Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Japan 05 05 - Health and income support JPY 243,400,000,000,000 2,268,557,353,039 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/ (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/COVID19Response/COVID19April7EEM.pdf (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/98_abe/statement/202004/_00002.html (accessed 24 April 2020). WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 May 2020). Cabinet Public Relations Office. http://japan.kantei.go.jp/98_abe/actions/202005/_00010.html (accessed 22 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus/japan-approves-fresh-1-1-trillion-stimulus-to-combat-pandemic-pain-idUSKBN2323D3; https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus-fac/factbox-key-spending-in-japans-second-stimulus-package-of-1-1-trillion-idUSKBN2330GG?il=0 (accessed 27 May). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/06/12/national/extra-budget-coronavirus/#.XuMz8EUzZPY (accessed 12 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://tinyurl.com/y6rptmr8 (accessed 21 July 2020).

(i) April 7, The Government of Japan adopted the Emergency Economic Package Against COVID-19 of JPY117.1 trillion (21.1% of gross domestic product [GDP]) and subsumed the remaining part of the previously announced packages (the December 2019 stimulus package (passed in January 2020) and the two COVID-19-response packages announced on February 13 and March 10, respectively). The April package aims at five objectives: (a) Develop preventive measures against the spread of infection and strengthen treatment capacity (expenditure of 0.5% of GDP); (b) Protect employment and businesses (15.1% of GDP); (c) Regain economic activities after containment (1.6% of GDP); (d) Rebuild a resilient economic structure (3% of GDP); and (e) Enhance readiness for the future (0.3% of GDP; the key measures under the package comprise cash handouts to affected households and firms, and deferral of tax payments and social security contributions). (ii) As of April 17, cash payment of JPY100,000 per person will be given to all citizens nationwide, from previously planned JPY300,000 to each household in need whose income has declined significantly so that the total amount of cash payments will expand significantly, from the scale of JPY6 trillion to more than JPY14 trillion. (iii) May 14, The government announced another set of new measures to be included in the formulation of the second supplementary budget: (a) enhance the Employment Adjustment Subsidies by raising the maximum payment to 15,000 yen per day as a special measure and establish a new scheme that allows employees themselves to directly apply for and receive the money; (b) establish a new assistance scheme to further reduce rents, a fixed cost that is posing a major burden on micro-, small- and medium-sized business operators (SMEs); (c) establish a new mechanism for supporting students, including university students; (d) with government outlays, cover the total expenditure of the comprehensive support subsidy for medical systems and increase the amount significantly; and (e) provide adequate liquidity support for large companies and those relatively smaller ones, in addition to small- and medium-sizes enterprises. We will also implement measures to strengthen financial functions such as increasing the allocation of special lending by the Japan Finance Corporation and crisis response lending by the Development Bank of Japan, as well as strengthen the financial base with capital funds including subordinated loans. (iv) May 19, Exemption of customs duty and (domestic) consumption tax for imported goods which are proved to be provided free of charge. (v) June 12, Parliament enacted the second supplementary budget worth JPY31.91 trillion which includes financial assistance to medical staff, and small firms and single proprietors. These direct spending measures are part of the JPY117 trillion stimulus package approved by the Cabinet on May 27 which brings the total amount of stimulus from all economic packages to JPY234 trillion (over 40% of GDP). (vi) JPY1.3 trillion in domestic tourism subsidies aimed at helping coronavirus-battered local economies.

Japan 05A 05A - Health support JPY
Japan 05B 05B - Income support JPY
United Kingdom 05 05 - Health and income support GBP 196,801,200,000 243,660,012,995
United Kingdom 05A 05A - Health support GBP 11,401,400,000 14,116,099,252 Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/funding-and-manufacturing-boost-for-uk-vaccine-programme (accessed 24 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-production-lines-will-make-millions-of-face-coverings-each-week (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/over-100-million-cash-boost-to-manufacture-millions-of-doses-of-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-further-boosts-chances-of-uk-receiving-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-invests-in-livingston-facility-to-bolster-vaccine-manufacturing-capacity (accessed 6 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-further-boosts-uk-vaccine-manufacturing-capacity (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/5-million-for-social-prescribing-to-tackle-the-impact-of-covid-19 (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV. UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-creates-new-national-institute-for-health-protection (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/8m-programme-to-boost-pupil-and-teacher-wellbeing (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-to-fund-covid-19-research-in-scotland (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/500-million-funding-for-quick-result-covid-19-test-trials (accessed 3 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-plan-to-help-protect-care-homes-from-coronavirus-over-winter (accessed 18 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-measures-to-improve-patient-care-ahead-of-winter (accessed 19 September 2020).

(i) April, GBP10 billion for the National Health Service (NHS) and other public services to tackle the virus; (ii) May 17, UK’s top researchers rapidly working to find a coronavirus vaccine will benefit from GBP84 million of new government funding; (ii) No amount/estimate: July 20, The government is setting up face covering production lines in cooperation with UK manufacturers. Ten production lines have been procured and a further ten British production lines are being made with government support. The manufacturers will produce millions of masks each week; (iii) July 23, GBP100 million will be used to fund a state-of-the-art Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult Manufacturing Innovation Centre to accelerate the mass production of a successful COVID-19 vaccine; (iv) No amount/estimate: July 29, A deal to secure early access to a promising new COVID-19 vaccine has been announced. The agreement with GSK and Sanofi Pasteur will supply an additional 60 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine, which means that the government has now secured early access to four different types of immunization and a total of 250 million doses; (v) No amount/estimate: August 3, Government partners with pharmaceutical and biotech organization Wockhardt to accelerate vaccine manufacturing; (vi) No amount/estimate: August 5, UK government and Valneva (global biotech company) undertake a joint investment in a vaccine manufacturing facility in Livingston. This will enable the government secure access to 60 million doses of Valneva's promising vaccine candidate; (vii) August 16, The National Academy for Social Prescribing (NASP) has been awarded GBP5 million in funding to support people to stay connected and maintain their health and wellbeing following the COVID-19 pandemic; (viii) August 18, The government creates a new National Institute for Health Protection, which will have a single command structure to advance the country’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic; (ix) August 25, GBP8 million to boost pupil and teacher well-being; (x) August 28, The UK government is investing GBP8.4 million in COVID-19 immunology research projects, including at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee; (xi) September 3, New GBP500 million funding package will be invested in next generation testing technology and increased testing capacity; (xi) September 17, 25 hospitals will receive a share of GBP150 million in funding to upgrade, reduce overcrowding and improve infection control ahead of winter [upgrade]; (xii) September 18, There is a new social care winter plan to support care homes through winter including free PPE and GBP546 million Infection Control Fund. It aims to curb the spread of COVID-19 infections in care settings throughout the winter months [update].

United Kingdom 05B 05B - Income support GBP 185,399,800,000 229,543,913,743 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (acessed 15 May 2020); Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/3fFvSoU (accessed 31 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/30ZVSXZ (accessed 5 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/2AUxUCH (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/2VfDs1O (accessed 24 June 2020); Financial Times. https://on.ft.com/2NerwsH (accessed 20 June 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/ps56million-available-alleviate-student-hardship-additional-ps14million-announced (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-unveils-200-million-package-to-help-innovative-businesses-bounce-back (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://apply-for-innovation-funding.service.gov.uk/competition/651/overview (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/rishis-plan-for-jobs-will-help-britain-bounce-back (accessed 9 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/157-billion-investment-to-protect-britains-world-class-cultural-arts-and-heritage-institutions (accessed 12 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-confirms-allocations-of-500-million-additional-funding-for-councils (accessed 18 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/jenrick-launches-266-million-housing-fund-for-vulnerable-people (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pay-rises-for-doctors-police-and-more-in-the-public-sector (accessed 22 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/scotland-wales-and-northern-ireland-receive-additional-coronavirus-funding-guarantee-from-uk-government (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/councils-awarded-800-000-to-build-on-digital-advances-made-during-pandemic (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/20-million-in-new-grants-to-boost-recovery-of-small-businesses (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV. UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/dowden-jump-start-for-uks-leading-creative-industries (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/apprentices-to-get-jobs-boost (accessed 3 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/coronavirus-100m-zoo-animals-fund-opens-for-applications (accessed 4 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/support-for-working-families-affected-by-coronavirus-covid-19-given-an-extra-boost (accessed 5 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/20-million-to-improve-small-business-leadership-and-problem-solving-skills-in-the-wake-of-coronavirus (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-help-on-offer-for-disabled-people-working-from-home-during-the-pandemic (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/1-3-billion-investment-to-deliver-homes-infrastructure-and-jobs (accessed 20 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/new-law-ensure-furloughed-employees-receive-full-redundancy-payments (accessed 20 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/transport-secretary-launches-new-acceleration-unit-to-speed-up-transport-infrastructure-projects-and-build-back-better-from-covid-19 (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-productivity-institute-part-of-37m-investment-to-boost-uk-wage-growth-and-living-standards (accessed 21 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/minister-launches-experience-development-programme-tourism-providers (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-payment-for-people-self-isolating-in-highest-risk-areas (accessed 28 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/dodds-announces-apprenticeship-recovery-package-plan (accessed 3 September 2020); GOV.UK . https://www.gov.uk/government/news/bounce-back-plans-launched-for-consumer-and-retail-industry (accessed 9 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/ministers-announce-new-grants-for-businesses-affected-by-local-lockdowns (accessed 10 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-to-fund-international-covid-19-studies-in-scotland (accessed 10 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/300-million-to-boost-uk-manufacturing-productivity-by-30 (accessed 11 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/governments-40-million-green-recovery-challenge-fund-opens-for-applications (accessed 15 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/274-councils-set-to-receive-housing-support-for-vulnerable-people (accessed 18 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-extends-support-to-stop-business-evictions-this-year (accessed 18 September 2020) GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/more-domestic-abuse-charities-to-benefit-from-government-funding-boost-1#history (accessed 19 September 2020); GOV.UK.https://www.gov.uk/government/news/extra-funding-for-service-charities-as-veterans-support-is-stepped-up (accessed 19 September 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-package-to-support-and-enforce-self-isolation (accessed 21 September 2020).

(i) March 20, VAT payments of around GBP30 billion for the 2nd quarter of 2020 are deferred until 2021; (ii) April: (a) Employment support: Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (GBP42 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP54 billion), Self-employed income support scheme (GBP10 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP15 billion) (b) Household Support: Statutory sick pay support (GBP1 billion), Welfare package (GBP7 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP8 billion), Local authority funding to support vulnerable people (GBP0.5 billion); Suspending benefit recovery (no amount yet); (c) Business support: Small business grant schemes (GBP15 billion), Business rates package (GBP13 billion), Off-payroll working delay extension to private sector by 1 year (GBP1.2 billion), VAT on e-publications - early introduction (GBP0.1 billion, June 4); (d) Funds for devolved administrations (GBP3.5 billion = GBP1.6 billion local + GBP1 billion Scotland + GBP0.6 billion Wales + GBP0.3 billion Northern Ireland.); (f) Railway services operation (GBP3.5 billion); (iii) April 8, Charities across the UK will receive a GBP750 million package of support to ensure they can continue their vital work during COVID. September 15, GBP6 million of funding for 100 military charities. September 25, Charities will receive a share of GBP1 million boost as part of the government’s GBP10 million emergency fund to support domestic abuse victims and their families during the pandemic [update]; (iv) May 23, GBP15 million to support the Citizens Advice Service during COVID-19 pandemic ; (v) May 29, the Self-Employment Support Scheme is extended until August, but government contribution will be slowly tapered from 80% of the salary in June to 60% in October; (vi) June 9, GBP38 million support package for debt advice providers so they can continue helping people affected by COVID; (vii) June 19, Schools will receive GBP1 billion to help pupils catch up after coronavirus and provide for a national tutoring program; (viii) May 19 & June 23, GBP2.4 million funding to alleviate student hardship; (ix) June 24, GBP105 million to keep 15,000 vulnerable people off the streets during coronavirus pandemic; (x) June 29, GBP200 million Sustainable Innovation Fund to help businesses drive forward cutting-edge new technology and recover from the impacts of coronavirus. This funding, delivered through Innovate UK, forms part of a wider GBP750 million package of grants and loans announced in April; (xi) July 5, Cultural and heritage organizations to be protected with GBP1.57 billion support package (https://bit.ly/31mnuVD); (xii) July 8, Plan for Jobs includes: (a) GBP9.4 billion: Job Retention Bonus, (b) GBP2.1 billion Kickstart Scheme, (c) GBP1.6 billion in scaling up employment support schemes, training, and apprenticeship. August 1, A new online and telephone support - Redundancy Support Service for Apprentices (ReSSA) is launched, (d) GBP8.7 billion infrastructure package, decarbonization, and Green Homes Grant, (e) GBP0.5 billion: Eat Out to Help Out discount scheme, (f) GBP4.1 billion: Reduced rate of VAT for hospitality, accommodation and attractions, (g) GBP3.8 billion: Stamp Duty Land Tax temporary cuts (https://bit.ly/31kFRuf) ; (xiii) July 16, Allocations for individual councils to help deliver essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic (GBP500 million); (xiv) July 18, GBP266 million housing fund (https://bit.ly/3ieuBWX). September 17, GBP91.5 million is allocated to 274 councils in England to help house vulnerable people during the pandemic [update]; (xv) July 21, No amount/estimate: Nearly 1 million public sector workers (e.g., police officers, teachers, doctors, etc.) will be given above-inflation pay increases; (xvi) July 24, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales will receive a minimum of GBP3.7 billion in additional funding (https://bit.ly/2DyzXxm); (xvii) July 27, Councils are given GBP800,000 so they continue to modernize and improve delivery of public services, as they respond to COVID; (xviii) July 30, GBP20 million new funding for smaller businesses to recover (https://bit.ly/3idRV7x); (xix) July 28, GBP500 million to assist film and television production struggling to secure insurance for COVID-related costs; (xx) August 3, GBP100 million funding for zoos and aquariums, which need support following a drop in income due to COVID; (xxi) No amount estimate: August 5, Working parents eligible for Tax-Free Childcare whose incomes have fallen below the minimum requirement due to COVID will continue to receive financial support until October 2020; (xxi) GBP20 million to improve small business leadership and problem-solving skills in the wake of coronavirus; (xxii) August 5, GBP1.3 billion funds to deliver up to 45,000 homes, create up to 85,000 jobs and upgrade skills and infrastructure to help fuel a green economic recovery; (xxiii) No amount/estimate: August 13, New law to ensure furloughed employees receive full redundancy payments; (xxiv) No amount/estimate: August 18, Disabled people can now benefit from financial support to work from home, thanks to an extension to the Access to Work scheme; (xxv) August 21, ‘Acceleration Unit’ launched to speed up delivery of transport projects. This coincides with around GBP360 million of investment to build back better from COVID-19; (xxvi) August 21, A new productivity institute is announced to boost wage growth and living standards. This new institute in Manchester will boost ground-breaking research to explore how to increase productivity, boost wages, and support the economic recovery. Government's share is GBP30 million; (xxvii) No amount/estimate: August 24, Economy Minister has launched a new tourism program to provide financial assistance up to GBP200,000 to support tourism providers; (xxviii) No amount/estimate: August 27, New payment for people on low incomes in areas with high rates of COVID-19, who need to self-isolate and can’t work from home; (xxix) August 27, There is an additional GBP17.2 million funding to help bolster local apprenticeship system as it battles the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic;(xxx) No amount/estimate: September 8, A ‘bounce-back’ plan of trade measures for the consumer and retail industry has been announced to help support businesses impacted by COVID-19 (https://bit.ly/35jU9Pn) [update]; (xxxi) No amount/estimate: September 9, Businesses in England required to close due to local lockdowns or targeted restrictions will now be able to receive grants worth up to GBP1,500 every three weeks. This is in addition to businesses eligibility for the government’s existing schemes of support to businesses [update]; (xxxii) September 11, Businesses with creative ideas to boost the UK's manufacturing capacities set to receive GBP300 million of joint government and industry funding. The government will invest GBP147 million [update]; (xxxiii) September 14, Grants from the government's GBP40 million Green Recovery Challenge Fund are now available to help the nation build back greener from the COVID-19 pandemic (https://bit.ly/33xNiPE) [update]; (xxxiv) No amount/estimate: September 16, Commercial tenants will be protected from the risk of eviction until the end of 2020 helping businesses to protect jobs (https://bit.ly/3iFRGm8); (xxxv) No amount/estimate: September 20, A new package has been announced to support and enforce self-isolation [update].

Japan 05 05 - Health and income support JPY 243,400,000,000,000 2,268,557,353,039 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/ (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/COVID19Response/COVID19April7EEM.pdf (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/98_abe/statement/202004/_00002.html (accessed 24 April 2020). WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 21 May 2020). Cabinet Public Relations Office. http://japan.kantei.go.jp/98_abe/actions/202005/_00010.html (accessed 22 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus/japan-approves-fresh-1-1-trillion-stimulus-to-combat-pandemic-pain-idUSKBN2323D3; https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus-fac/factbox-key-spending-in-japans-second-stimulus-package-of-1-1-trillion-idUSKBN2330GG?il=0 (accessed 27 May). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/06/12/national/extra-budget-coronavirus/#.XuMz8EUzZPY (accessed 12 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://tinyurl.com/y6rptmr8 (accessed 21 July 2020).

(i) April 7, The Government of Japan adopted the Emergency Economic Package Against COVID-19 of JPY117.1 trillion (21.1% of gross domestic product [GDP]) and subsumed the remaining part of the previously announced packages (the December 2019 stimulus package (passed in January 2020) and the two COVID-19-response packages announced on February 13 and March 10, respectively). The April package aims at five objectives: (a) Develop preventive measures against the spread of infection and strengthen treatment capacity (expenditure of 0.5% of GDP); (b) Protect employment and businesses (15.1% of GDP); (c) Regain economic activities after containment (1.6% of GDP); (d) Rebuild a resilient economic structure (3% of GDP); and (e) Enhance readiness for the future (0.3% of GDP; the key measures under the package comprise cash handouts to affected households and firms, and deferral of tax payments and social security contributions). (ii) As of April 17, cash payment of JPY100,000 per person will be given to all citizens nationwide, from previously planned JPY300,000 to each household in need whose income has declined significantly so that the total amount of cash payments will expand significantly, from the scale of JPY6 trillion to more than JPY14 trillion. (iii) May 14, The government announced another set of new measures to be included in the formulation of the second supplementary budget: (a) enhance the Employment Adjustment Subsidies by raising the maximum payment to 15,000 yen per day as a special measure and establish a new scheme that allows employees themselves to directly apply for and receive the money; (b) establish a new assistance scheme to further reduce rents, a fixed cost that is posing a major burden on micro-, small- and medium-sized business operators (SMEs); (c) establish a new mechanism for supporting students, including university students; (d) with government outlays, cover the total expenditure of the comprehensive support subsidy for medical systems and increase the amount significantly; and (e) provide adequate liquidity support for large companies and those relatively smaller ones, in addition to small- and medium-sizes enterprises. We will also implement measures to strengthen financial functions such as increasing the allocation of special lending by the Japan Finance Corporation and crisis response lending by the Development Bank of Japan, as well as strengthen the financial base with capital funds including subordinated loans. (iv) May 19, Exemption of customs duty and (domestic) consumption tax for imported goods which are proved to be provided free of charge. (v) June 12, Parliament enacted the second supplementary budget worth JPY31.91 trillion which includes financial assistance to medical staff, and small firms and single proprietors. These direct spending measures are part of the JPY117 trillion stimulus package approved by the Cabinet on May 27 which brings the total amount of stimulus from all economic packages to JPY234 trillion (over 40% of GDP). (vi) JPY1.3 trillion in domestic tourism subsidies aimed at helping coronavirus-battered local economies.

Japan 05A 05A - Health support JPY
Japan 05B 05B - Income support JPY
United Kingdom 05 05 - Health and income support GBP 195,918,200,000 242,566,768,689
United Kingdom 05A 05A - Health support GBP 10,705,400,000 13,254,380,070 Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/funding-and-manufacturing-boost-for-uk-vaccine-programme (accessed 24 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-production-lines-will-make-millions-of-face-coverings-each-week (accessed 21 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/over-100-million-cash-boost-to-manufacture-millions-of-doses-of-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-further-boosts-chances-of-uk-receiving-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-invests-in-livingston-facility-to-bolster-vaccine-manufacturing-capacity (accessed 6 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-further-boosts-uk-vaccine-manufacturing-capacity (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/5-million-for-social-prescribing-to-tackle-the-impact-of-covid-19 (accessed 17 August 2020); GOV. UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-creates-new-national-institute-for-health-protection (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/8m-programme-to-boost-pupil-and-teacher-wellbeing (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-government-to-fund-covid-19-research-in-scotland (accessed 31 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/500-million-funding-for-quick-result-covid-19-test-trials (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) April, GBP10 billion for the National Health Service (NHS) and other public services to tackle the virus; (ii) May 17, UK’s top researchers rapidly working to find a coronavirus vaccine will benefit from GBP84 million of new government funding; (ii) No amount/estimate: July 20, The government is setting up face covering production lines in cooperation with UK manufacturers. Ten production lines have been procured and a further ten British production lines are being made with government support. The manufacturers will produce millions of masks each week; (iii) July 23, GBP100 million will be used to fund a state-of-the-art Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult Manufacturing Innovation Centre to accelerate the mass production of a successful COVID-19 vaccine; (iv) No amount/estimate: July 29, A deal to secure early access to a promising new COVID-19 vaccine has been announced. The agreement with GSK and Sanofi Pasteur will supply an additional 60 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine, which means that the government has now secured early access to four different types of immunization and a total of 250 million doses; (v) No amount/estimate: August 3, Government partners with pharmaceutical and biotech organization Wockhardt to accelerate vaccine manufacturing; (vi) No amount/estimate: August 5, UK government and Valneva (global biotech company) undertake a joint investment in a vaccine manufacturing facility in Livingston. This will enable the government secure access to 60 million doses of Valneva's promising vaccine candidate; (vii) August 16, The National Academy for Social Prescribing (NASP) has been awarded GBP5 million in funding to support people to stay connected and maintain their health and wellbeing following the COVID-19 pandemic; (viii) August 18, The government creates a new National Institute for Health Protection, which will have a single command structure to advance the country’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic; (ix) August 25, GBP8 million to boost pupil and teacher well-being [update]; (x) August 28, The UK government is investing GBP8.4 million in COVID-19 immunology research projects, including at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee [update]; (xi) September 3, New GBP500 million funding package will be invested in next generation testing technology and increased testing capacity [update].

United Kingdom 05B 05B - Income support GBP 185,212,800,000 229,312,388,618 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (acessed 15 May 2020); Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 3 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/3fFvSoU (accessed 31 May 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/30ZVSXZ (accessed 5 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/2AUxUCH (accessed 18 June 2020); GOV.UK. https://bit.ly/2VfDs1O (accessed 24 June 2020); Financial Times. https://on.ft.com/2NerwsH (accessed 20 June 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/ps56million-available-alleviate-student-hardship-additional-ps14million-announced (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-unveils-200-million-package-to-help-innovative-businesses-bounce-back (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://apply-for-innovation-funding.service.gov.uk/competition/651/overview (accessed 6 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/rishis-plan-for-jobs-will-help-britain-bounce-back (accessed 9 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/157-billion-investment-to-protect-britains-world-class-cultural-arts-and-heritage-institutions (accessed 12 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-confirms-allocations-of-500-million-additional-funding-for-councils (accessed 18 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/jenrick-launches-266-million-housing-fund-for-vulnerable-people (accessed 2 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pay-rises-for-doctors-police-and-more-in-the-public-sector (accessed 22 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/scotland-wales-and-northern-ireland-receive-additional-coronavirus-funding-guarantee-from-uk-government (accessed 25 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/councils-awarded-800-000-to-build-on-digital-advances-made-during-pandemic (accessed 28 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/20-million-in-new-grants-to-boost-recovery-of-small-businesses (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV. UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/dowden-jump-start-for-uks-leading-creative-industries (accessed 30 July 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/apprentices-to-get-jobs-boost (accessed 3 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/coronavirus-100m-zoo-animals-fund-opens-for-applications (accessed 4 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/support-for-working-families-affected-by-coronavirus-covid-19-given-an-extra-boost (accessed 5 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/20-million-to-improve-small-business-leadership-and-problem-solving-skills-in-the-wake-of-coronavirus (accessed 8 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-help-on-offer-for-disabled-people-working-from-home-during-the-pandemic (accessed 19 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/1-3-billion-investment-to-deliver-homes-infrastructure-and-jobs (accessed 20 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/new-law-ensure-furloughed-employees-receive-full-redundancy-payments (accessed 20 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/transport-secretary-launches-new-acceleration-unit-to-speed-up-transport-infrastructure-projects-and-build-back-better-from-covid-19 (accessed 21 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-productivity-institute-part-of-37m-investment-to-boost-uk-wage-growth-and-living-standards (accessed 21 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/minister-launches-experience-development-programme-tourism-providers (accessed 27 August 2020); GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-payment-for-people-self-isolating-in-highest-risk-areas (accessed 28 August 2020); Department for the Economy. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/news/dodds-announces-apprenticeship-recovery-package-plan (accessed 3 September 2020),

(i) March 20, VAT payments of around GBP30 billion for the 2nd quarter of 2020 are deferred until 2021; (ii) April: (a) Employment support: Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (GBP42 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP54 billion), Self-employed income support scheme (GBP10 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP15 billion) (b) Household Support: Statutory sick pay support (GBP1 billion), Welfare package (GBP7 billion; as of June 4, estimate was GBP8 billion), Local authority funding to support vulnerable people (GBP0.5 billion); Suspending benefit recovery (no amount yet); (c) Business support: Small business grant schemes (GBP15 billion), Business rates package (GBP13 billion), Off-payroll working delay extension to private sector by 1 year (GBP1.2 billion), VAT on e-publications - early introduction (GBP0.1 billion, June 4); (d) Funds for devolved administrations (GBP3.5 billion = GBP1.6 billion local + GBP1 billion Scotland + GBP0.6 billion Wales + GBP0.3 billion Northern Ireland.); (f) Railway services operation (GBP3.5 billion); (iii) April 8, Charities across the UK will receive a GBP750 million package of support to ensure they can continue their vital work during COVID; (iv) May 23, GBP15 million to support the Citizens Advice Service during COVID-19 pandemic ; (v) May 29, the Self-Employment Support Scheme is extended until August, but government contribution will be slowly tapered from 80% of the salary in June to 60% in October; (vi) June 9, GBP38 million support package for debt advice providers so they can continue helping people affected by COVID; (vii) June 19, Schools will receive GBP1 billion to help pupils catch up after coronavirus and provide for a national tutoring program; (viii) May 19 & June 23, GBP2.4 million funding to alleviate student hardship; (ix) June 24, GBP105 million to keep 15,000 vulnerable people off the streets during coronavirus pandemic; (x) June 29, GBP200 million Sustainable Innovation Fund to help businesses drive forward cutting-edge new technology and recover from the impacts of coronavirus. This funding, delivered through Innovate UK, forms part of a wider GBP750 million package of grants and loans announced in April; (xi) July 5, Cultural and heritage organizations to be protected with GBP1.57 billion support package (https://bit.ly/31mnuVD); (xii) July 8, Plan for Jobs includes: (a) GBP9.4 billion: Job Retention Bonus, (b) GBP2.1 billion Kickstart Scheme, (c) GBP1.6 billion in scaling up employment support schemes, training, and apprenticeship. August 1, A new online and telephone support - Redundancy Support Service for Apprentices (ReSSA) is launched, (d) GBP8.7 billion infrastructure package, decarbonization, and Grenn Homes Grant, (e) GBP0.5 billion: Eat Out to Help Out discount scheme, (f) GBP4.1 billion: Reduced rate of VAT for hospitality, accommodation and attractions, (g) GBP3.8 billion: Stamp Duty Land Tax temporary cuts (https://bit.ly/31kFRuf) ; (xiii) July 16, Allocations for individual councils to help deliver essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic (GBP500 million); (xiv) July 18, GBP266 million housing fund (https://bit.ly/3ieuBWX); (xv) July 21, No amount/estimate: Nearly 1 million public sector workers (e.g., police officers, teachers, doctors, etc.) will be given above-inflation pay increases; (xvi) July 24, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales will receive a minimum of GBP3.7 billion in additional funding (https://bit.ly/2DyzXxm); (xvii) July 27, Councils are given GBP800,000 so they continue to modernize and improve delivery of public services, as they respond to COVID; (xviii) July 30, GBP20 million new funding for smaller businesses to recover (https://bit.ly/3idRV7x); (xix) July 28, GBP500 million to assist film and television production struggling to secure insurance for COVID-related costs; (xx) August 3, GBP100 million funding for zoos and aquariums, which need support following a drop in income due to COVID; (xxi) No amount estimate: August 5, Working parents eligible for Tax-Free Childcare whose incomes have fallen below the minimum requirement due to COVID will continue to receive financial support until October 2020; (xxi) GBP20 million to improve small business leadership and problem-solving skills in the wake of coronavirus; (xxxiii) August 5, GBP1.3 billion Funds to deliver up to 45,000 homes, create up to 85,000 jobs and upgrade skills and infrastructure to help fuel a green economic recovery; (xxxiv) No amount/estimate: August 13, New law to ensure furloughed employees receive full redundancy payments; (xxv) No amount/estimate: August 18, Disabled people can now benefit from financial support to work from home, thanks to an extension to the Access to Work scheme; (xxvi) August 21, ‘Acceleration Unit’ launched to speed up delivery of transport projects. This coincides with around GBP360 million of investment to build back better from COVID-19; (xxvii) August 21, A new productivity institute is announced to boost wage growth and living standards. This new institute in Manchester will boost ground-breaking research to explore how to increase productivity, boost wages, and support the economic recovery. Government's share is GBP30 million; (xxviii) No amount/estimate: August 24, Economy Minister has launched a new tourism program to provide financial assistance up to GBP200,000 to support tourism providers [update]; (xxix) No amount/estimate: August 27, New payment for people on low incomes in areas with high rates of COVID-19, who need to self-isolate and can’t work from home [update]; (xxx) August 27, There is an additional GBP17.2 million funding to help bolster local apprenticeship system as it battles the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic [update].

Japan 05 05 - Health and income support JPY 108,200,000,000,000 1,008,454,829,905 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/ (accessed 13 April 2020); Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. https://japan.kantei.go.jp/ongoingtopics/COVID19Response/COVID19April7EEM.pdf (accessed 13 April 2020).

April 7, The Government of Japan adopted the Emergency Economic Package Against COVID-19 of JPY108.2 trillion (20% of gross domestic product [GDP]) and subsumed the remaining part of the previously announced packages (the December 2019 stimulus package (passed in January 2020) and the two COVID-19-response packages announced on February 13 and March 10, respectively). The April package aims at five objectives: (i) Develop preventive measures against the spread of infection and strengthen treatment capacity (expenditure of 0.5% of GDP); (ii) Protect employment and businesses (15.1% of GDP); (iii) Regain economic activities after containment (1.6% of GDP); (iv) Rebuild a resilient economic structure (3% of GDP); and (v) Enhance readiness for the future (0.3% of GDP). The key measures comprise cash handouts to affected households and firms, and deferral of tax payments and social security contributions.

Japan 05A 05A - Health support JPY
Japan 05B 05B - Income support JPY
United Kingdom 05 05 - Health and income support GBP 137,450,000,000 170,177,157,386
United Kingdom 05A 05A - Health support GBP 10,000,000,000 12,381,022,727 Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 3 May 2020).

(i) April, GBP10 billion for the National Health Service (NHS) and other public services to tackle the virus.

United Kingdom 05B 05B - Income support GBP 127,450,000,000 157,796,134,659 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (acessed 18 April 2020); Office for Budget Responsibility. https://obr.uk/download/coronavirus-reference-scenario-charts-tables/ (accessed 18 April 2020).

(i) March 20, VAT payments of around GBP30 billion (1.4% of GDP) for the second quarter of 2020 are deferred until 2021; (ii) April: (a) Employment support: Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (GBP42 billion), Self-employed income support scheme (GBP10 billion) (b) Household Support: Statutory sick pay support (GBP1 billion), Welfare package (GBP7 billion), Local authority funding to support vulnerable people (GBP0.5 billion); Suspending benefit recovery (no amount yet); (c) Business support: Small business grant schemes (GBP15 billion), Business rates package (GBP13 billion), Off-payroll working delay extension to private sector by 1 year (GBP1.2 billion); (d) Funds for devolved administrations (GBP3.5 billion = GBP1.6 billion local + GBP1 billion Scotland + GBP0.6 billion Wales + GBP0.3 billion Northern Ireland.); (f) Railway services operation (GBP3.5 billion); (iii) Apri 8, Charities across the UK will receive a GBP750 million package of support to ensure they can continue their vital work during the coronavirus outbreak.