Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 05 05 - Health and income support AUD 273,682,500,000 170,175,778,383
Australia 05A 05A - Health support AUD 135,620,700,000 84,328,951,202 Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/24-billion-health-plan-fight-covid-19 (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/covid-19-supporting-senior-australians-and-those-who-care-for-them (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/senator-the-hon-richard-colbeck/media/new-covid-19-payment-to-keep-senior-australians-in-residential-aged-care-safe (accessed 3 June 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/11-billion-support-more-mental-health-medicare-and-domestic-violence-services-0 (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/3-million-to-boost-the-national-coordinated-covid-19-research-response (accessed 3 June 2020); Office of the Prime Minister of Australia. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/update-coronavirus-measures-15may20 (accessed on 20 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/additional-20-million-for-mental-health-and-suicide-prevention-research (accessed 26 May 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/commonwealth-and-states-sign-131-billion-five-year-hospitals-agreement (accessed 4 June 2020).

(i) March 11, The Australian Government has unveiled a comprehensive AUD2.4 billion health package to protect all Australians, including vulnerable groups such as the elderly, those with chronic conditions and Indigenous communities, from the coronavirus (COVID-19); (ii) March 21, The National Cabinet announced additional funding of AUD444.6 million for the aged care sector to ensure the continuity of the aged care workforce. May 5, The Australian Government is providing an additional AUD205 million in specific COVID-19 aged care funding; (iii) March 29, A safety net package of AUD1.1billion has been announced by the Prime Minister to expand mental health and tele-health services, increase domestic violence services and provide more emergency food relief; (iv) April 15, AUD3 million further funding to support frontline health workers with training and information on the treatment of coronavirus; (v) May 15, The government announced AUD48.1 million funding for the National Mental Health and Wellbeing Pandemic Response Plan; (vi) May 25, An additional AUD20 million is announced for Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Research; (vii) May 29, The Commonwealth will invest an estimated AUD131.4 billion in the new 2020‑25 National Health Reform Agreement to provide additional funding to public hospitals over five years from 2020–21 [update].

Australia 05B 05B - Income support AUD 138,061,800,000 85,846,827,181 Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-05/Overview-Economic_Response_to_the_Coronavirus_3.pdf (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/media-release/jobkeeper-update (accessed on 3 June 2020); Department of Education, Skills, and Employment (DESE). https://ministers.dese.gov.au/morrison/early-childhood-education-and-care-relief-package (accessed 3 June 2020); DESE. https://ministers.dese.gov.au/tehan/response-child-care-review (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Treasury. https://treasury.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-06/Fact_sheet_HomeBuilder.pdf (accessed 5 June 2020); DESE. https://ministers.dese.gov.au/tehan/return-child-care-subsidy (accessed 10 June 2020).

Three economic stimulus packages, i.e. (i) Support for individuals and households including (a) income support for individuals (AUD14,133 million), (b) payment to support households (AUD8,830 million), (c) temporary early release of superannuation (AUD1,150 million), (d) No amount/estimate, temporarily reduce superannuation minimum drawdown rates, (e) lower the social security deeming rates (AUD876 million); (ii) Support for business including (a) JobKeeper payment (AUD70,000 million), (b) boosting cash flow for employers (AUD31,900 million), (c) No amount/estimate, temporary relief for financially distressed businesses, (d) increasing the instant asset write-off (AUD700 million), (e) backing business investment (AUD3,200 million), (f) supporting apprentices and trainees (AUD1,265 million), (g) support for Coronavirus affected regions and communities (AUD1,000 million), (h) support for Australian airlines and airports (AUD715 million); (iii) April 2, The Commonwealth government has committed to provide free childcare to around one million families and announced targeted support to the education system. The sector is expected to receive AUD1.6 billion over the coming three months from taxpayer subsidies. On May 20, the Ministry of Education announced an additional AUD12.8 million in funding, i.e. (a) AUD12 million provided for child care services that have more than 30% of full-time equivalent staff ineligible for JobKeeper Payments, and (b) AUD800,000 to increase the level of funding for in-home care providers; (iv) June 4, The government announced a HomeBuilder program offering AUD25,000 grants to new home builders and renovators from June 4 to December 31, 2020. HomeBuilder will be implemented via a National Partnership Agreement, signed by the Commonwealth and State and Territory governments and is expected to cost AUD680 million [update]; (v) June 8, The government announced that it will resume the Child Care Subsidy (CCS) to support families to access affordable child care starting July 13 and will pay approximately AUD2 billion this quarter to eligible families [update].

Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (vi) April 26, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus [update]; (vii) May 8, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions.

Austria 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 39,629,000,000 43,837,389,380
Austria 05A 05A - Health support EUR 339,000,000 375,000,000 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) Additional capacities for mobile and stationary care (EUR100 million); (ii) EUR60 million are granted to the health system; (iii) EUR 130 million are given to hospitals for equipment and to finance over-time payments; (iv) EUR36 million are disbursed to incentivize eligible research on COVID-19 by Austrian firms; (v) EUR13 million on medical supplies.

Austria 05B 05B - Income support EUR 39,290,000,000 43,462,389,380 BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/kulturpaket.html (accessed 29 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/haertefallfonds.html (accessed 28 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/gemeindepaket.html (accessed 26 May 2020), https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/fixkostenzuschuss.html, https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/Mai/kurzarbeit-mittel-erhoeht.html (both accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 20 May 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 10 June 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 21 May 2020).

(i) EUR15 billion emergency funds for hard-hit industries to provide direct liquidity provisions and subsidies for running costs. On April 27, expanded Phase 2 of the hardship fund, through which SMEs may request up to 6000 Euros from the government; (ii) EUR10 billion for payment deferrals of personal income and corporate income taxes; (iii) No amount/estimate: rent payment deferrals; (iv) No amount/estimate: May 13, proposed a more simple calculation method to determine monetary subsidies by companies to their employees from their own accounts and from the government's funding. Under the new system, no employee should have any losses; (v) May 20, Increased to EUR12 billion (from EUR10 billion on April 13 and EUR5 billion originally) funds for short-time working, self-employed and funds to finance increased costs of caretaking, etc.; (vi) May 21, EUR1.2 billion is being rolled out by authorities as new fiscal measures including tax relief measures for the hospitality sector of EUR500 million and support to non-profit organizations of EUR700 million; (vii) No amount/estimate: May 21, Applications for the fixed subsidy have already started, with the first payments being disbursed by end of May. The Ministry of Finance will reimburse up to 75% of a company's fixed costs for up to 3 months; (vii) May 25, EUR1 billion in grants from the federal government to municipalities, geared towards support for infrastructure investment (e.g. schools, public transportation, energy production); (viii) May 27, increase in the minimum payment amount of the hardship fund to EUR500, and added another EUR500 comeback bonus, dedicated to entrepreneurs having hardships during the pandemic; (ix) May 28, Allocated EUR90 million to support freelance artists up to EUR1000 a month; (x) To jump-start the economy, a new tax incentive was introduced for companies that recruit apprentices, with EUR2,000 per position created between March 16 and October 31 of this year. [update]

Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 May 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines. (ii) As of May 4, the country started to follow a schedule of a gradual reopening of the economy. The government has lifted certain restrictions (e.g. stores, malls, museums, etc. are allowed to reopen, outdoor seating is permitted in restaurants, higher education students can return to school, masks are required in shops and public transport). Ordinary health services are gradually being restarted. The exception is Budapest and Pest county where earlier restrictions, including on movement, still apply due to a still higher incidence of infections. Social distance rules are expected to still be heeded everywhere. All public events are banned till August 15, but sports may be conducted in closed doors, including training. Inward business travel ban is lifted for citizens of the Czech Republic, Poland, South-Korea, Germany, Austria, Slovakia. Twelve international flights have started to depart from Budapest Airport.

Belgium 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 10,200,000,000 11,283,185,840 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020).

(i) EUR6.4 billion in total measures as part of the fiscal package outlined in the Stability Program to adress the crises. Key fiscal support measures include: boosting health expenditure and increasing support for those in temporary unemployment and self-employed; (ii) EUR3.8 billion (increased from EUR1.7 billion) regional governments' support to affected firms and sectors, and transfers to affected households.

Belgium 05A 05A - Health support EUR 1,200,000,000 1,327,433,628 European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2020-european-semester-stability-programme-belgium_fr.pdf (accessed 24 May 2020).

Of the total packages, around EUR1.2 billion are dedicated to health initiatives, with EUR1 billion for federal intiatives and EUR0.2 billion for regional.

Belgium 05B 05B - Income support EUR 9,000,000,000 9,955,752,212 SPF Finances. https://finances.belgium.be/fr/Actualites/diminution-temporaire-taux-tva-secteur-horeca (accessed 14 June 2020). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2020-european-semester-stability-programme-belgium_fr.pdf (accessed 24 May 2020).

(i) On the other hand, non-health initiatives total EUR9 billion, with EUR5.3 billion for federal and EUR3.7 for regional; (ii) In addition, reduced the VAT rate applicable to some restaurant and catering services to 6% until the end of 2020. [update]

Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 May 2020).

(i) The minority government—which has been granted enhanced executive powers—has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on May 4, to be followed by shops (May 11 and May 18). Schools will also start to gradually reopen from May 18. The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by June 8, while sporting events remain banned until July 31.

Canada 05 05 - Health and income support CAD 47,819,100,000 34,272,782,655
Canada 05A 05A - Health support CAD 77,500,000 55,545,601 Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/news/2020/05/government-provides-tariff-relief-to-importers-of-certain-medical-goods.html (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) CAD77.5 million- Personal protective equipment (PPE).

Canada 05B 05B - Income support CAD 47,741,600,000 34,217,237,054 Department of Finance Canada.. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html?topic=ex-col-faq (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Emergency care benefit- CAD10 billion; (ii) Emergency Support Benefit- CAD5 billion; (iii) GST Credit- CAD5.5 billion; (iv) Enhanced Canada Child Benefit- CAD1.9 billion; (v) Temporary Business Wage Subsidy- CAD3.8 billion. (vi)Canada Student Loan Payments- CAD190 million; (vii) Support for Indigenous Communities- CAD305 million; (viii) Support for people experiencing homelessness (through Reaching Home)- CAD157.5 million; (ix) Support for women’s shelters and sexual assault centres including on reserve- CAD50 million; (x) Lower Registered Retirement Income Fund Minimum Withdrawal Amounts-CAD495 million; (xi) CAD 10.5 billion as o f June 8; Canda Emergency Wage subsidy (CEWS) calculator,the CEWS applies at a rate of 75% of the first CAD58,700 normally earned by employees—representing a benefit of up to CAD847 per week, per employee. The program is in place for a 12-week period, from March 15 to June 6, 2020; (xii) CAD20.1 million in support for Futurpreneur Canada to continue supporting young entrepreneurs across Canada who are facing challenges due to COVID-19; (xiii) CAD15 million in non-repayable support for businesses in the territories to help address the impacts of COVID-19; (xiv) CAD675 million to give financing support to small and medium-sized businesses that are unable to access other COVID-19 business supports, through Canada's Regional Development Agencies; (xv)CAD274 million Creating new jobs and opportunities for youth; (xvi) No amount/estimate; Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) provides a taxable benefit of CAD2,000 every 4 weeks for up to 16 weeks to eligible workers who have lost their income due to COVID-19; (xvii) CAD2.47 billion- clean energy; (xviii) CAD350 million-to support vulnerable Canadians through charities and non-profit organizations; (xviii) No amount/estimate- Waiving ground lease rents through December 2020 for airport authorities that pay rent to the federal government; (xix) CAD500 million-COVID-19 Emergency Support Fund for cultural, heritage, and sport organization to address financial needs of affected organizations so they can continue to support artists and athletes; (xx) CAD5.365 billion for agriculture and fisheries; (xxi) No amount/estimate- Increased payments of 50% to 75% to AgriStability to support farmers that face significant revenue declines; (xxiii) No amount/estimate Flexibility for individual and corporate taxpayers (tax payment deferral until September); (xxiv) AgriRecovery initiative of up to CAD 125 million to help producers faced with additional costs incurred such as set-asides for cattle and hog management programs to manage livestock backed-up on famrs, due to temporary closure of food processing plants; (xxv) Surplus Food Purchase Program of CAD 50 million to help redistribute existing and unsold food inventories.

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces; (v) Reopening the economy. On April 28, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 05 05 - Health and income support DKK 265,907,000,000 39,367,225,769
Denmark 05A 05A - Health support DKK 950,000,000 140,646,408 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 30 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 June 2020)

(i) March 30, DKK150 million in aubsidies provided to health research specifically related to COVID-19; (ii) Recently an additional DKK 0.8 billion has been allocated to hire more social and health workers nationwide. [update]

Denmark 05B 05B - Income support DKK 264,957,000,000 39,226,579,361 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 30 April 2020). Denmark Government. https://bm.dk/nyheder-presse/pressemeddelelser/2020/05/regeringen-freder-elever-laerlinge-og-praktikanters-ferie-og-fridage-under-loenkompensation/ (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Culture. https://kum.dk/nyheder-og-presse/pressemeddelelser/nyheder/kulturpulje-til-udsatte-saarbare-og-aeldre-er-aaben/1/1/ (accessed 24 May 2020). Denmark government. https://em.dk/nyhedsarkiv/2020/juni/regeringen-og-arbejdsmarkedets-parter-udfaser-gradvist-loenkompensationsordningen/ (accessed 10 June 2020)

(i) March 10, DK35 billion liquidity effect of deferral of monthly VAT payments for large firms; (ii) March 12, No amount/estimate: Short-time Work Scheme made more flexible; (iii) DKK10 million for upskilling of dismissed employees; (iv) DKK1.7 billion sickness benefit reimbursement available from 27 February to 1 January 2021; (v) March 26, DKK1.1 billion liquidity effect of deferral of property taxes; (vi) DKK2.5 billion frontloading of investments in e.g. energy renovation and similar initiatives in municipalities; (vii) March 26, DKK6.5 billion frontloading of payment by local governments to firms; (viii) March, DKK90 billion liquidity effect of deferral of income tax payment and labor market contributions; (ix) April 1, DKK300 million compensation scheme to event organizer companies extended; (x) April 7, DKK1.2 billion for a range of minor support schemes established to support agents and businesses with cultural activities, sports and private education; (xi) April 18, DKK6 billion for the Job Retention Scheme available from 9 March to 8 July 2020. Take-up rate around 5% of the labour force (150,000 employees) on 19 April; (xii) April 18, DKK277 million for increased access to unemployment and sickness benefits. As of June 5, the wage compensation has been extended to August 29 [update]; (xiii) April 18, DKK65.3 billion compensation scheme for companies’ fixed costs available for the period 9 March to 8 July; (xiv) April 18, DKK14.3 billion compensation scheme for self-employed; (xv) April 18, DKK350 million for Innovation Subsidy Scheme to support new projects; (xvi) April, DKK35.4 billion VAT payments already made for second half and last quarter of 2019 are made available as interest free loans; (xvii) April, DKK5 billion liquidity impact of deferral of provisional taxes for self-employed; (xviii) May 14, No amount/estimate: Increased holiday and time-off benefits for students, apprentices, and trainees; (xix) May 20, Established a pool of DKK20 million to sponsor collegiate, cultural, and sporting activities for vulnerable and elderly citizens during the coronavirus crisis. The pool is managed by the Ministry of Culture's Palace and Culture Board; (xx) May 26, No amount/estimate: Relaxed requirements to receive pension and unemployment benefits; (xxi) May 26, No amount/estimate: Frozen holiday funds must be paid out by employers by September 1, 2020.

Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down. All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of May 20. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by April 15 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions . The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy.

European Central Bank 05 05 - Health and income support EUR
European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 216,199,000,000 239,158,185,841
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 3,880,000,000 4,292,035,398 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March, the Commission decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April, the Commission presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion) from the EU budget.

European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,319,000,000 234,866,150,442 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_997 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. On May 20, a Regulation establishing SURE entered into force. Countries will be able to use loans also in support of some health-related measures, esp. in the workplace. SURE will become available once all Member States have provided the required guarantees proportionally to gross national income, and will remain available until end-2022 (with the possibility to adjust this deadline) ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules. On May 8, the European Commission adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The amended Temporary Framework will be in place until the end of December 2020, except for recapitalization measures which has an extended period by the end of June 2021. The Commission will assess before these dates if they need to be extended; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (vi) June 8, European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot fund issued grants of EUR140 million to innovative companies [update]; (vii) Proposed modifications to its 2020 budget to make EUR 11.5 billion available for the hardest hit regions, and to support businesses, including those outside of EU borders. These modifications are stopgap measures to provide support while waiting for the European Commission to ratify a budget containing the "Next Generation EU" recovery instrument [update].

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Finland 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 27,678,000,000 30,617,256,637
Finland 05A 05A - Health support EUR 1,005,000,000 1,111,725,664 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 April 2020).

March 20, (i) EUR1 billion for healthcare and testing, protection and medical equipment, public safety and border controls, and research on the coronavirus epidemic, in particular to develop methods for rapid diagnostics and vaccines and a knowledge base for timely decision-making on coronavirus measures, (especially on the exit strategy; (ii) EUR5 million contribution to international non-profit companies working on the development of a COVID-19 vaccine.

Finland 05B 05B - Income support EUR 26,673,000,000 29,505,530,973 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#F (accessed 9 May 2020); MEE. https://tem.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/ensimmaiset-valtionavustukset-kunnille-yksinyrittajien-tukemiseksi (accessed 3 May 2020); https://vm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-paatti-vuoden-2020-neljannesta-lisatalousarvioesityksesta (accessed 9 June 2020).

March 20, (i) EUR1.05 billion (increased from EUR900 million) in lower pension contributions through the remainder of 2020; (ii) EUR650 million for grants to SMEs and self-employed; and (iii) EUR3 billion for expanded parental allowance, social assistance and unemployment insurance; (iv) EUR4.5 billion i.7n tax and pension payment deferrals; (v) EU12 billion in increase in fiscal deficit from automatic stabilizers (4-5.0) percentage points of GDP; (vi) April 20, EUR250 million grants for sole proprietors for the cost of running business; (vii) EUR40 million to support restaurants in employing workers and EUR83 million compensation for the imposed restrictions on activities; (viii) EUR5.1 billion (which is part of the fourth supplementary budget of 6 June amounting to EUR 5.5 billion) focusing on aid to municipalities and measures supporting quick economic recovery. This stimulus package is aimed at boosting demand, improving Finland’s long-term growth prospects, combating climate change, promoting biodiversity, and reinforcing the entire country’s capabilities, resilience, self-sufficiency, and skills and competences. The package also includes measures supporting local government that are intended to secure basic services and alleviate the challenges for local government finances resulting from the virus crisis. The supplementary budget proposal also includes a set of measures to support the wellbeing of children and young people. [update].

Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (1 May 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on April 14. On May 4, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on May 14, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on June 1, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on July 31, resumption of public events with more than 500 people.

France 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 74,950,000,000 82,909,292,035
France 05A 05A - Health support EUR 8,310,000,000 9,192,477,876 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) EUR260 million (from the unspent reserves in the 2019 budget) and EUR3.5 billion from the (2020 budget allocation for the healthcare system); (ii) EUR4.5 billion of additional funds for the purchase of equipment and other health expenses; (iii) creation of an additional emergency fund of EUR50 million for research on COVID-19.

France 05B 05B - Income support EUR 66,640,000,000 73,716,814,159 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 14 May 2020); Economie. https://www.economie.gouv.fr/coronavirus-startup-mesures-de-soutien-economique (accessed 15 April 2020); Figaro. https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-eco/le-gouvernement-annonce-390-millions-d-euros-pour-le-transport-routier-20200417 (accessed 2 May 2020); BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-52814074 (accessed 28 May 2020); MINEFI. https://minefi.hosting.augure.com/Augure_Minefi/r/ContenuEnLigne/Download?id=7527227F-7F00-40D8-BBBD-C73ACCFE38E3&filename=1040%20-%20G%C3%A9rald%20DARMANIN%20annonce%20que%20les%20possibilit%C3%A9s%20de%20report%20des%20cotisations%20sociales%20sont%20prolong%C3%A9es%20pour%20le%20mois%20de%20juin%2C%20sur%20demande..pdf (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) EUR8.5 billion for short-time work scheme; (ii) April 27, EUR7 billion (increased from EUR1.5 billion) for the solidarity fund to support income for the self-employed and smallest firms; (iii) EUR48.5 billion in postponement of social and fiscal deadlines and the early reimbursements of tax credits (2.0% of 2019 GDP); (iv) No amount/estimate: tax exemptions for bonuses in "essential" sectors; (v) March 25, EUR1.75 billion in tax breaks and grants to startups; (vi) April 20, EUR390 million road transport fund (liquidity for road transport sector); (vii) EUR0.5 billion for postponement of part of the unemployment insurance reform; (viii) May 25, EUR8 billion proposed rescue plan for country's car industry which has been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic (proposal stage); (ix) EUR18 billion Tourism rescue plan and EUR10 billion Aeronautic sector rescue plan (still in the proposal stage) [update]; (x) No amount/estimate: June 2, Extended the postponement of social security payments through the month of June 2020 [update].

France 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020).

The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. As of May 11, France has started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. .

Germany 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 780,430,000,000 863,307,522,124
Germany 05A 05A - Health support EUR 70,800,000,000 78,318,584,071 Federal Ministry of Finance. https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2020/2020-03-23-supplementary-budget.html (accessed 17 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 17 April 2020); Federal Ministry of Health. https://www.bundesgesundheitsministerium.de/coronavirus.html (accessed 8 June 2020).

(i) March 23, EUR3.5 billion for emergency measures, such as procuring protective suits and masks, funding for development of a vaccine and treatment, support services provided by the Federal Armed Forces, assistance for German and European Union citizens abroad, and public outreach to keep the population informed; (ii) EUR55 billion funds made available for further pandemic control projects; (iii) EUR2.8 billion will be provided by the Federal government as additional funding for hospitals to balance losses due to rescheduled surgeries and to increase intensive care unit (ICU) capacity; (iv) June 3, the government decided on a new stimulus package which includes EUR9.5 billion to strengthen health care, by investing in local health offices, more modern hospitals, sufficient medicines, and protective equipment [update].

Germany 05B 05B - Income support EUR 709,630,000,000 784,988,938,053 Federal Ministry of Finance. https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2020/2020-03-23-supplementary-budget.html (accessed 17 April 2020); Bruegel. https://www.bruegel.org/publications/datasets/covid-national-dataset/#germany (accessed 17 April 2020); Federal Ministry of Finance and Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. https://www.bmwi.de/Redaktion/EN/Downloads/a/a-protective-shield-for-employees-and-companies.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 (accessed 17 April 2020); Tax Foundation. https://taxfoundation.org/kurzarbeit-germany-short-work-subsidy-scheme/ (accessed 17 April 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 30 April 2020; 8 May 2020); Bundesministerium der Finanzen. https://www.bundesfinanzministerium.de/Content/DE/Pressemitteilungen/Finanzpolitik/2020/05/2020-05-06-Hilfen-Gastronomie.html (accessed 9 May 2020); Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. https://www.bmas.de/DE/Presse/Pressemitteilungen/2020/sozialschutzpaket-ii-weitere-hilfen-fuer-arbeitnehmer.html (accessed 21 May 2020); Politico. https://www.politico.eu/article/german-coalition-agrees-e130b-economic-rescue-package/ (accessed 4 June 2020).

(i) March 23, EUR50 billion in direct grants to distressed one-person businesses and micro-enterprises; (ii) EUR7.7 billion to expand access to welfare payments such as child allowance and income support, removing means-testing rules, and including self-employed workers; (iii) EUR500 billion (Bruegel estimate) tax deferrals for businesses, that is, EUR70 billion for direct corporate income tax plus EUR430 billion if we include indirect taxes and social contributions (assuming 75% tax deferral and 5% of gross domestic product [GDP] loss in 2020); (iv) EUR10 billion for keeping people employed, by expanding the reduced hours compensation benefit scheme (‘Kurzarbeitergeld’); (v) Subsidies to loans (included in the EUR357 billion mentioned in Measure 1) made available through KfW; (vi) No amount/estimate: April 22, The government decided to increase the replacement rate of lost net earnings to 70% for childless workers and to 77% for workers with children from the fourth month of short-time work onwards if they have reduced their working time by at least 50%. In the seventh month, payments are increased further to 80% and 87% respectively; (vii) April, The labour agency will cover 100% of social-security contributions for lost hours of short-time workers; (viii) No amount/estimate: Starting on July 1, the reduced VAT rate of 7% will be applicable to restaurants for 12 months; (ix) No amount/estimate: May 6, (a) Sales tax rate for restaurant and catering services rendered between 30 June 2020 and 1 July 2021 will be reduced from 19% to 7%, except for beverage sales; (b) Employer grants for short-time work benefits and seasonal short-time work benefits for wage payment between 29 February 2020 and 1 January 2021 will be up to 80% of the difference between the target salary and the actual salary; (x) May 14, Under the Social Protection Package, The increase in short-time work benefits leads to additional expenditure in the budget of the Federal Employment Agency of an estimated EUR680 million. The extension of the eligibility period for unemployment benefit leads to additional expenditure in the budget of the Federal Labor Agency estimated around EUR1.95 billion; (xi) June 3, A new stimulus package which includes: (a) Economic and crisis management package, mainly tax cuts and investments (EUR59.7 billion), (b) Strengthen Länder and municipalities (EUR15.6 billion), (c) Social expenditure (EUR9 billion), (d) Future programme (green and technological) (EUR47 billion), (e) Humanitarian aid (EUR3 billion), and (f) Equity for public railways (EUR5 billion) [update].

Germany 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020; 15 May 2020; 21 May 2020); DW https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-as-it-happened-german-ministers-aim-to-reopen-restaurants-within-2-weeks/a-53331736 9 (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany/germany-to-lift-travel-ban-in-europe-from-june-15-idUSKBN23A1FU (accessed 4 June 2020).

(i) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on March 22 across the country, extended until at least May 4 on April 15. The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since March 16 and 19. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On April 2, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from March 25 onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting March 18; (iii) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April; (iv) Restaurants are closed. Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since March 15 and 16. Larger events were cancelled until end-August; (v) May 10, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on March 22 has been extended until June 5 but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (vi) May 10, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (vii) A gradual reopening of stores began on April 20. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from May 8 onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (viii) May 6, border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (ix) May 28, Control of lifting the downlockdown lies on the federal states. Shops are allowed to reopen and schools have been partially reopened. Border controls were eased on May 15 with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on June 15 . Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August. Social distancing rules extended until June 29 ; (x) June 3, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries [update].

Ireland 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 9,591,000,000 10,609,513,274
Ireland 05A 05A - Health support EUR 1,005,000,000 1,111,725,664 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) Extra funding of EUR1 billion (0.5% of GNI) to the Health Service Executive for improving capacity in the health service; (ii) EUR5 million allocate for 26 COVID-19 research projects.