Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 05 05 - Health and income support EUR
European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 216,199,000,000 239,158,185,841
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 3,880,000,000 4,292,035,398 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March, the Commission decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April, the Commission presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion) from the EU budget.

European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,319,000,000 234,866,150,442 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_997 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. On May 20, a Regulation establishing SURE entered into force. Countries will be able to use loans also in support of some health-related measures, esp. in the workplace. SURE will become available once all Member States have provided the required guarantees proportionally to gross national income, and will remain available until end-2022 (with the possibility to adjust this deadline) ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules. On May 8, the European Commission adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The amended Temporary Framework will be in place until the end of December 2020, except for recapitalization measures which has an extended period by the end of June 2021. The Commission will assess before these dates if they need to be extended; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (vi) June 8, European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot fund issued grants of EUR140 million to innovative companies [update]; (vii) Proposed modifications to its 2020 budget to make EUR 11.5 billion available for the hardest hit regions, and to support businesses, including those outside of EU borders. These modifications are stopgap measures to provide support while waiting for the European Commission to ratify a budget containing the "Next Generation EU" recovery instrument [update].

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Hong Kong, China 05 05 - Health and income support HKD 287,550,000,000 37,031,074,938
Hong Kong, China 05A 05A - Health support HKD 30,000,000,000 3,863,440,265 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020).

Establishment of a new Anti-Epidemic Fund (HKD30 billion or 1% of gross domestic product [GDP]) to enhance anti-epidemic facilities and services.

Hong Kong, China 05B 05B - Income support HKD 257,550,000,000 33,167,634,673 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020). News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200602/20200602_205003_920.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020). News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200608/20200608_192340_279.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) Tax and fee reliefs and other one-off relief measures (HKD79.5 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (ii) Cash payout to permanent residents aged 18 or above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP); (iii) Employment subsidy scheme (HKD80 billion or 2.8% of GDP); (iv) Sector-specific relief measures (HKD21 billion or 0.7% of GDP); (v) Temporary job creation (HKD6 billion or 0.2% of GDP); (vi) cash payouts to permanent residents aged 18 and above (HKD71 billion or 2.5% of GDP). (vii) No amount/estimate: June 2, Introduction of a subsidy scheme for employment agencies that provide foreign domestic helper placement services from the Anti-Epidemic Fund. [update] (viii) June 8, Authorities announced further support for the travel industry by enhancing the Green Lifestyle Local Tour Incentive Scheme (increased funding of HKG50 million) and extending the subsidy initiative for tourist guides (for 6 monyhs until April 27, 2021). [update]

Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020).

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) School closures; (ii) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (iii) Ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (iv) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On June 8, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city [update]; (v) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from March 25; (vi) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (vii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until May 7, 2020. (viii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on May 4th and the first phase of school reopening slated on May 27th. (ix) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting May 18 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on May 21. (x) June 2, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September. [update]

Mongolia 05 05 - Health and income support MNT 4,838,793,142,824 1,755,400,000
Mongolia 05A 05A - Health support MNT 198,193,703,412 71,900,000 ADB. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-documents/54174/54174-001-rrp-en.pdf (accessed 26 May 2020).

March, Health sector measures (USD71.9 million).

Mongolia 05B 05B - Income support MNT 4,640,599,439,412 1,683,500,000 ADB. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-documents/54174/54174-001-rrp-en.pdf (accessed 26 May 2020).

March: (i) Measures supporting citizens (USD154.6 million), which includes (a) Personal Income Tax exemption (USD63.2 million); (b) Job retention allowance (USD18.4 million); (c) Child money program (USD12.4 million); (d) VAT refunds (USD14.4 million); (e) Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi Dividends Payout (USD46.2 million). Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi is a state-owned enterprise where each Mongolian citizen owns a share ; (ii) Support to vulnerable businesses and fiscal stimulus measures (USD1,567.9 million), which includes (a) Exemption on social insurance (USD288.2 million); (b) Social insurance penalty exemption (USD4.2 million); (c) Corporate Income Tax exemption (USD10.8 million); (d) Exemption for tax penalties and fines (USD5.4 million); (e) Rental relief (USD7.2 million); (f) Import tax and duties exemption of food products (USD3.6 million); (g) Cashmere sector support (USD118.1 million); (h) Discount on agricultural equipment (USD12.3 million); (i) Capital projects (of which two-thirds does not yet have financing) (USD1,079.1 million).

Mongolia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 4 June 2020).

Feb 13, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including a travel ban from high-risk countries, temporary suspension of coal exports to the People's Republic of China, social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures.

People's Republic of China 05 05 - Health and income support CNY 7,622,400,000,000 1,086,110,146,790 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 15 April 2020); Xinhuanet. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-04/03/c_138944267 (accessed 15 April 2020); The State Council The People's Republic of China. http://english.www.gov.cn/premier/news/202005/29/content_WS5ed058d2c6d0b3f0e9498f21.html (accessed 1 June 2020).

(i) CNY1.60 trillion for local governments' infrastructure projects to boost investment amid slowing economic activity and trade headwinds with the United States funded by increase in the ceiling for special local government bonds of 1.3 percent of GDP. The main buyers of such bonds have been state-owned policy banks; (iv) By the end of April, local governments had given out more than CNY6.5 billion worth of consumer vouchers, essentially government subsidised coupons or discounts that can be spent at designated venues, according to data from 42 cities collated by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS); (v) May 28, announced CNY2 trillion in increase in fiscal deficits and issuance of of special treasury bonds worth of CNY1 trillion of which CNY300 billion will be used by local governments for COVID-19 prevention and while the rest to support local governments’ operations. The increase of budget deficits and funds raised from the issuance of government bonds for COVID-19 control will all be channeled to primary-level governments. Companies, especially smaller firms, will truly benefit from these funds, and people who live on social security schemes, subsistence allowance, unemployment benefits, old-age support and those living in difficulties will be able to benefit. About CNY4 trillion covers payment relief for enterprises of their contributions to social security schemes, and taps into the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, interest concessions made by state-owned commercial banks, and price reductions in natural monopoly industries to lower enterprises’ operating costs. This money will be primarily used to support jobs, people’s basic living needs and businesses, and sustain household income. The government also said expenditure on investment projects will rise by 22.4 billion yuan for 2020.

People's Republic of China 05A 05A - Health support CNY
People's Republic of China 05B 05B - Income support CNY
People's Republic of China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020).

The government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. The domestic transmission of the virus has slowed significantly, and mobility restrictions have been largely removed, while policy has tightened to contain the virus transmission of asymptomatic cases. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in two cities in Jinlin province following reports of new infections. Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks.

Republic of Korea 05 05 - Health and income support KRW 40,000,000,000,000 32,784,564,431
Republic of Korea 05A 05A - Health support KRW 2,100,000,000,000 1,721,189,633 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 24 April 2020); WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 1 May 2020).

(i) March 17, The National Assembly approved the budget of KRW2.1 trillion for disease control, i.e., epidemic prevention and treatment, support for medical institution and quarantined people; (ii) April 14, No amount/estimate: Temporary elimination of import tariffs on surgical and sanitary masks and melt blown filters until June 30, 2020.

Republic of Korea 05B 05B - Income support KRW 37,900,000,000,000 31,063,374,798 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 24 April 2020).

(i) February, The government announced emergency support of KRW20 trillion for households and damaged industries, such as tourism and export industries; (ii) In March 17: The National Assembly approved (a) loans and guarantees for small businesses, indirect support of wage and rent for small merchants (KRW4.1 trillion), (b) consumption coupons for the poor, emergency family care and employment retention support (KRW3.5 trillion), and (c) support for issuing local gift certificate, local government grants for infection prevention (KRW1.2 trillion); (iii) March 31, The government announced an emergency relief payment plan of KRW9.1 trillion (USD7.4 billion) to address the virus outbreak. The government plans to pay relief checks to households in the bottom 70% income bracket (around 14 million households), of up to KRW1 million (USD820) per household. For this, a second supplementary budget was submitted to the National Assembly and passed on April 30; and (iv) No amount/estimate: Some local governments have announced cash support for people (a) Gyeonggi province announced KRW100,000 (USD82) to all residents, and (b) Seoul and Daejeon have a similar plan without specific criteria.

Republic of Korea 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KRW IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 8 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-southkorea-qr-code/south-korea-mandates-qr-codes-to-log-customers-after-nightclub-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN23907E?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020).

(i) The authorities have implemented comprehensive testing and tracking, which has enabled early isolation and treatment while minimizing widespread mobility restrictions; (ii) April 22, The government unveiled a set of guidelines that communities and individuals to balance their daily lives and quarantine activities; (iii) May 6, The government ended the 2-month social distancing campaign and shifted to the so-called everyday life quarantine scheme; (iv) June 2, Authorities started testing a new quick response (QR) code system to log visitors at high-risk entertainment facilities, restaurants and churches in a bid to track coronavirus cases and prevent further spread of the disease. [update]

Taipei,China 05 05 - Health and income support TWD 210,000,000,000 6,969,681,884
Taipei,China 05A 05A - Health support TWD 36,100,000,000 1,198,121,505 EY. https://www.ey.com/en_gl/tax/how-covid-19-is-causing-governments-to-adopt-economic-stimulus--; https://bit.ly/2A2ytcS; https://bit.ly/3cjQfGU; https://bit.ly/2YMAO66 (all accessed 8 May 2020).

(i) February 25, Taipei,China's authorities passed the statute for prevention and rehabilitation of severe infectious pneumonia (the Statute). The Statute, which was enacted accordingly, is in response to the recent COVID-19 outbreak and aims to alleviate its impact on the domestic economy and society. The budget connected with the statute is TWD60 billion (approximately USD2 billion); April: (ii) The approved budget connected with the Statute is now TWD210 billion (approximately USD7 billion); (iii) Of the TWD60 billion budget, the authorities will spend NTD19.6 billion in transforming hospitals into isolation venues, establishing quarantine and testing venues for the virus, requisitioning medical materials and allocating funds as subsidies for schools and the transportation industry to battle the virus contagion; (iv) April 23, The Cabinet allocated the bulk of a special TWD150 billion (USD4.98 billion) budget to revitalizing the domestic economy, which has been hard hit by the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Of the budget, NTD16.5 billion will be used to help fund the country's health response and recovery efforts amid the COVID-19 pandemic; (v) May 8, The authorities has given final approval to the NTD150 billion (USD5.02 billion) special budget to finance measures to support the economy amid the global COVID-19 pandemic.

Taipei,China 05B 05B - Income support TWD 173,900,000,000 5,771,560,379 News articles: https://bit.ly/2A2ytcS; https://bit.ly/3cjQfGU (both accessed 8 May 2020); https://bit.ly/2ZPydJn (accessed 27 May 2020); KPMG. https://bit.ly/2LvD7ms (accessed 14 May 2020); Executive Yuan. https://english.ey.gov.tw/Page/61BF20C3E89B856/07dd64bc-5609-426c-bcb0-9aec3aabcab7 (accessed 5 June 2020).

(i) Under the TWD60 billion budget, the authorities will assign NTD40.4 billion to subsidize a wide range of industrial sectors that have been hit by the COVID-19 spread, such as the service industry, the manufacturing industry, the tourism industry, the transportation industry, the agriculture/fishing industry, and the arts/cultural industry; (ii) Of the TWD150 billion special budget, NTD133.5 billion will go toward helping with the recovery of local businesses and other entities and providing relief to self-employed workers, according to the Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS); (iii) No amount/estimate: Aiming at alleviating the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the authorities introduced several supportive tax measures including (a) deferral of tax payments or by installments for affected enterprises and individuals, (b) extension of tax filing and payment deadline under special circumstances (e.g. quarantine or isolation), and (c) corporate income tax 200% deduction on certain salary expenses; (iv) No amount/estimate: May 27, The Ministry of Transportation and Communications will provide travel subsidies to encourage domestic travel effective July 1. The ministry is planning campaigns that will subsidize the group travel sector to the tune of NTD600–NTD700 (USD20–USD23) per person per day, while the independent travel sector will enjoy a subsidy of NTD1,000 per room per night; (v) No amount/estimate: The authorities announced a "triple stimulus" voucher program that allows people to purchase NTD3,000 (USD100) worth of vouchers for just NTD1,000. By encouraging spending and stimulating the economy, the program will help the economy to turn the crisis into opportunity and safely weather the coronavirus pandemic [update].

Taipei,China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TWD KPMG. https://bit.ly/2LvD7ms (accessed 14 May 2020).

(i) From February 27 to May 26, 2020, importation of mask and undenatured alcohol concentration above 90% could be subject to temporary adjustment rates; (ii) From March 4 to March 31, the fever thermometers products could not be exported without the approval issued by the Bureau of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Economic Affairs; (iii) Until April 30, the exportation of mask products (filtering efficiency 94% or more, of textile materials) are banned. However, woven or knitted masks without filter of textile materials, gas masks for epidemic prevention and replaceable filters, sponge masks, and paper masks are not subject to the export prohibition. Such ban may be further extended depending on the current COVID-19 situation.

Turkmenistan 05 05 - Health and income support TMT
Turkmenistan 05A 05A - Health support TMT
Turkmenistan 05B 05B - Income support TMT
Turkmenistan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TMT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 26 May 2020).

(i) The authorities have adopted a wide range of measures to prevent a COVID-19 outbreak in the country, including closure of borders, flight cancellations and rerouting, and mandatory COVID-19 testing for arriving travelers; (ii) Starting March 24, all sports events have been cancelled. Gyms and sports clubs have been shut down in Ashgabat; (iii) The authorities have imposed restrictions on internal movement, closed roads between some provinces, and stopped rail transportation; (iv) Starting from March 24, only Turkmen freight carriers are allowed to transport cargo in Turkmenistan; (v) The authorities have stepped up efforts to digitalize government services, expand e-commerce, and facilitate online and phone payments by SMEs and SOEs through banks; (vi) A commission has been set up for the purchase of essential supplies, medicines, construction equipment, etc.

European Central Bank 05 05 - Health and income support EUR
European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 216,059,000,000 239,003,318,584
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 3,880,000,000 4,292,035,398 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

(i) EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March, the Commission decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April, the Commission presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion from the EU budget).

European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 212,179,000,000 234,711,283,186 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. ; (iii) no amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules; (iv) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps; (v) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings.

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented.

Hong Kong, China 05 05 - Health and income support HKD 287,500,000,000 37,024,635,871
Hong Kong, China 05A 05A - Health support HKD 30,000,000,000 3,863,440,265 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 6 May 2020).

Establishment of a new Anti-Epidemic Fund (HKD30 billion or 1% of gross domestic product [GDP]) to enhance anti-epidemic facilities and services.