Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1507 (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group.

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Hong Kong, China 04 04 - Equity support HKD 19,500,000,000 2,511,236,172 News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200609/20200609_161908_002.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

June 9, HKG27.3 billion investment in Cathay Pacific Airways via government-owned Aviation 2020, comprising preference shares with detachable warrants of HKG19.5 billion and a bridging loan of HKG7.8 billion.

Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-masks/hong-kong-mandates-masks-in-all-indoor-public-areas-idUSKCN24N0MB?il=0 (accessed 23 July 2020). Reuters. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1313249/hong-kong-to-ban-dining-in-public-gatherings-of-more-than-two (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-hong-kong-reverses-virus-ban-on-restaurant-dining (accessed 31 July 2020).

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) School closures; (ii) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (iii) Ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (iv) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On June 8, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city; (v) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from March 25; (vi) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (vii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until May 7, 2020. (viii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on May 4th and the first phase of school reopening slated on May 27th. (ix) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting May 18 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on May 21. (x) June 2, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September. (xi) July 13, Authorities reimposed tighter social distancing measures including limiting gatherings to 4 people, a one-week shutdown of 12 types of establishments such as gyms and gaming centres, and limits on restaurant takeaway operations after 6 PM. (xii) July 23, Authorities expanded stricter containment measures including mandatory mask-wearing in all indoor public areas including malls and markets. As of July 28, Authorities further tightened restrictions with a ban on dine-services at restaurants and limiting public gatherings to no more than 2 people. The ban on dine-in services was later modified to a restriction to 50% capacity.

Mongolia 04 04 - Equity support MNT
Mongolia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/232288 (accessed 30 July 2020).

(i) Feb 13, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including a travel ban from high-risk countries, social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures; (ii) July 29, The government discussed and approved terms and arrangement for the re-opening of all levels of educational institutions, i.e., classes will be given in a combination of a physical classroom learning and online lessons and online classes of all levels of educational institutions will begin from September 1.

People's Republic of China 04 04 - Equity support CNY 200,000,000,000 28,497,852,298 Caixin Global. https://www.caixinglobal.com/2020-06-17/in-depth-the-billion-dollar-plan-to-replenish-smaller-chinese-banks-capital-101568814.html (accessed 19 June 2020).

Policymakers are planning to allow local governments to replenish the capital of certain small and midsize banks to the tune of about CNY200 billion ($28.2 billion) in an effort to defuse bad-debt risks.

People's Republic of China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 13 August 2020).

The government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. The domestic transmission of the virus has slowed significantly, and mobility restrictions have been largely removed, while policy has tightened to contain the virus transmission of asymptomatic cases. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in new hotspots, including in the northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang province, and more recently in Beijing, Xinjiang, and Dalian. As of August 27, all these regions (except certain areas in Xinjiang) have lowered their emergency response level to Level III (low risk). Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks. With normalizing economic activity, real GDP growth rebounded by 3.2 percent (yoy) in Q2.

Republic of Korea 04 04 - Equity support KRW 10,700,000,000,000 8,769,870,985 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 May 2020).

(i) March 24, The government announced the creation of a stock market stabilisation fund (KRW10.7 trillion).

Republic of Korea 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KRW IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 8 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-southkorea-qr-code/south-korea-mandates-qr-codes-to-log-customers-after-nightclub-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN23907E?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020).

(i) The authorities have implemented comprehensive testing and tracking, which has enabled early isolation and treatment while minimizing widespread mobility restrictions; (ii) April 22, The government unveiled a set of guidelines that communities and individuals to balance their daily lives and quarantine activities; (iii) May 6, The government ended the 2-month social distancing campaign and shifted to the so-called everyday life quarantine scheme; (iv) June 2, Authorities started testing a new quick response (QR) code system to log visitors at high-risk entertainment facilities, restaurants and churches in a bid to track coronavirus cases and prevent further spread of the disease.

Taipei,China 04 04 - Equity support TWD
Taipei,China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TWD Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) press releases. https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/NewsNoDept.aspx?n=539A9A50A5F8AF9E&page=1&PageSize=20 (accessed 19 June 2020); Centers for Disease Control (CDC) press release. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/List/7tUXjTBf6paRvrhEl-mrPg?page=1 (accessed 10 July 2020); Bureau of Consular Affairs (BOCA), MOFA. https://www.boca.gov.tw/cp-220-5691-aa1c3-2.html; BOCA, MOFA. https://www.boca.gov.tw/cp-220-5081-c06dc-2.html (both accessed 7 August 2020); Ministry of Education. https://english.moe.gov.tw/cp-117-24173-6539f-1.html (accessed 21 August 2020); OCAC. https://www.ocac.gov.tw/OCAC/Eng/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=329&pid=18695997 (accessed 21 August 2020); CDC press release. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/OGU5TvITYEKel0PH5Akg7g?typeid=158 (accessed 28 August 2020).

(i) February 7, the authorities implemented entry restrictions and visa control measures; (ii) February 15, Travelers were required to undergo home quarantine; (iii) March 5, Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC) issues guidelines for large-scale public gatherings to prevent widespread community transmissions; (iv) April 1, CECC announced social distancing measures to reduce the risk of transmission; (iv) April 10, Crowd control was imposed at tourist hotspots, night markets, and temples; (v) May 6, CECC lifts certain epidemic prevention measures as the COVID numbers stabilize; (vi) June 22, short-term business travelers are allowed entry and can apply for shortened home quarantine period; (vii) June 24, CECC announced that entry measures for foreign nationals and Hong Kong, China and Macau, China residents will be relaxed starting June 29 to meet commercial and trade demand and humanitarian needs; (viii) July 8, CECC further relaxes restrictions concerning attending funerals and visiting relatives for people in home isolation or quarantine; (ix) July 23, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs adjusts entry regulations for foreign nationals requiring them to present a certificate of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 3 working days of boarding the flight and undergo a 14-day home quarantine period; (x) July 26, Travelers from the Philippines must undergo COVID-19 testing at airports and observe quarantive measures; (xi) August 3, The Ministry of Education allows the return of graduating students from outside 19 countries/regions to study in Taipei,China from July 22; (xii) August 19, New and current international students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools allowed to enter, as Taipei,China further eased its border restrictions; (xii) August 26, CECC reminded the public that mask-wearing is mandatory in eight venues which include healthcare facilities, public transportation, markets, learning spaces, sports and exhibition venues, religious places, entertainment venues, and large-scale events. The local government may impose penalties, if necessary.

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1507 (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group [update].

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Hong Kong, China 04 04 - Equity support HKD 19,500,000,000 2,511,236,172 News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200609/20200609_161908_002.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

June 9, HKG27.3 billion investment in Cathay Pacific Airways via government-owned Aviation 2020, comprising preference shares with detachable warrants of HKG19.5 billion and a bridging loan of HKG7.8 billion.

Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-masks/hong-kong-mandates-masks-in-all-indoor-public-areas-idUSKCN24N0MB?il=0 (accessed 23 July 2020). Reuters. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1313249/hong-kong-to-ban-dining-in-public-gatherings-of-more-than-two (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-hong-kong-reverses-virus-ban-on-restaurant-dining (accessed 31 July 2020).

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) School closures; (ii) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (iii) Ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (iv) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On June 8, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city; (v) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from March 25; (vi) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (vii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until May 7, 2020. (viii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on May 4th and the first phase of school reopening slated on May 27th. (ix) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting May 18 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on May 21. (x) June 2, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September. (xi) July 13, Authorities reimposed tighter social distancing measures including limiting gatherings to 4 people, a one-week shutdown of 12 types of establishments such as gyms and gaming centres, and limits on restaurant takeaway operations after 6 PM. (xii) July 23, Authorities expanded stricter containment measures including mandatory mask-wearing in all indoor public areas including malls and markets. As of July 28, Authorities further tightened restrictions with a ban on dine-services at restaurants and limiting public gatherings to no more than 2 people. The ban on dine-in services was later modified to a restriction to 50% capacity.

Mongolia 04 04 - Equity support MNT
Mongolia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/232288 (accessed 30 July 2020).

(i) Feb 13, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including a travel ban from high-risk countries, social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures; (ii) July 29, The government discussed and approved terms and arrangement for the re-opening of all levels of educational institutions, i.e., classes will be given in a combination of a physical classroom learning and online lessons and online classes of all levels of educational institutions will begin from September 1.

People's Republic of China 04 04 - Equity support CNY 200,000,000,000 28,497,852,298 Caixin Global. https://www.caixinglobal.com/2020-06-17/in-depth-the-billion-dollar-plan-to-replenish-smaller-chinese-banks-capital-101568814.html (accessed 19 June 2020).

Policymakers are planning to allow local governments to replenish the capital of certain small and midsize banks to the tune of about CNY200 billion ($28.2 billion) in an effort to defuse bad-debt risks .

People's Republic of China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 13 August 2020).

The government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. The domestic transmission of the virus has slowed significantly, and mobility restrictions have been largely removed, while policy has tightened to contain the virus transmission of asymptomatic cases. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in new hotspots, including in the northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang province, and more recently in Beijing, Xinjiang, and Dalian. Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks. With normalizing economic activity, real GDP growth rebounded by 3.2 percent (yoy) in Q2 .

Republic of Korea 04 04 - Equity support KRW 10,700,000,000,000 8,769,870,985 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 May 2020).

(i) March 24, The government announced the creation of a stock market stabilisation fund (KRW10.7 trillion).

Republic of Korea 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KRW IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 8 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-southkorea-qr-code/south-korea-mandates-qr-codes-to-log-customers-after-nightclub-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN23907E?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020).

(i) The authorities have implemented comprehensive testing and tracking, which has enabled early isolation and treatment while minimizing widespread mobility restrictions; (ii) April 22, The government unveiled a set of guidelines that communities and individuals to balance their daily lives and quarantine activities; (iii) May 6, The government ended the 2-month social distancing campaign and shifted to the so-called everyday life quarantine scheme; (iv) June 2, Authorities started testing a new quick response (QR) code system to log visitors at high-risk entertainment facilities, restaurants and churches in a bid to track coronavirus cases and prevent further spread of the disease.

Taipei,China 04 04 - Equity support TWD
Taipei,China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TWD Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) press releases. https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/NewsNoDept.aspx?n=539A9A50A5F8AF9E&page=1&PageSize=20 (accessed 19 June 2020); Centers for Disease Control (CDC) press release. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/List/7tUXjTBf6paRvrhEl-mrPg?page=1 (accessed 10 July 2020); Bureau of Consular Affairs (BOCA), MOFA. https://www.boca.gov.tw/cp-220-5691-aa1c3-2.html; BOCA, MOFA. https://www.boca.gov.tw/cp-220-5081-c06dc-2.html (both accessed 7 August 2020); Ministry of Education. https://english.moe.gov.tw/cp-117-24173-6539f-1.html (accessed 21 August 2020); Overseas Community Affairs Council. https://www.ocac.gov.tw/OCAC/Eng/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=329&pid=18695997 (accessed 21 August 2020); CDC press release. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/OGU5TvITYEKel0PH5Akg7g?typeid=158 (accessed 28 August 2020).

(i) February 7, the authorities implemented entry restrictions and visa control measures; (ii) February 15, Travelers were required to undergo home quarantine; (iii) March 5, Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC) issues guidelines for large-scale public gatherings to prevent widespread community transmissions; (iv) April 1, CECC announced social distancing measures to reduce the risk of transmission; (iv) April 10, Crowd control was imposed at tourist hotspots, night markets, and temples; (v) May 6, CECC lifts certain epidemic prevention measures as the COVID numbers stabilize; (vi) June 22, short-term business travelers are allowed entry and can apply for shortened home quarantine period; (vii) June 24, CECC announced that entry measures for foreign nationals and Hong Kong, China and Macau, China residents will be relaxed starting June 29 to meet commercial and trade demand and humanitarian needs; (viii) July 8, CECC further relaxes restrictions concerning attending funerals and visiting relatives for people in home isolation or quarantine; (ix) July 23, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs adjusts entry regulations for foreign nationals requiring them to present a certificate of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 3 working days of boarding the flight and undergo a 14-day home quarantine period; (x) July 26, Travelers from the Philippines must undergo COVID-19 testing at airports and observe quarantive measures; (xi) August 3, The Ministry of Education allows the return of graduating students from outside 19 countries/regions to study in Taipei,China from July 22; (xii) August 19, New and current international students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools allowed to enter, as Taipei,China further eased its border restrictions; (xii) August 26, CECC reminded the public that mask-wearing is mandatory in eight venues which include healthcare facilities, public transportation, markets, learning spaces, sports and exhibition venues, religious places, entertainment venues, and large-scale events. The local government may impose penalties, if necessary [update].

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs [update].

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Hong Kong, China 04 04 - Equity support HKD 19,500,000,000 2,511,236,172 News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200609/20200609_161908_002.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

June 9, HKG27.3 billion investment in Cathay Pacific Airways via government-owned Aviation 2020, comprising preference shares with detachable warrants of HKG19.5 billion and a bridging loan of HKG7.8 billion. [update]

Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020).

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) School closures; (ii) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (iii) Ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (iv) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On June 8, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city [update]; (v) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from March 25; (vi) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (vii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until May 7, 2020. (viii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on May 4th and the first phase of school reopening slated on May 27th. (ix) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting May 18 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on May 21. (x) June 2, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September. [update]

Mongolia 04 04 - Equity support MNT
Mongolia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 4 June 2020).

Feb 13, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including a travel ban from high-risk countries, temporary suspension of coal exports to the People's Republic of China, social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures.

People's Republic of China 04 04 - Equity support CNY
People's Republic of China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020).

The government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. The domestic transmission of the virus has slowed significantly, and mobility restrictions have been largely removed, while policy has tightened to contain the virus transmission of asymptomatic cases. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in two cities in Jinlin province following reports of new infections. Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks.

Republic of Korea 04 04 - Equity support KRW 10,700,000,000,000 8,769,870,985 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 May 2020).

March 24, The government announced the creation of a stock market stabilisation fund (KRW10.7 trillion).

Republic of Korea 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KRW IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 8 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-southkorea-qr-code/south-korea-mandates-qr-codes-to-log-customers-after-nightclub-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN23907E?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020).

(i) The authorities have implemented comprehensive testing and tracking, which has enabled early isolation and treatment while minimizing widespread mobility restrictions; (ii) April 22, The government unveiled a set of guidelines that communities and individuals to balance their daily lives and quarantine activities; (iii) May 6, The government ended the 2-month social distancing campaign and shifted to the so-called everyday life quarantine scheme; (iv) June 2, Authorities started testing a new quick response (QR) code system to log visitors at high-risk entertainment facilities, restaurants and churches in a bid to track coronavirus cases and prevent further spread of the disease. [update]

Taipei,China 04 04 - Equity support TWD
Taipei,China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TWD KPMG. https://bit.ly/2LvD7ms (accessed 14 May 2020).

(i) From February 27 to May 26, 2020, importation of mask and undenatured alcohol concentration above 90% could be subject to temporary adjustment rates; (ii) From March 4 to March 31, the fever thermometers products could not be exported without the approval issued by the Bureau of Foreign Trade of the Ministry of Economic Affairs; (iii) Until April 30, the exportation of mask products (filtering efficiency 94% or more, of textile materials) are banned. However, woven or knitted masks without filter of textile materials, gas masks for epidemic prevention and replaceable filters, sponge masks, and paper masks are not subject to the export prohibition. Such ban may be further extended depending on the current COVID-19 situation.