communities--CAD285 million.

Cook Islands 05A 05A - Health support NZD 7,300,000 4,416,213

(i) NZD5 million, Ministry of Health; (ii) NZD2.3 million support for self-isolation.

Denmark 05A 05A - Health support DKK 5,068,800,000 750,430,015 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 30 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 June 2020). Denmark government. https://sim.dk/nyheder/nyhedsarkiv/2020/jul/kommunerne-faar-8-9-mia-kr-ekstra-udbetalt-efter-covid-19/ (accessed 2 July 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20201111/denmark-announces-funds-for-clinical-trials-of-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 12 November 2020). Denmark government. https://www.regeringen.dk/nyheder/2020/2-7-mia-kr-ekstra-i-covid-kompensation-til-kommuner-og-regioner-i-2020/ (accessed 17 December 2020)

(i) 30 March 2020, DKK150 million in subsidies provided to health research specifically related to COVID-19; (ii) An additional DKK0.8 billion was allocated to hire more social and health workers nationwide; (iii) 1 July 2020, DKK1.4 billion disbursed to municipalities for protective equipment and extra cleaning; (iv) 11 November 2020, DKK18.8 million allocated for the testing of a potential COVID-19 vaccine developed by researchers; (v) 11 December 2020, DKK2.7 billion extra in COVID compensation to municipalities and regions for extra expenses for protective equipment and the test effort.

European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 11,319,000,000 12,521,017,699 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/09/11/addressing-covid-19-council-approves-6-2-billion-budget-increase-for-2020/ (accessed 12 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1671 (accessed 21 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1680 (accessed 21 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1416 (accessed 1 August 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1829 (accessed 10 October 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-271-covid-19-eib-provides-eur50-million-to-navarre-to-strengthen-its-health-response-to-covid-19 (accessed 15 October 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2041 (accessed 20 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2136 (accessed 21 November 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2200 (accessed 28 November 2020); Council of the EU. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/12/07/council-greenlights-temporary-vat-relief-on-covid-19-vaccines-and-test-kits/ (accessed 7 December 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_50 (accessed 15 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_51 (accessed 20 January 2021).

(i) 13 March 2020, EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March 2020, The European Commission (EC) decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April 2020, The EC presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion) from the EU budget. 11 September 2020, The EC agreed to add EUR6.2 billion to the EU 2020 budget to address the impact of the COVID-19-crisis and to fund inter alia the vaccine strategy. The revised budget increases payments for the Emergency Support Instrument (ESI) by EUR1.09 billion to ensure the development and deployment of a COVID-19 vaccine. The Commission will use this money as a down-payment for pre-ordering vaccine doses. 18 September 2020, EU allocates EUR150 million for the transport of essential medical items through the ESI and entered into a contract with Sanofi-GSK to purchase up to 300 million doses of the Sanofi-GSK vaccine; (iv) EUR63 million, EC secures EU access to Remdesivir (first European treatment authorized for COVID-19); (v) No amount/estimate: 8 October 2020, the EC approved a third contract with a pharmaceutical company, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. Once the vaccine has proven to be safe and effective against COVID-19, the contract allows EU Member States to purchase vaccines for 200 million people. They will also have the possibility to purchase vaccines for an additional 200 million people; (vi) 13 October 2020, EIB is providing EUR50 million to the Autonomous Community of Navarre, Spain to strengthen its capacity to respond to the COVID-19 health crisis. The EU bank financing will enable the Spanish region to adapt its healthcare infrastructure to meet the additional costs generated by the pandemic; (vii) No amount/estimate: 11 November 2020, In order to step up the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and future health emergencies, The EC is taking the first steps towards building the European Health Union. The Commission is putting forward a set of proposals to strengthen the EU's health security framework, and to reinforce the crisis preparedness and response role of key EU agencies; (viii) No amount/estimate: 17 November 2020, The EC approves a fifth contract with CureVac for the initial purchase of 225 million doses of potential vaccine; (ix) No amount/estimate: 25 November 2020, The EC approved a sixth contract under the EU Vaccines Strategy, with the pharmaceutical company Moderna. The contract provides for the initial purchase of 80 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States; (x) 7 December 2020: The Council of Europe adopted amendments to the directive on the common system of value added tax (VAT) to allow member states to temporarily exempt COVID-19 vaccines and testing kits, as well as closely related services, from VAT; (xi) 11 January 2021, The EC supports blood services to increase COVID-19 convalescent plasma collection with grants amounting to EUR36 million financed through the ESI; (xii) No amount/estimate: 12 January 2020, The EC concluded exploratory talks with the pharmaceutical company Valneva with a view to purchasing its potential vaccine against COVID-19. The envisaged contract with Valneva would provide for the possibility for all EU Member States to purchase together 30 million doses, and they could further purchase up to 30 million more doses.

Federated States of Micronesia 05A 05A - Health support USD 20,000,000 20,000,000 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

To address the emergency caused by COVID-19, the national government has prepared a USD20 million (or about 5% of GDP) COVID-19 Response Framework, in order to develop quarantine and isolation facilities across the nation, provide mandatory infection control training for all first responders, and increase testing capacity and ventilators for each island state in the Federated States of Micronesia.

Fiji 05A 05A - Health support FJD WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 1 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 October 2020).

Effective March 2020, No amount/estimate: (i) Temporary elimination of import excise duty (from 15%) on ethanol for production of hand sanitizers; (ii) Temporary elimination of import fiscal duties on certain products like glove, masks, disposable hair nets, hospital beds, etc.; (iii) Temporary elimination of the VAT on imports of certain products like vaccines, pharmaceutical products, etc.;

Finland 05A 05A - Health support EUR 1,005,000,000 1,111,725,664 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 21 April 2020); Finnish Government. https://valtioneuvosto.fi/en/-/10616/government-decides-on-reimbursement-for-covid-19-vaccinations-provided-by-occupational-healthcare (accessed 4 Febraury 2021).

20 March 2020, (i) EUR1 billion for healthcare and testing, protection and medical equipment, public safety and border controls, and research on the coronavirus epidemic, in particular to develop methods for rapid diagnostics and vaccines and a knowledge base for timely decision-making on coronavirus measures, (especially on the exit strategy; (ii) EUR5 million contribution to international non-profit companies working on the development of a COVID-19 vaccine; (iii) No amount/estimate: 27 January 2021, The government decided to amend the Health Insurance Act to allow vaccinations received through occupational healthcare to be reimbursed by Kela, Finland’s Social Insurance Institution. The costs of reimbursement would be paid from state funds. Travel costs related to vaccinations provided by both public and private healthcare services would also be reimbursed [update].

France 05A 05A - Health support EUR 14,360,000,000 15,884,955,752 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 15 April 2020); Economie. https://www.economie.gouv.fr/plan-de-relance# (accessed 12 September 2020).

April 2020, (i) EUR260 million (from the unspent reserves in the 2019 budget) and EUR3.5 billion (from the 2020 budget allocation) for the healthcare system; (ii) EUR4.5 billion of additional funds for the purchase of equipment and other health expenses; (iii) creation of an additional emergency fund of EUR50 million for research on COVID-19; (iv) 3 September 2020, EUR6 billion for public expenditure for health security and EUR50 million for health security projects under the Cohesion component of the EUR100 billion recovery plan.

Georgia 05A 05A - Health support GEL 828,500,000 272,467,264 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 June 2020).

(i) 7 May 2020, Additional funds of about GEL350 million will be directed to health spending including lab testing and quarantine expenditures as well as increased costs associated with hospitalization, medical treatment, and medical supplies. (ii) 24 June 2020, GEL478.5 million for healthcare infastructure and other virus spread prevention costs.

Germany 05A 05A - Health support EUR 88,265,000,000 97,638,274,336 Federal Ministry of Finance. https://bit.ly/311YswO (accessed 17 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 17 April 2020); Federal Ministry of Health. https://www.bundesgesundheitsministerium.de/coronavirus.html (accessed 8 June 2020); Die Bundesregierung. With a total of 45 million euros, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) is strengthening research into effective strategies and therapies against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease Covid-19 (accessed 25 July 2020); Die Bundesregierung. bundesregierung (accessed 1 August 2020) ; Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020); Die Bundesrgierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/pflegebonus-1782446 (accessed 5 September 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://bit.ly/2ZtCyRt (accessed 12 September 2020); Bundesministerium fur Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend. https://www.bmfsfj.de/bmfsfj/aktuelles/alle-meldungen/akuthilfe-fuer-pflegende-angehoerige-beschlossen/155552 (accessed 17 September 2020); Bundesministerium fur Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend. https://www.bmfsfj.de/bmfsfj/aktuelles/alle-meldungen/akuthilfen-fuer-pflegende-angehoerige-sollen-verlaengert-werden/160232 (accessed 17 September 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/krankenhauszukunftsgesetz-1781744 (accessed 19 September 2020); Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft und Energie. https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/DE/Pressemitteilungen/2020/09/20200923-neues-foerderprogramm-fuer-lueftungsanlagen-tritt-demnaechst-in-kraft.html (accessed 26 September 2020); Deutschland.de. https://www.deutschland.de/en/news/german-federal-government-informs-about-the-corona-crisis (accessed 10 October 2020); Regeringkansliet. https://www.regeringen.se/pressmeddelanden/2020/10/3-miljarder-till-okad-testning-for-covid-19 (accessed 31 October 2020). BMBF. https://www.bmbf.de/de/karliczek-weiterer-schub-fuer-covid-19-medikamentenforschung-13495.html (accessed 9 January 2021). Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/suche/kostenlose-masken-1846278 (accessed 30 January 2021)

(i) 23 March 2020, EUR3.5 billion for emergency measures, such as procuring protective suits and masks, funding for development of a vaccine and treatment, support services provided by the Federal Armed Forces, assistance for German and European Union citizens abroad, and public outreach to keep the population informed; (ii) EUR55 billion funds made available for further pandemic control projects; (iii) EUR2.8 billion will be provided by the Federal government as additional funding for hospitals to balance losses due to rescheduled surgeries and to increase intensive care unit (ICU) capacity; (iv) No amount/estimate: 14 May 2020, Relatives who look after people in need of care at home during the COVID-19 crisis and who are employed at the same time will receive better support. Employees have the opportunity to claim the care support allowance for a total of up to 20 working days until 30 September 2020. On 2 September 2020, The assistance for family carers was extended until 31 December 2020; (v) 3 June 2020, The government has decided on a new stimulus package which includes EUR9.5 billion to strengthen health care, by investing in local health offices, more modern hospitals, sufficient medicines, and protective equipment. On 18 September 2020, EUR3 billion is allocated for an investment program for digitization and strengthening regional care structures as provided for in the Hospital Future Act; (vi) 20 July 2020, A total of EUR45 million is allocated by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to strengthen research into effective strategies and therapies against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19; (vii) 29 July 2020, EUR750 million for the special vaccine development program. On 9 October 2020, Three pharmaceutical companies - CureVac, BioNTech and IDT Biologika-are being funded; (viii) No amount/estimate: 27 August 2020, To relieve families in the COVID-19 pandemic, children's sickness benefit is to be paid for five additional days per parent in 2020, and for single parents for ten additional days; (ix) 4 September 2020, Bonus of up to EUR1,000 for nurses in hospitals who were stressed by caring for COVID-19 patients. For this purpose, EUR100 million is made available; (x) 11 September 2020, The Federal Ministry of Research is investing EUR20 million in the research and development of innovative medical technology; (xi) No amount/estimate: 18 September 2020, Nursing staff in hospitals and clinics who were particularly burdened by the care of COVID-19 patients are to receive a bonus of up to EUR1,000; (xii) 23 September 2020, New funding program for ventilation and air conditioning systems in public buildings and places of assembly systems (EUR500 million); (xiii) 30 October 2020, EUR3 billion for increased testing for COVID-19; (xiv) 26 November 2020, A new health care law has been passed (Health Care and Care Improvement Act) to enable the hiring of 20,000 additional nursing assistants and to reinforce the statutory health insurance system with EUR13 billion; (xv) 6 January 2021, EUR50 million from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for the development of drugs and other therapeutics against COVID-19; (xvi) No amount/estimate: 28 January 2021, The federal government provides 50 million FFP2 masks for people with basic security, in order to enable complying with the new obligation of wearing surgical masks or FFP masks in public transport and in shops. [update]

Hong Kong, China 05A 05A - Health support HKD 30,000,000,000 3,863,440,265 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020).

Establishment of a new Anti-Epidemic Fund (HKD30 billion or 1% of gross domestic product [GDP]) to enhance anti-epidemic facilities and services.

India 05A 05A - Health support INR 302,000,000,000 4,063,717,216 Press Information Bureau. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1633516 (accessed 24 June 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 5 May 2020).

(i) Three measures have already been announced as direct support to income/revenue. The first, mainly devoted to health, totalled around INR150 billion. Prime Minister Modi announced that an additional INR150 billion will be devoted to health infrastructure, including for COVID-19 testing facilities, personal protective equipment, isolation beds, intensive care unit (ICU) beds, and ventilators; (ii) No amount/estimate: Reduction and/or eliminations of tariffs for imports of medical or surgical instruments and supplies along with exemptions fom "health cess"; (iii) 23 June 2020, Allocated from the Prime Minister CARES Trust fund INR2 billion for supply of 50000 ‘Made-in-India’ ventilators to government-run COVID19 hospitals.

Indonesia 05A 05A - Health support IDR 81,100,000,000,000 5,337,431,705 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 May 2020). MOF (as of June 4). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 5 May 2020). WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 May 2020).

The stimulus packages rolled out by the government includes support to the health care sector to boost testing and treatment capability for COVID-19 cases: (i) 13 March 2020, the second fiscal package includes incentives for medical staff dealing with COVID-19 (IDR15 million to medical specialists, IDR 10 million to physicians and dentists, IDR7.5 million to nurses and IDR5 million to other medical staff members; IDR300 million in case of death of a medical worker) for a budget of IDR6.1 trillion; (ii) 31 March 2020, Under the third fiscal package, authorities announced an additional IDR75 trillion for healthcare; (iii) 13 May 2020, See (ii) under Measure 5B1. All amounts reflected under Measure 5B6.

Ireland 05A 05A - Health support EUR 3,635,000,000 4,021,017,699 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 15 April 2020); IE. https://enterprise.gov.ie/en/News-And-Events/Department-News/2020/April/29042020.html; DBEI. https://dbei.gov.ie/en/News-And-Events/Department-News/2020/June/04062020b.html (accessed 29 June 2020); DBEI. https://dbei.gov.ie/en/News-And-Events/Department-News/2020/October/20201013a.html (accessed 17 October 2020).

(i) 9 March 2020, The government has so far announced a stimulus package of EUR6.3 billion (3.2% of GDP) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic which includes EUR2.4 billion for illness benefit payments; (ii) Extra funding of EUR1 billion (0.5% of GNI) to the Health Service Executive for improving capacity in the health service;  (iii) EUR5 million allocate for 26 COVID-19 research projects; (iv) 4 June 2020, EUR200 million for the COVID Products Scheme, a grant aid for companies developing or producing medicinal products used in the fight against COVID-19; (iv) 13 October 2020, Government presented 2021 budget including additional measures for COVID response: EUR30 million for applied research in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry.

Islamic Republic of Iran 05A 05A - Health support IRR 469,893,952,200,000 11,187,951,243 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020, 15 January 2021).

(i) Additional funding to health sector at 2% of GDP; (ii) January 2021, USD244 million for initial imports of 16.8 million doses of vaccines from COVAX.

Italy 05A 05A - Health support EUR 11,585,000,000 12,815,265,487 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 15 April 2020); Milano Today. https://www.milanotoday.it/attualita/coronavirus/decreto-rilancio.html#13 (24 May 2020); Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-05-13/italy-government-signs-off-on-55-billion-euro-stimulus-package (accessed 24 May 2020).

(i) EUR3.2 billion for the national health service and to support civil protection; (ii) EUR3.25 billion for healthcare as part of the additional additional EUR55 billion rescue package announced on 13 May; (iii) 15 May 2020, EUR5 billion support to the health sector under the Relaunch Decree; (iv) EUR5 million to raise by 12 days the paid leave for disabled workers and workers caring for a disabled relative; (v) EUR130 million to extend sick leave to cover days spent in quarantine.

Japan 05A 05A - Health support JPY Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-japan-economy-stimulus/japan-unveils-708-billion-in-fresh-stimulus-with-eye-on-post-covid-growth-idUSKBN28I02Y?il=0 (accessed 12 December 2020).

12 December 2020, The latest economic stimulus package involves JPY40 trillion in direct fiscal spending including JPY5.9 trillion for virus containment measures (https://bit.ly/3p8FoFT).

Kazakhstan 05A 05A - Health support KZT 74,900,000,000 181,685,870 UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Kazakhstan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 6 December 2020)

May 20: As part of the president's anti-crisis package, (a) KZT14.8 billion for the construction of three quarantine modular complexes in Nur-Sultan, Shymkent and Almaty; (b) KZT40.6 billion for incentive measures for healthcare workers participating in quarantine activities; (c) KZT19.5 billion for health organizations treating coronavirus patients.

Kiribati 05A 05A - Health support AUD
Kyrgyz Republic 05A 05A - Health support KGS
Lao PDR 05A 05A - Health support LAK 30,000,000,000 3,372,483 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020, 9 July 2020).

May 2020, LAK30 billion has been allocated for prevention and control. As of 1 July 2020, an additional budget request of LAK23.98 billion for rapid procurement of protective and medical equipment from State Budget was under process.

Luxembourg 05A 05A - Health support EUR 264,000,000 292,035,398 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 9 May 2020). Ministry of Labor. https://mteess.gouvernement.lu/fr/actualites.gouvernement%2Bfr%2Bactualites%2Btoutes_actualites%2Bcommuniques%2B2021%2B01-janvier%2B22-react-eu.html (accessed 27 January 2021)

(i) Additional expenditures in the context of health and crisis management, notably for the procurement of medical equipment and infrastructure (up to EUR194 million). These are part of the EUR1.45 billion fiscal package from March 2020, and deducted from Measure 5B3; (ii) 22 January 2021, EUR70 million for the "Large Scale Testing - Phase 2" project, managed by the Ministry of Health, covering expenses related to this project for the acquisition of test equipment for analyses. [update]

Malaysia 05A 05A - Health support MYR 6,400,000,000 1,489,827,273 Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Booklet-PRIHATIN-EN.pdf (accessed 19 April 2020); World Trade Organization (WTO). https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 19 April 2020); Ministry of Finance. https://penjana.treasury.gov.my/pdf/PENJANA-Booklet-En-v3.pdf (accessed 26 June 2020); Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. https://www.pmo.gov.my/2021/01/special-announcement-on-the-perlindungan-ekonomi-rakyat-malaysia-permai-assistance-package/ (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) 27 March 2020 in PRIHATIN: (a) To curb the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, the Government announced an allocation of MYR500 million to the Ministry of Health (MOH). This allocation is to purchase medical apparatus such as ventilators and ICU equipment, personal protective equipment (PPE) for public medical personnel as well as laboratory requirements for testing COVID-19; and (b) The Government is also allocating an additional MYR1 billion to purchase equipment and services, which include obtaining medical expertise from private healthcare service providers to contain the outbreak; (ii) June 5 in Short-term National Economic Recovery Plan or PENJANA: (a) The government will double the existing allocation for the PEKA B40 Programme to a total of MYR100 million (amount is MYR50 million only) in order to fund health screening, medical device assistance, cancer treatment incentives, and subsidy for transportation for health for the B40 group; and (b) Tax relief for COVID-19 related expenses, amounting to MYR600 million, to encourage businesses to adapt to new norms and adhere to SOPs: extend the period and expand the scope of expenses allowed as tax deduction or capital allowance for COVID-19’s prevention, including COVID-19 testing and purchase of PPE and thermal scanners; (iii) 18 January 2021 in PERMAI: (a) MYR1 billion for supplies, including additional reagents and screening kits as well as PPE equipment, specifically for healthcare frontliners; (b) MYR3 billion for the COVID-19 Vaccination Programme; (c) MYR150 million for the recruitment of additional 3,500 healthcare personnel who will start working at the end of January 2021. The government will increase the recruitment of healthcare professionals should the need arise to support the immunization program; (d) No amount/estimate: As announced during the Budget 2021 speech, the one-off provision of MYR500 to healthcare frontliners and MYR300 to other frontliners will be paid in the first quarter of 2021. Meanwhile, the existing special monthly allowance of MYR600 to healthcare frontliners and MYR200 to other frontliners will continue until the COVID-19 pandemic is over; (e) MYR100 million to further enhance the cooperation between the public and private sectors in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Private hospitals have agreed to receive and treat both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients to help alleviate the strain on the public healthcare system.

Maldives 05A 05A - Health support MVR
Marshall Islands 05A 05A - Health support USD
Mexico 05A 05A - Health support MXN 180,000,000,000 8,193,363,376 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed on 30 April 2020). Ministry of Finance http://www5.diputados.gob.mx/index.php/esl/Comunicacion/Boletines/2020/Marzo/18/3509-Aprueban-crear-el-Fondo-para-la-Prevencion-y-Atencion-de-Emergencias (Accessed on March 30)

(i) Ensure that the Ministry of Health has sufficient resources and does not face red-tape, and sufficient supply of medical equipment and materials;(ii) Advance pension payments to the elderly; (iii) Accelerate the tender processes for public spending to ensure full budget execution; (iv) 18 March 2020, The Ministry of Finance created a Health Emergency Fund authorized for up to MXN180 billion.

Mongolia 05A 05A - Health support MNT 198,193,703,412 71,900,000 ADB. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-documents/54174/54174-001-rrp-en.pdf (accessed 26 May 2020).

March 2020, Health sector measures (USD71.9 million).

Myanmar 05A 05A - Health support MMK 300,000,000 213,980 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/myanmar-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed on 28 May 2020).

(i) April 2020, The allotment of MMK300 million (USD0.2 million) to the Ministry of Health and Sports for additional health-related expenditures; (ii) No amount/estimate: April 2020, Waiver of the “specific goods tax,” customs duties, and commercial tax on “critical” medical supplies and products related to the prevention, control, and treatment of COVID-19.