Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 05 05 - Health and income support EUR
European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Central Bank 05B1 05B1 - Tax and contribution deferrals and policy changes EUR
European Central Bank 05B2 05B2 - Tax and contribution rates reduction EUR
European Central Bank 05B3 05B3 - Subsidies to individuals and households EUR
European Central Bank 05B4 05B4 - Subsidies to businesses EUR
European Central Bank 05B5 05B5 - Indirect income support EUR
European Central Bank 05B6 05B6 - No breakdown (income support) EUR
European Central Bank 05C 05C - No breakdown (health and income support) EUR
European Central Bank 09 09 - International Assistance Provided EUR 38,400,000,000 42,477,876,106
European Central Bank 09A 09A - Swaps EUR 38,400,000,000 42,477,876,106 ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/search/html/index.en.html?q=+swap+lines (18 May 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200625~60373986e5.en.html (accessed 9 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200717_1~f143ca1c56.en.html (accessed 23 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200818~6f97d2eefb.en.html (accessed 27 August 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200828~412bf7c3fd.en.html (accessed 3 September 2020). ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.mp201210~8c2778b843.en.html (accessed 12 December 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2021/html/ecb.pr210204~f8f544a715.en.html (accessed 11 February 2020).

(i) 20 March 2020, ECB and Danmarks Nationalbank reactivate swap line of EUR24 billion (increased EUR12 billion) to remain in place for as long as needed; (ii) 15 April 2020, ECB and Bulgarian National Bank set up new swap line of EUR2 billion to remain in place until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iii) 22 April 2020, ECB and Hrvatska narodna banka set up new swap line of EUR2 billion until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iv) No amount/estimate: 25 June 2020, Launched a new Eurosystem repurchase (EUREP) facility to provide euro liquidity to non-euro area central banks. The European Central Bank introduced this facility as a precautionary backstop to address pandemic-related euro liquidity needs outside of the euro area. EUREP will allow a broad set of central banks to borrow euros against euro-denominated debt issued by euro area central governments and supranational institutions. EUREP will be available until June 2021. 27 July 2020, ECB and Bank of Albania set up a EUR400 million repo line to provide euro liquidity. July 17, ECB and National Bank of Serbia set up a EUR1 billion repo line to provide euro liquidity; (v) 18 August 2020, ECB and National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia set up repo line to remain in place until June 2021 with a size of EUR400 million ; (vi) 28 August 2020, ECB and the Hrvatska narodna banka (Croatian National Bank, HNB) as well as the Banca Naţională a României (National Bank of Romania, BNR) have agreed to extend the respective euro liquidity lines by six months until the end of June 2021; (vii) No amount/estimate: 10 December 2020, the Eurosystem repo facility for central banks (EUREP) and all temporary swap and repo lines with non-euro area central banks will be extended until March 2022; (viii) 4 February 2020, ECB and the central banks of Albania, Croatia, Hungary, the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, San Marino and Serbia have agreed to extend the duration of their euro liquidity lines with the ECB to March 2022. The amounts of the repo line agreements are: EUR4 billion with Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Hungarian National Bank); EUR4.5 billion with Banca Naţională a României (National Bank of Romania); and EUR100 million with Banca Centrale della Repubblica di San Marino (Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino) .

European Central Bank 09B 09B - International loans/grants EUR
European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 16,671,000,000 18,441,371,681
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 11,544,000,000 12,769,911,504 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/09/11/addressing-covid-19-council-approves-6-2-billion-budget-increase-for-2020/ (accessed 12 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1671 (accessed 21 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1680 (accessed 21 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1416 (accessed 1 August 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1829 (accessed 10 October 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-271-covid-19-eib-provides-eur50-million-to-navarre-to-strengthen-its-health-response-to-covid-19 (accessed 15 October 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2041 (accessed 20 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2136 (accessed 21 November 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2200 (accessed 28 November 2020); Council of the EU. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/12/07/council-greenlights-temporary-vat-relief-on-covid-19-vaccines-and-test-kits/ (accessed 7 December 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_50 (accessed 15 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_51 (accessed 20 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_655 (accessed 18 February 2021). EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/statement_21_861 (accessed 27 February 2021). European Council. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2021/02/25/statement-of-the-members-of-the-european-council-on-covid-19-and-health-25-february-2021/ (accessed 27 February 2021).

(i) 13 March 2020, EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March 2020, The European Commission (EC) decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April 2020, The EC presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion) from the EU budget. 11 September 2020, The EC agreed to add EUR6.2 billion to the EU 2020 budget to address the impact of the COVID-19-crisis and to fund inter alia the vaccine strategy. The revised budget increases payments for the Emergency Support Instrument (ESI) by EUR1.09 billion to ensure the development and deployment of a COVID-19 vaccine. The Commission will use this money as a down-payment for pre-ordering vaccine doses. 18 September 2020, EU allocates EUR150 million for the transport of essential medical items through the ESI and entered into a contract with Sanofi-GSK to purchase up to 300 million doses of the Sanofi-GSK vaccine; (iv) EUR63 million, EC secures EU access to Remdesivir (first European treatment authorized for COVID-19); (v) No amount/estimate: 8 October 2020, the EC approved a third contract with a pharmaceutical company, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV, one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. Once the vaccine has proven to be safe and effective against COVID-19, the contract allows EU Member States to purchase vaccines for 200 million people. They will also have the possibility to purchase vaccines for an additional 200 million people; (vi) 13 October 2020, EIB is providing EUR50 million to the Autonomous Community of Navarre, Spain to strengthen its capacity to respond to the COVID-19 health crisis. The EU bank financing will enable the Spanish region to adapt its healthcare infrastructure to meet the additional costs generated by the pandemic; (vii) No amount/estimate: 11 November 2020, In order to step up the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and future health emergencies, The EC is taking the first steps towards building the European Health Union. The Commission is putting forward a set of proposals to strengthen the EU's health security framework, and to reinforce the crisis preparedness and response role of key EU agencies; (viii) No amount/estimate: 17 November 2020, The EC approves a fifth contract with CureVac for the initial purchase of 225 million doses of potential vaccine; (ix) No amount/estimate: 25 November 2020, The EC approved a sixth contract under the EU Vaccines Strategy, with the pharmaceutical company Moderna. The contract provides for the initial purchase of 80 million doses on behalf of all EU Member States; (x) 7 December 2020: The Council of Europe adopted amendments to the directive on the common system of value added tax (VAT) to allow member states to temporarily exempt COVID-19 vaccines and testing kits, as well as closely related services, from VAT; (xi) 11 January 2021, The EC supports blood services to increase COVID-19 convalescent plasma collection with grants amounting to EUR36 million financed through the ESI; (xii) No amount/estimate: 12 January 2020, The EC concluded exploratory talks with the pharmaceutical company Valneva with a view to purchasing its potential vaccine against COVID-19. The envisaged contract with Valneva would provide for the possibility for all EU Member States to purchase together 30 million doses, and they could further purchase up to 30 million more doses; (xiii) No amount/estimate: 17 February 2021, The EC approves second contract with Moderna to ensure up to additional 300 million doses; (xiv) 25 February 2021, EUR225million for the HERA (Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority) Incubator, Europe’s bio-defense preparedness plan against COVID-19 variants (for details on the HERA Incubator, see: http://bit.ly/37qanXl). The plan received strong support from leaders of the Member States [update].

European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 327,000,000 361,725,664
European Union 05B1 05B1 - Tax and contribution deferrals and policy changes EUR
European Union 05B2 05B2 - Tax and contribution rates reduction EUR
European Union 05B3 05B3 - Subsidies to individuals and households EUR 179,000,000 198,008,850 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

Mobilized European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020).

European Union 05B4 05B4 - Subsidies to businesses EUR 148,000,000 163,716,814 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1221 (accessed 9 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1872 (accessed 15 October 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) No amount/estimate: 19 March 2020, EU Commission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules. On 8 May 2020, the European Commission adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The amended Temporary Framework will be in place until the end of December 2020, except for recapitalization measures which has an extended period by the end of June 2021. The Commission will assess before these dates if they need to be extended. 29 June 2020, third amendment to the State aid extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to provide public support under the Temporary Framework to all micro and small companies, even if they were already in financial difficulty on 31 December 2019; 13 October 2020, EC has decided to prolong and extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. All sections of the Temporary Framework are prolonged for six months until 30 June 2021, and the section to enable recapitalization support is prolonged for three months until 30 September 2021; (ii) 8 June 2020, European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot fund issued grants of EUR148 million to innovative companies.

European Union 05B5 05B5 - Indirect income support EUR
European Union 05B6 05B6 - No breakdown (income support) EUR
European Union 05C 05C - No breakdown (health and income support) EUR 4,800,000,000 5,309,734,513 EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_997 (accessed 12 June 2020); ESF. https://esf.ie/en/covid-19/react-eu/ (accessed 5 September 2020).

(i) June 2020, EUR4.8 billion (in grants from the amended 2020 annual EU budget) for REACT-EU that will provide additional funding for the most important sectors that will be crucial to lay the basis for a sound recovery. This will involve investment to support job maintenance, including through short-time work schemes and support for the self-employed. The funds can also be used to support job creation and youth employment measures, to health care systems and the provision of working capital and investment support for small and medium-sized enterprises. Such support will be available across economic sectors, including for the much-affected tourism and culture sectors. The additional support will also serve to invest in the European Green Deal and digital transition, as an enhancement to the significant investment in those areas that is already taking place through EU cohesion policy.

European Union 09 09 - International Assistance Provided EUR 528,445,900,000 584,564,048,673
European Union 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
European Union 09B 09B - International loans/grants EUR 528,445,900,000 584,564,048,673 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-164-coronavirus-global-response-eib-and-commission-pledge-additional-eur4-9-billion (accessed 14 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_20_1344 (accessed 18 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1374 (accessed 23 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1343 (accessed 23 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1403 (accessed 27 July 2020); https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/georgia/83731/team-europe-eib-lends-eur-10-million-credo-bank-under-its-georgia-outreach-initiative-support_en (accessed 5 August 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1457 (accessed 15 August 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-218-eib-and-afreximbank-direct-eur-300m-of-support-to-african-covid-response (accessed 19 August 2020); EEAS. https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/china/84589/eu-provides-solomon-islands-eur-8-million-heighten-service-delivery-provincial-governments_ru#:~:text=31st%20August%202020%2C%20HONIARA%2C%20SOLOMON,Provinical%20Government's%20governance%20system%20for (accessed 18 December 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1540 (accessed 4 March 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1694 (accessed 4 March 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2075 (accessed 4 March 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2262 (accessed 4 March 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_690 (accessed 4 March 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_701 (accessed 4 March 2021); European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/637893/EPRS_BRI(2019)637893_EN.pdf (accessed 5 September 2020). 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For EU Member States: (i) 9 April 2020, EU finance ministers decided to establish Pandemic Crisis Support credit lines within the framework of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). Access granted will be 2% of the respective country's GDP as of end-2019, as a benchmark (about EUR240 billion in total). The credit line will be available until the COVID-19 crisis is over. The only requirement to access the credit line is that euro area Member States requesting support would commit to use this credit line to finance direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention related costs due to the COVID-19 crisis. On 15 May 2020, the Board of Governors of the ESM approved the establishment of Pandemic Crisis Support; (ii) 2 April 2020, EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commission to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. On 20 May 2020, a Regulation establishing SURE entered into force. Countries will be able to use loans also in support of some health-related measures, esp. in the workplace. SURE will become available once all Member States have provided the required guarantees proportionally to gross national income, and will remain available until end-2022 (with the possibility to adjust this deadline). On 24 August 2020, the European Commission has presented proposals to the Council for decisions to grant financial support of EUR81.4 billion to 15 Member States under the SURE instrument. Once the Council approves these proposals, the financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favorable terms from the EU to Member States. These loans will assist Member States in addressing sudden increases in public expenditure to preserve employment. Specifically, they will help Member States to cover the costs directly related to the financing of national short-time work schemes, and other similar measures they have put in place as a response to the coronavirus pandemic, in particular for the self-employed. 25 September 2020, EU Council approves the EUR87.4 billion in financial support for member states under SURE. 27 October 2020, The EC (European Commission) has disbursed a total of EUR17 billion to Italy, Spain and Poland in the first instalment of financial support to Member States under the SURE instrument. As part of today's operations, Italy has received EUR10 billion, Spain EUR6 billion, and Poland EUR1 billion. Once all SURE disbursements have been completed, Italy will receive a total of EUR27.4 billion, Spain EUR21.3 billion and Poland EUR11.2 billion. 1 December 2020, The EU has disbursed EUR8.5 billion in the third instalment of financial support to five Member States under the SURE instrument. Belgium has received EUR2 billion, Hungary EUR200 million, Portugal EUR3 billion, Romania EUR3 billion and Slovakia EUR300 million. As of this disbursement, 15 Member States have received around EUR40 billion under the EU SURE instrument between the end of October and the end of November. Once all SURE disbursements have been completed, Belgium will have received EUR7.8 billion, Hungary EUR504 million, Portugal EUR5.9 billion, Romania EUR4.1 billion and Slovakia EUR631 million; 2 February 2021, The EC has disbursed EUR14 billion to nine Member States in the fourth installment of financial support to Member States under the SURE instrument. This is the first disbursement in 2021. The breakdown is as follows: Belgium EUR2 billion, Cyprus EUR229 million, Hungary EUR304 million, Latvia EUR72 million, Poland EUR4.28 billion, Slovenia EUR913 million, Spain EUR1.03 billion, Greece EUR728 million and Italy EUR4.45 billion; (iii) March 2020, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April 2020, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps. 11 September 2020, the Council agreed to add EUR6.2 billion to the EU 2020 budget to address the impact of the COVID-19-crisis. Draft amending budget No 8 includes increasing payments by EUR5.1 billion for the Corona Response Investment Initiative (CRII) and the Corona Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+). The money will be used to cover the additional needs for cohesion funding forecast until the end of the year. The CRII redirects unspent money from the EU budget to tackling the COVID-19 crisis, whilst the CRII+ relaxes the cohesion spending rules to increase flexibility. 23 September 2020, the EC has approved the modification of nine more Cohesion policy operational programs in Spain, worth a total of EUR1.2 billion from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to alleviate the impact of the coronavirus outbreak. This comprehensive recovery approach will reallocate funds to strengthen the response capacity of the Spanish health system with supplementary hospital beds, the purchase of pharmaceutical and laboratory material, medical and protective equipment. Moreover, support to SMEs will contribute to boost the economic sector. Finally, EU funds will be redirected to develop the ITC of the education and training sectors. 21 October 2020, EUR1 billion of EU Cohesion policy to support Portugal's recovery redirected to COVID programs; (iv) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competencies for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilize between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (v) 9 September 2020, EIB made available EUR650 million to the Polish Ministry of Finance to support the country’s efforts in combating the pandemic; (vi) 21 September 2020, EIB expects to provide more than EUR1 billion to support new COVID-19 and Brexit business financing programs, climate action and education investment in Ireland in 2020 and work closely with Irish authorities to implement the National Recovery Plan; (vii) 30 September 2020, EIB and Fund FLAG have signed a EUR25 million loan to promote urban regeneration and rehabilitation in cities across Bulgaria. Fund FLAG will match the loan amount with EUR25 million of its own resources and channel the total EUR50 million to municipalities, municipal enterprises and other institutions responsible for providing public services; (viii) 20 November 2020, EIB and Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR) create a new EUR142.5 million credit line to support faster recovery of Croatian SMEs from COVID-19. For Non-EU Member States: (i) July 2020, The EU will secure financial support to partner countries amounting to more than EUR15.9 billion (increased from EUR15.6) from existing external action resources; (ii) 11 April 2020, A EUR20 billion Team Europe package to support partner countries to combat the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences. The Team Europe package has the aim of supporting the most vulnerable countries and people most at risk, in the EU’s neighborhood, with special emphasis on Africa, and also in the Pacific, in Latin America and the Caribbean. November 2020, The overall figure of the “Team Europe” package reaches almost EUR36 billion (details: https://bit.ly/32LGnD4); (iii) 31 March 2020, Added a new package of almost EUR240 million to the EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crisis; (iv) June 2020, EUR1 billion for the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD) which is one of the EU financial instruments that promote a pro-active development aid policy. It is part of the complex European external investment plan to support investments primarily in the EU neighborhood and Africa; (v) 16 July 2020, EUR15 million humanitarian funding for Haiti; (vi) 20 July 2020, The European Commission (EC) is providing EUR64.7 million in humanitarian aid for countries in the southern Africa region to help support people in need dealing with the coronavirus pandemic, extreme weather conditions such as persistent drought in the region and other crises; (vii) 3 August 2020, the EIB will lend EUR10 million in synthetic local currency to Credo Bank, the leading actor on microfinance market in Georgia predominantly servicing enterprises in rural areas and agricultural sector. This is the second loan under the EIB's Georgia Outreach Initiative launched to improve access to finance for the country's MSMEs. Loans will be available under flexible terms to help maintain liquidity of MSMEs to continue operating and preserve jobs. The loan comes as a part of the immediate response to Covid-19 pandemic launched by the EU and its Team Europe and is facilitated by an EU grant; (viii) 11 August 2020, EUR3 billion macro-financial assistance (MFA) programs for ten enlargement and neighborhood partners (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Jordan, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Tunisia and Ukraine), aimed to help them limit the economic fallout of the coronavirus pandemic. The MFA funds will be made available for 12 months in the form of loans on highly favorable terms to help these countries cover their immediate, urgent financing needs; (ix) 31 August 2020, EU provides Solomon Islands EUR8 million to heighten service delivery of Provincial Governments; (x) 31 August 2020, The European Commission has confirmed its interest to participate in the COVAX Facility for equitable access to affordable COVID-19 vaccines everywhere, for everyone who needs them. EU’s contribution to the COVAX is funded from Team Europe (See: https://bit.ly/3pUwknP). 18 September 2020, The European Commission confirmed its participation in the COVAX Facility for equitable access to affordable COVID-19 vaccines. 12 November 2020, The European Union has announced that it will contribute an additional EUR100 million in grant funding to support the COVAX Facility to secure access to the future COVID-19 vaccine in low and middle-income countries. 15 December 2020, Team Europe contributes EUR500 million to COVAX initiative to provide one billion COVID-19 vaccine doses for low- and middle-income countries. 19 February 2021, The EU allocates an additional EUR500 million for the COVAX Facility, doubling its contribution to date for the global initiative that is leading efforts to secure fair and equitable access to safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines in low and middle-income countries. 19 February 2021, The EC allocates EUR100 million in humanitarian assistance to support the rollout of vaccination campaigns in Africa [update]; (xi) 6 September 2020, EIB and Egypt’s National Bank of Egypt have signed an agreement, worth EUR800 million, to meet the financial needs of small- and medium-sized enterprises and build their resilience to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The agreement between the two banks comes as part of a larger agreement approved by the EIB worth EUR1.9 billion, where EUR1.1 billion will be provided for the transport sector and EUR800 million for SMEs; (xii) 16 September 2020, EIB and Morocco’s Crédit Agricole du Maroc sign a EUR200 million financing agreement to support agricultural ecosystems; (xiii) 13 October 2020, EIB approved EUR1.3 billion loans to transform access to clean energy and water in Europe and Africa; EUR381 million to improve sustainable transport in Poland and Ukraine; and EUR764 million for education, health, social housing and urban Development; (xiv) 30 October 2020, EU's EUR8.1 million in humanitarian aid for the Philippines, Nepal, and countries in the South-East Asian region to support those affected by the coronavirus pandemic, natural disasters, and the consequences of man-made conflicts. Funding from this aid package will go for humanitarian and disaster preparedness projects in the Philippines (EUR2.51 million), Nepal (EUR2 million), and regional South-East Asia (EUR3.5 million); (xv) 6 November 2020, The EU has approved an additional EUR17.2 million through the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) to support coronavirus preparedness in Somalia, Sudan and South Sudan; (xvi) 10 November 2020, The EC welcomed the commitment by the Western Balkan leaders to further strengthen regional cooperation as a way to advance on their European path. The initiatives will be supported by the Economic and Investment Plan for the Western Balkans adopted by the EC on 6 October 2020 which aims to mobilize up to EUR9 billion of EU grants to speed up the region's socio-economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and to accelerate its economic convergence with the EU; (xvii) 11 November 2020, EU program amounting to EUR93 million designed to mitigate the drastic economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on employees in the textile sector, an important industry in Bangladesh. Germany's Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), KfW contributed EUR20 million to this program; (xviii) 7 December 2020, The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) launched a four-year project ‘EU for health security in Africa: ECDC for Africa CDC' to strengthen the capacity of Africa CDC to prepare for and respond to public health threats in Africa. Funded under the European Development Fund, the project includes a contribution agreement with ECDC of EUR9 million and a complementary grant to Africa CDC of EUR1 million to cover staffing costs. This agreement will come into effect on 1 January 2021; (xix) 18 December 2020, Following a request for assistance from Serbia, the EU sent 500,000 FFP2 and FFP3 protective facemasks, 540,000 medical gloves, 49,200 protective overalls, 49,200 cover shoes for overalls, and 5,500 goggles from the rescEU medical equipment reserve hosted in Greece. The European Commission finances 100% of the assets, including storage and transport; (xx) 23 December 2020, the European Union has disbursed EUR169 million of the COVID-19 support package for Morocco to help the authorities beef up the medical response to the coronavirus pandemic and put in place measures to mitigate its socio-economic impact; (xxi) 28 December 2020, The EC adopted a package of EUR70 million under the Instrument for Pre-Accession (IPA II) to help fund the access of Western Balkans partners to COVID-19 vaccines procured by EU Member States; (xxii) 18 January 2021, The EU and World Vision launched the project "Working Together" worth EUR1 million to contribute to limiting the spread of COVID-19 and reduce its negative impact on the vulnerable population in Mongolia (i.e. Sukhbaatar, Bayanzurkh and Songinokhairkhan districts, and Uvurkhangai, Bayan-Ulgii provinces), particularly mothers, children, and people under medical observation; (xxiii) 11 February 2021, The EU and WHO launched a new program worth EUR40 million to provide critical assistance to ensure local readiness and preparedness for safe and effective vaccination of the population in each of the six Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries; (xxiv) 19 February 2021, The EBRD is providing USD100 million in new funds to Denizbank A.S. to finance companies’ investments in green technologies and support women-led businesses as the COIVD-19 pandemic continues [update]; (xxiv) 19 February 2021, The EU in partnership with the WHO has launched a new regional project worth over EUR7 million to support safe and effective vaccination of the populations across the Western Balkans [update]; (xxv) 3 March 2021, Team Europe (European Union and the EIB) is providing EUR120 million of new support for Equity Bank to support access to finance of Kenyan SMEs (including the agricultural sector) at appropriate conditions. Of the total, EUR100 million are loans from the EIB and EUR20 million are grants from the EU [update].

European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accessed 20 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-provides-option-apply-annual-transparency-calculations-non-equity (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-renews-its-decision-requiring-net-short-position-holders-report-position-0 (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. https://eba.europa.eu/eba-launches-eu-wide-transparency-exercise (accessed 1 October 2020); FT. https://www.ft.com/content/4ec5d621-1135-48a7-b912-de915d2de515?accessToken=zwAAAXVPLh7Akc9OxdYhETVIp9O5Et6RXS3lFQ.MEUCIATZrWfA6MA5322wlGt8kobRZL9ONyIytpHOHp3nHuVEAiEAuVCaDLqA3_jeNtEAlUCbj2FrOk6VIWgpKdwdKpMsaEE&sharetype=gift?token=48efc3f6-ecb0-467a-a5b2-868aa9f496ff (accessed 22 October 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_261 (accessed 29 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_209 (accessed 28 January 2021); https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1954 (accessed 29 October 2020); EC. EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2069 ((accessed 19 January 2021)); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2340 (accessed 19 January 2021).

(i) March to April 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) 26 April 2020, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) 7 September 2020, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September 2020; (iv) 17 September 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) 25 September 2020, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report; (vi) 13 October 2020, EC has decided to prolong and extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. All sections of the Temporary Framework are prolonged for six months until 30 June 2021, and the section to enable recapitalization support is prolonged for three months until 30 September 2021. 28 January 2021, The EC prolongs State aid Temporary Framework until 31 December 2021 and decided to expand its scope by increasing the ceilings set out in it and by allowing the conversion of certain repayable instruments into direct grants until the end of next year to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak; (vii) 19 October 2020, EU hired banks to start selling new 10- and 20-year bonds under the SURE program and under the EU EUR750 billion recovery fund; (viii) 21 October 2020, EC issued a EUR17 billion inaugural social bond under the EU SURE instrument to help protect jobs and keep people in work. The issuing consisted of two bonds, with EUR10 billion due for repayment in October 2030 and EUR7 billion due for repayment in 2040. So far, 17 Member States will receive financial support under the SURE instrument; financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favorable terms from the EU to Member States. 27 January 2021, The EC issued a EUR14 billion social bond under the EU SURE instrument to help protect jobs and people in work. The issuing consisted of two bonds, with EUR10 billion due for repayment in June 2028 and EUR4 billion due for repayment in November 2050. These are being passed on directly to the EU Member States; (ix) 13 November 2020, The EC launched the New Consumer Agenda to empower European consumers to play an active role in the green and digital transitions, as well as how to increase consumer protection and resilience during and after the COVID-19 pandemic; (x) 17 December 2020, EU institutions – EC, European Parliament and the European Council - signed the Joint Declaration on legislative priorities for 2021. The Declaration cements the three institutions' commitment to adopt swiftly the necessary legislative proposals to drive the EU's recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, while seizing the opportunities of the climate and digital transitions.

European Central Bank 05 05 - Health and income support EUR
European Central Bank 05A 05A - Health support EUR
European Central Bank 05B 05B - Income support EUR
European Central Bank 09 09 - International Assistance Provided EUR 29,800,000,000 32,964,601,770
European Central Bank 09A 09A - Swaps EUR 29,800,000,000 32,964,601,770 ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/home/search/html/index.en.html?q=+swap+lines (18 May 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200625~60373986e5.en.html (accessed 9 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200717_1~f143ca1c56.en.html (accessed 23 July 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200818~6f97d2eefb.en.html (accessed 27 August 2020); ECB. https://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/pr/date/2020/html/ecb.pr200828~412bf7c3fd.en.html (accessed 3 September 2020).

(i) March 20, ECB and Danmarks Nationalbank reactivate swap line of EUR24 billion (increased EUR12 billion) to remain in place for as long as needed; (ii) April 15, ECB and Bulgarian National Bank set up new swap line of EUR2 billion to remain in place until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iii) April 22, ECB and Hrvatska narodna banka set up new swap line of EUR2 billion until end-2020, or as long as needed; (iv) No amount/estimate: June 25, Launched a new Eurosystem repurchase (EUREP) facility to provide euro liquidity to non-euro area central banks. The European Central Bank introduced this facility as a precautionary backstop to address pandemic-related euro liquidity needs outside of the euro area. EUREP will allow a broad set of central banks to borrow euros against euro-denominated debt issued by euro area central governments and supranational institutions. EUREP will be available until June 2021. July 17, ECB and Bank of Albania set up a EUR400 million repo line to provide euro liquidity. July 17, ECB and National Bank of Serbia set up a EUR1 billion repo line to provide euro liquidity; (v) August 18, ECB and National Bank of the Republic of North Macedonia set up repo line to remain in place until June 2021 with a size of EUR400 million ; (vi) 28 August, ECB and the Hrvatska narodna banka (Croatian National Bank, HNB) as well as the Banca Naţională a României (National Bank of Romania, BNR) have agreed to extend the respective euro liquidity lines by six months until the end of June 2021 .

European Central Bank 09B 09B - International loans/grants EUR
European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 05 05 - Health and income support EUR 10,153,500,000 11,231,747,788
European Union 05A 05A - Health support EUR 5,034,500,000 5,569,137,168 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1416 (accessed 1 August 2020); EC. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/09/11/addressing-covid-19-council-approves-6-2-billion-budget-increase-for-2020/ (accessed 12 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1671 (accessed 21 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1680 (accessed 21 September 2020).

(i) EUR800 million of the EU Solidarity Fund will be available by including a public health crisis within its scope, with a view of mobilizing it if needed for the hardest-hit EU member states; (ii) 19 March, the Commission decided to create a European civil protection stockpile of medical equipment (initial budget of EUR50 million, proposed to increase to EUR80 million) with a 90% Commission grant; (iii) 2 April, the Commission presented legislative proposals for an Emergency Support Instrument for the healthcare sector, (EUR3 billion) from the EU budget. September 11, the EC agreed to add EUR6.2 billion to the EU 2020 budget to address the impact of the COVID-19-crisis and to fund inter alia the vaccine strategy. The revised budget increases payments for the Emergency Support Instrument (ESI) by EUR1.09 billion to ensure the development and deployment of a COVID-19 vaccine. The European Commission will use this money as a down-payment for pre-ordering vaccine doses. September 18, EU allocates EUR150 million for the transport of essential medical items through the ESI and entered into a contract with Sanofi-GSK to purchase up to 300 million doses of the Sanofi-GSK vaccine. [update]; (iv) EUR63 million, European Commission secures EU access to Remdesivir (first European treatment authorised for COVID-19).

European Union 05B 05B - Income support EUR 5,119,000,000 5,662,610,619 OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/en/newsroom/news/2020/01/14-01-2020-financing-the-green-transition-the-european-green-deal-investment-plan-and-just-transition-mechanism (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_997 (accessed 12 June 2020). EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1221 (accessed 9 July 2020); ESF. https://esf.ie/en/covid-19/react-eu/ (accessed 5 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1496 (accessed 5 September 2020); UK Government. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/emergency-support-instrument-update (accessed 24 September 2020).

(i) Mobilised European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to support dismissed workers and those self-employed (up to EUR179 million available in 2020); (ii) No amount/estimate: March 19, EU Comission intends to allow State aid for struggling businesses and enable Member States to use the full flexibility foreseen under State aid rules. On May 8, the European Commission adopted a second amendment to extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework to recapitalization and subordinated debt measures to further support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. The amended Temporary Framework will be in place until the end of December 2020, except for recapitalization measures which has an extended period by the end of June 2021. The Commission will assess before these dates if they need to be extended. June 19, third amendment to the State aid extends Temporary Framework to enable Member States to provide public support under the Temporary Framework to all micro and small companies, even if they were already in financial difficulty on 31 December 2019; (iii) June 8, European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot fund issued grants of EUR140 million to innovative companies; (iv) June, EUR4.8 billion (in grants from the amended 2020 annual EU budget) for REACT-EU that will provide additional funding for the most important sectors that will be crucial to lay the basis for a sound recovery. This will involve investment to support job maintenance, including through short-time work schemes and support for the self-employed. The funds can also be used to support job creation and youth employment measures, to health care systems and the provision of working capital and investment support for small and medium-sized enterprises. Such support will be available across economic sectors, including for the much-affected tourism and culture sectors. The additional support will also serve to invest in the European Green Deal and digital transition, as an enhancement to the significant investment in those areas that is already taking place through EU cohesion policy.

European Union 09 09 - International Assistance Provided EUR 500,279,700,000 553,406,747,788
European Union 09A 09A - Swaps EUR
European Union 09B 09B - International loans/grants EUR 500,279,700,000 553,406,747,788 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-164-coronavirus-global-response-eib-and-commission-pledge-additional-eur4-9-billion (accessed 14 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_20_1344 (accessed 18 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1374 (accessed 23 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1343 (accessed 23 July 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1403 (accessed 27 July 2020); https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/georgia/83731/team-europe-eib-lends-eur-10-million-credo-bank-under-its-georgia-outreach-initiative-support_en (accessed 5 August 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1457 (accessed 15 August 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-218-eib-and-afreximbank-direct-eur-300m-of-support-to-african-covid-response (accessed 19 August 2020); European Parliament. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/637893/EPRS_BRI(2019)637893_EN.pdf (accessed 5 September 2020). EC. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/09/11/addressing-covid-19-council-approves-6-2-billion-budget-increase-for-2020/ (accessed 12 September 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-233-eib-supports-poland-in-the-fight-against-covid-19 (accessed 18 September 2020); Daily News Egypt. https://dailynewsegypt.com/2020/09/04/eib-nbe-sign-e-800m-financing-agreement-to-ensure-resilient-post-covid-19-recovery-for-smes/ (accessed 21 September 2020); EEAS. https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/77470/%E2%80%9Cteam-europe%E2%80%9D-global-eu-response-covid-19-supporting-partner-countries-and-fragile-populations_en (accessed 24 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1694 (accessed 24 September 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-241-la-banque-europeenne-d-investissement-et-le-credit-agricole-du-maroc-signent-un-accord-de-financement-de-200-millions-d-euros-pour-soutenir-les-ecosystemes-agricoles (accessed 24 September 2020); EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-244-irish-finance-minister-welcomes-expected-eur-1-billion-eib-support-for-new-investment-in-2020-and-accelerated-support-for-covid-19-business-financing (accessed 24 September 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1718 (accessed 26 September 2020); EC. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/09/25/covid-19-council-approves-87-4-billion-in-financial-support-for-member-states-under-sure/ (accessed 3 October 2020).

For EU Member States: (i) 9 April, EU finance ministers decided to establish Pandemic Crisis Support credit lines within the framework of the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). Access granted will be 2% of the respective country's GDP as of end-2019, as a benchmark (about EUR 240 billion in total). The credit line will be available until the COVID-19 crisis is over. The only requirement to access the credit line is that euro area Member States requesting support would commit to use this credit line to finance direct and indirect healthcare, cure and prevention related costs due to the COVID 19 crisis. On May 15, the Board of Governors of the ESM approved the establishment of Pandemic Crisis Support; (ii) EUR100 billion to finance the short-term unemployment mechanisms through the loans provided by the EU Commision to EU member states (SURE mechanism) backed by EUR 25 billion of guarantees voluntarily committed by Member States to the EU budget. On May 20, a Regulation establishing SURE entered into force. Countries will be able to use loans also in support of some health-related measures, esp. in the workplace. SURE will become available once all Member States have provided the required guarantees proportionally to gross national income, and will remain available until end-2022 (with the possibility to adjust this deadline). On August 24, the European Commission has presented proposals to the Council for decisions to grant financial support of EUR81.4 billion to 15 Member States under the SURE instrument. Once the Council approves these proposals, the financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favourable terms from the EU to Member States. These loans will assist Member States in addressing sudden increases in public expenditure to preserve employment. Specifically, they will help Member States to cover the costs directly related to the financing of national short-time work schemes, and other similar measures they have put in place as a response to the coronavirus pandemic, in particular for the self-employed. September 25, EU Council approves the EUR87.4 billion in financial support for member states under SURE [update]; (iii) March, EUR37 billion unallocated funds of cohesion policy funding 2014-2020 will be eligible for Coronavirus crisis related expenditure within the Corona Response Investment Initiative. Member States can use them to support public investment for hospitals, SMEs, labor markets, and stressed regions. The Coronavirus Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+), proposed on 2 April, complements the CRII by further enhancing flexibility in the use of cohesion funds. This enhanced flexibility is inter alia provided through transfer possibilities across the three cohesion policy funds (the European Regional Development Fund, European Social Fund and Cohesion Fund), transfers between the different categories of regions (e.g. less vs more developed), flexibility regarding thematic concentration, the possibility for a 100% EU co-financing rate for the accounting year 2020-2021, and simplified procedural steps. September 11, the Council agreed to add EUR6.2 billion to the EU 2020 budget to address the impact of the COVID-19-crisis. Draft amending budget No 8 includes increasing payments by EUR5.1 billion for the Corona Response Investment Initiative (CRII) and the Corona Response Investment Initiative Plus (CRII+). The money will be used to cover the additional needs for cohesion funding forecast until the end of the year. The CRII redirects unspent money from the EU budget to tackling the COVID-19 crisis, whilst the CRII+ relaxes the cohesion spending rules to increase flexibility. September 23, the EC has approved the modification of nine more Cohesion policy operational programmes in Spain, worth a total of EUR1.2 billion from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) to alleviate the impact of the coronavirus outbreak. This comprehensive recovery approach will reallocate funds to strengthen the response capacity of the Spanish health system with supplementary hospital beds, the purchase of pharmaceutical and laboratory material, medical and protective equipment. Moreover, support to SMEs will contribute to boost the economic sector. Finally, EU funds will be redirected to develop the ITC of the education and training sectors [update]; (iv) European Green Deal investments will remain a priority as part of the EU's efforts to kickstart its economy post-crisis. One of its three sources of funding is a grant, the A Just Transition Fund, which will receive EUR7.5 billion of fresh EU funds. In order to tap into their share of the Fund, Member States will, in dialogue with the Commission, have to identify the eligible territories through dedicated territorial just transition plans. They will also have to commit to match each euro from the Just Transition Fund with money from the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund Plus and provide additional national resources. Taken together, this will provide between EUR30 and EUR50 billion of funding. It will, for example, support workers to develop skills and competences for the job market of the future and help SMEs, start-ups and incubators to create new economic opportunities in these regions. It will also support investments in the clean energy transition, for example in energy efficiency. Another source of funds for this initiative is a public sector loan facility with the European Investment Bank backed by the EU budget to mobilise between EUR25 and EUR30 billion of investments. It will be used for loans to the public sector, for instance for investments in district heating networks and renovation of buildings; (v) September 9, EIB made available EUR650 million to the Polish Ministry of Finance to support the country’s efforts in combating the pandemic; (vi) September 21, EIB expects to provide more than EUR1 billion to support new COVID-19 and Brexit business financing programmes, climate action and education investment in Ireland in 2020 and work closely with Irish authorities to implement the National Recovery Plan [update]. For Non-EU Member States (i) July, The EU will secure financial support to partner countries amounting to more than EUR15.9 billion (increased from EUR15.6) from existing external action resources; (ii) April 11, A EUR20 billion Team Europe package to support partner countries to combat the coronavirus pandemic and its consequences. The Team Europe package has the aim of supporting the most vulnerable countries and people most at risk, in the EU’s neighbourhood, with special emphasis on Africa, and also in the Pacific, in Latin America and the Caribbean [update]. August 5, EIB is directing EUR300 million of financing to support the resilience and recovery of African nations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. September 18, EUR400 million contribution in guarantees to support the COVAX Facility for equitable access to affordable COVID-19 vaccines. This is part of the Team Europe response [update]; (iii) March 31, Added a new package of almost EUR240 million to the EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian Crisis; (iv) June, EUR1 billion for the European Fund for Sustainable Development (EFSD) which is one of the EU financial instruments that promote a pro-active development aid policy. It is part of the complex European external investment plan to support investments primarily in the EU neighbourhood and Africa; (v) July 16, EUR15 million humanitarian funding for Haiti; (vi) July 29, The European Commission (EC) is providing EUR64.7 million in humanitarian aid for countries in the southern Africa region to help support people in need dealing with the coronavirus pandemic, extreme weather conditions such as persistent drought in the region and other crises; (vii) August 3, the EIB will lend EUR10 million in synthetic local currency to Credo Bank, the leading actor on microfinance market in Georgia predominantly servicing enterprises in rural areas and agricultural sector. This is the second loan under the EIB's Georgia Outreach Initiative launched to improve access to finance for the country's MSMEs. Loans will be available under flexible terms to help maintain liquidity of MSMEs to continue operating and preserve jobs. The loan comes as a part of the immediate response to Covid-19 pandemic launched by the EU and its Team Europe and is facilitated by an EU grant; (viii) August 11, EUR3 billion macro-financial assistance (MFA) programmes for ten enlargement and neighbourhood partners (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Jordan, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Tunisia and Ukraine), aimed to help them limit the economic fallout of the coronavirus pandemic. The MFA funds will be made available for 12 months in the form of loans on highly favourable terms to help these countries cover their immediate, urgent financing needs; (ix) September 6, EIB and Egypt’s National Bank of Egypt have signed an agreement, worth EUR800 million, to meet the financial needs of small- and medium-sized enterprises and build their resilience to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The agreement between the two banks comes as part of a larger agreement approved by the EIB worth EUR1.9 billion, where EUR1.1 billion will be provided for the transport sector and EUR800 million for SMEs; (x) September 16, EIB and Morocco’s Crédit Agricole du Maroc sign a EUR200 million financing agreement to support agricultural ecosystems [update].

European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/covid19_e/trade_related_goods_measure_e.htm (accesed 20 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-provides-option-apply-annual-transparency-calculations-non-equity (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. https://www.esma.europa.eu/press-news/esma-news/esma-renews-its-decision-requiring-net-short-position-holders-report-position-0 (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. https://eba.europa.eu/eba-launches-eu-wide-transparency-exercise (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) March to April, ESMA, EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) April 26, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) September 7, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September; (iv) September 17, The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) September 25, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report [update].