Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Central Bank 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR
European Central Bank 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR
European Central Bank 12C 12C - Others EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1507 (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) 8 April 2020, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) 24 April 2020, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) 8 June 2020, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June 2020, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilize private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group.

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020); Council of the EU. https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2020/10/13/covid-19-council-adopts-a-recommendation-to-coordinate-measures-affecting-free-movement/ (accessed 26 January 2021); EC https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_195 (accessed 26 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_194 (accessed 26 January 2021).

(i) Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June 2020 and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions; (ii) 13 October 2020, The European Council adopts a recommendation to coordinate measures affecting free movement with the region. EU member states have agreed on a common approach to travel measures and developed common criteria for mapping risk (for details, see: 3ogFom7). The coordinated approach ensures freedom of movement, increases transparency for citizens and businesses and avoids fragmentation and disruption of services. 25 January 2021, In light of the new coronavirus variant, the EC proposes to update the Council recommendation on the agreed color code for the mapping of risk areas and Stricter measures for travelers from higher-risk areas [update]; (iii) 25 January 2021, EC proposes additional safeguards on travel from outside the EU and updated criteria for applying travel restrictions [update].

European Union 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented.

European Union 12C 12C - Others EUR EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2254 (accessed 20 January 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_3 (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_2466 (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_306 (accessed 5 February 2021); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_143 (accessed 20 January 2021).

(i) 2 December 2020, To sustainably manage the pandemic over the winter months, the EC adopted “Staying Safe from COVID-19 during Winter" strategy recommending continued vigilance and caution throughout the winter period and into 2021 when the roll out of safe and effective vaccines will take place. Recommended control measures concern physical distancing and limiting social contacts, testing and contact tracing, and safe travel, among others; (ii) 19 January 2021, To step up the fight against the pandemic, The EC called on Member States to accelerate the roll-out of vaccination across the EU, continue to apply physical distancing, limit social contacts, fight disinformation, coordinate travel restrictions, ramp up testing, and increase contact tracing and genome sequencing to face up to the risk from new variants of the virus.

Hong Kong, China 04 04 - Equity support HKD 19,500,000,000 2,511,236,172 News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200609/20200609_161908_002.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).
Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD
Hong Kong, China 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-singapore/hong-kong-singapore-to-allow-travel-to-each-other-without-quarantines-from-november-22-idUSKBN27R0B2?il=0 (accessed 11 November 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/travel-bubble-flights-between-singapore-hong-kong-postponed (accessed 22 November 2020).

(i) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On 8 June 2020, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city. (ii) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from 25 March 2020. (ii) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (iii) 2 June 2020, Authorities extended restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September 2020. (iv) 11 November 2020, Hong Kong,China and Singapore authorities annouced the resumption of travel between the two cities without mandatory quarantine on 22 November 2020 following a previous travel bubble announcement. On 21 November 2020, Authorities announced the suspension of the travel bubble following escalating cases in Hong Kong, China.

Hong Kong, China 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1313249/hong-kong-to-ban-dining-in-public-gatherings-of-more-than-two (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-hong-kong-reverses-virus-ban-on-restaurant-dining (accessed 31 July 2020); News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2021/02/20210203/20210203_183603_577.html?type=ticker (accessed 5 February 2021.

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (ii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until 7 May 2020. (iiii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on 4 May 2020 and the first phase of school reopening slated on 27 May 2020. (iv) Cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on 21 May 2020. (v) 13 July 2020, Authorities reimposed a one-week shutdown of 12 types of establishments such as gyms and gaming centres, and limits on restaurant takeaway operations after 6 PM. (vi) As of 28 July 2020, Authorities further tightened restrictions with a ban on dine-services at restaurants which was later modified to a restriction to 50% capacity. (vii) 3 February 2021, The Leisure & Cultural Services Department today announced that some of its leisure venues will reopen on February 9 [update].

Hong Kong, China 12C 12C - Others HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong-masks/hong-kong-mandates-masks-in-all-indoor-public-areas-idUSKCN24N0MB?il=0 (accessed 23 July 2020). PDI. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1313249/hong-kong-to-ban-dining-in-public-gatherings-of-more-than-two (accessed 28 July 2020). The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/coronavirus-hong-kong-reverses-virus-ban-on-restaurant-dining (accessed 31 July 2020).

Authorities imposed (i) School closures in early 2020 but reopened on 27 May 2020; (ii) A ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (ii) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting 18 May 2020 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on 21 May 2020. (iii) 2 June 2020, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September 2020. (iv) 13 July 2020, Authorities reimposed tighter social distancing measures including limiting gatherings to 4 people. (v) 23 July 2020, Authorities expanded stricter containment measures including mandatory mask-wearing in all indoor public areas including malls and markets. As of 28 July 2020, Authorities further tightened restrictions by limiting public gatherings to no more than 2 people.

Mongolia 04 04 - Equity support MNT
Mongolia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MNT
Mongolia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/232288 (accessed 30 July 2020).

13 February 2020, Travel ban was imposed from high-risk countries.

Mongolia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace MNT Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/249516 (accessed 14 January 2021); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/250330 (accessed 19 January 2021).

(i) 11 January 2021, 18 categories of businesses (mostly in the tourism, entertainment, and leisure sectors) remain closed for an indefinite period of time; (ii) 18 January 2021, Resumption of operations of electronics and furniture stores, mobile phone trade and repair centers, street booths and ski resorts effective 18 January 2021, adhering to infection protection regimes and requirements.

Mongolia 12C 12C - Others MNT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 24 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/232288 (accessed 30 July 2020); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/248781 (accessed 8 January 2021); Mongolian News Agency. https://montsame.mn/en/read/249516 (accessed 14 January 2021).

(i) 13 February 2020, The authorities declared the state of high alert and quickly implemented a broad range of measures including social distancing, public events cancellations, and school and university closures; (ii) 29 July 2020, The government discussed and approved terms and arrangement for the re-opening of all levels of educational institutions, i.e., classes will be given in a combination of a physical classroom learning and online lessons and online classes of all levels of educational institutions will begin from September 1; (iii) 21 December 2020, The government announced a strict-lockdown regime from 23 December 2020 until 6 January 2021. 4 January 2021, The government extended the lockdown until 11 January 2021; (iv) 11 January 2021, The public emergency readiness or strict lockdown in Ulaanbaatar city has been lifted to transition back into the heightened state of readiness.

People's Republic of China 04 04 - Equity support CNY 200,000,000,000 28,497,852,298 Caixin Global. https://www.caixinglobal.com/2020-06-17/in-depth-the-billion-dollar-plan-to-replenish-smaller-chinese-banks-capital-101568814.html (accessed 19 June 2020).

Policymakers are planning to allow local governments to replenish the capital of certain small and midsize banks to the tune of about CNY200 billion ($28.2 billion) in an effort to defuse bad-debt risks.

People's Republic of China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CNY
People's Republic of China 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 13 August 2020).

In January 2020, the government imposed strict containment measures, including the extension of the national Lunar New Year holiday (ending on Feb 2 extended from Jan 30), the lockdown of Hubei province, large-scale mobility restrictions at the national level, social distancing, and a 14-day quarantine period for returning migrant workers. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility restrictions, prioritizing regions and and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Localized movement restrictions were re-imposed in new hotspots, including in the northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang province, and more recently in Beijing, Xinjiang, and Dalian. As of August 27, all these regions (except certain areas in Xinjiang) have lowered their emergency response level to Level III (low risk).

People's Republic of China 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace CNY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 20 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 13 August 2020).

In January 2020, the government imposed strict containment measures including the lockdown of Hubei province and large scale mobility restrictions at the national level. Starting in mid-February, the government has gradually removed mobility and activity restrictions, prioritizing essential sectors, specific industries, regions, and population groups based on ongoing risk assessments. Most businesses and schools have reopened nationwide, but social distancing rules remain in place at the micro level and foreign entry remains restricted to contain imported cases. As of August 27, 2020, all these regions (except certain areas in Xinjiang) have lowered their emergency response level to Level III (low risk). Testing and individualized health QR codes are used to gauge the path of the virus and contain outbreaks. With normalizing economic activity, real GDP growth rebounded by 3.2 percent (yoy) in Q2.

People's Republic of China 12C 12C - Others CNY
Republic of Korea 04 04 - Equity support KRW 11,500,000,000,000 9,425,562,274 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 May 2020). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 May 2020). Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-deals/Korean-Air-to-take-over-Asiana-in-1.62bn-deal-backed-by-Seoul (accessed 16 December 2020).

(i) 24 March 2020, The government announced the creation of a stock market stabilisation fund (KRW10.7 trillion). (ii) 16 November 2020, State-owned Korea Development Bank announced an investment of KRW800 billion into the parent company of Korean Air Lines to help fund its KRW1.5 trillion takeover of Asiana Airlines.

Republic of Korea 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures KRW
Republic of Korea 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) KRW
Republic of Korea 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace KRW
Republic of Korea 12C 12C - Others KRW IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 8 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-southkorea-qr-code/south-korea-mandates-qr-codes-to-log-customers-after-nightclub-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN23907E?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-southkorea/south-korea-orders-schools-to-shut-as-covid-19-cases-spike-idUSKBN28O09O?il=0 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) The authorities have implemented comprehensive testing and tracking, which has enabled early isolation and treatment while minimizing widespread mobility restrictions; (ii) 22 April 2020, The government unveiled a set of guidelines that communities and individuals to balance their daily lives and quarantine activities; (iii) 6 May 2020, The government ended the 2-month social distancing campaign and shifted to the so-called everyday life quarantine scheme; (iv) 2 June 2020, Authorities started testing a new quick response (QR) code system to log visitors at high-risk entertainment facilities, restaurants and churches in a bid to track coronavirus cases and prevent further spread of the disease. (v) On 14 December 2020, Schools were ordered closed and shift to online learning in Seoul and surrounding areas following escalating cases.

Taipei,China 04 04 - Equity support TWD
Taipei,China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures TWD
Taipei,China 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) TWD Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA). https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=539A9A50A5F8AF9E&sms=37B41539382B84BA&s=B15583048219C198; Centers for Disease Control (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/0x7IF-aHoVomtwYQ4wY8VA?typeid=158; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/a9zCFAfhICztjWXp83fQFg?typeid=158; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/TKfwilf9pWlMEbZC3b93xg?typeid=158 (all accessed 19 June 2020); Bureau of Consular Affairs (BOCA), MOFA. https://www.boca.gov.tw/cp-220-5691-aa1c3-2.html; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/gyyHQjWwDqMZ8lzkkZBi2A?typeid=158 (both accessed 7 August 2020); Ministry of Education. https://english.moe.gov.tw/cp-117-24173-6539f-1.html (accessed 21 August 2020); OCAC. https://www.ocac.gov.tw/OCAC/Eng/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=329&pid=18695997 (accessed 21 August 2020); Executive Yuan. https://english.ey.gov.tw/Page/61BF20C3E89B856/a62205c2-034b-4f12-aac4-814fac5b5fc5 (accessed 27 November 2020); CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/T0kixAYVcRWUdJ8vi5Nabg?typeid=158 (accessed 27 November 2020); MOFA. https://bit.ly/3aZ0geT (accessed 2 January 2020). Taiwan CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/jaabKFtUUyKI13RPcq3Yow?typeid=158 (accessed 15 January 2021)

(i) 7 February 2020, the authorities implemented entry restrictions and visa control measures; (ii) 15 February 2020, Travelers were required to undergo home quarantine; (iii) 22 June 2020, short-term business travelers are allowed entry and can apply for shortened home quarantine period; (iv) 24 June 2020, CECC announced that entry measures for foreign nationals and Hong Kong, China and Macau, China residents will be relaxed starting 29 June 2020 to meet commercial and trade demand and humanitarian needs; (v) 23 July 2020, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs adjusts entry regulations for foreign nationals requiring them to present a certificate of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 3 working days of boarding the flight and undergo a 14-day home quarantine period; (vi) 26 July 2020, Travelers from the Philippines must undergo COVID-19 testing at airports and observe quarantive measures; (vii) 3 August 2020, The Ministry of Education allows the return of graduating students from outside 19 countries/regions to study in Taipei,China from 22 July 2020; (viii) 19 August 2020, New and current international students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools allowed to enter, as Taipei,China further eased its border restrictions; (ix) 19 November 2020, CECC anounced tougher prevention measures, including a negative COVID-test within 3 days of boarding the flight, which will take effect on 1 December 1 to 28 February 2020; 25 November 2020, Three cases exempted from the testing were announced; (x) 30 December 2020, The CECC announced that beginning 01 January 2021, entry restrictions and quarantine regulations for foreign nationals will be tightened. In addition, beginning 15 January 2021, apart from the original requirement of providing a COVID-19 RT-PCR test report issued within three days of boarding, arriving travelers must also provide proof of the location of their intended quarantine. The CECC will further adjust entry restrictions and quarantine regulations; (xi) 13 January 2021, Travelers with travel history from South Africa or Eswatini in the past 14 days will be required to undergo quarantine at group quarantine facilities after arrival in Taiwan starting 14 January 2021.

Taipei,China 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace TWD
Taipei,China 12C 12C - Others TWD CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/yAhL46r86lz1uIi4r2DqSQ?typeid=158; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/kM0jm-IqLwNBeT6chKk_wg?typeid=158; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/pCH3LG04iOev8Dtx_FkhAw?typeid=158; CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/aMFUE6buQnRuFQetq8d8UA?typeid=158 (all accessed 19 June 2020); CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/o9oN012rPtdQQG5Gl6Bc5g?typeid=158 (accessed 10 July 2020); CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/OGU5TvITYEKel0PH5Akg7g?typeid=158 (accessed 28 August 2020); OCAC. https://www.ocac.gov.tw/OCAC/Eng/Pages/Detail.aspx?nodeid=329&pid=20876526 (accessed 20 November 2020); CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/KlQSk-lxEyAZhQz-hc22RQ?typeid=158 (accessed 10 December 2020). CDC. https://www.cdc.gov.tw/En/Bulletin/Detail/fp1eFoJ5ga0Pb-6TW0ulDg?typeid=158 (accessed 10 December 2020).

(i) March 5, Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC) issues guidelines for large-scale public gatherings to prevent widespread community transmissions; (ii) April 1, CECC announced social distancing measures to reduce the risk of transmission; (iii) April 10, Crowd control was imposed at tourist hotspots, night markets, and temples; (iv) May 6, CECC lifts certain epidemic prevention measures as the COVID numbers stabilize; (v) July 8, CECC further relaxes restrictions concerning attending funerals and visiting relatives for people in home isolation or quarantine; (vi) August 26, CECC reminded the public that mask-wearing is mandatory in eight venues which include healthcare facilities, public transportation, markets, learning spaces, sports and exhibition venues, religious places, entertainment venues, and large-scale events. The local government may impose penalties, if necessary. On November 18, CECC announced that noncompliance of the mandatory wearing of masks will be fined at TWD3,000-TWD15,000 from December 1; (vii) 9 December 2020, CECC announced that migrant workers should continue to observe a 7-day self-health management after they complete a 14-day period of group quarantine/home quarantine. The CECC also announced adjustments to the name-based mask distribution system starting 31 December 2020, including (a) quota of 10 masks per person every two weeks at a price of NTD40 and (b) change to name-based mask distribution system.

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs.

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Hong Kong, China 04 04 - Equity support HKD 19,500,000,000 2,511,236,172 News.gov.hk. https://www.news.gov.hk/eng/2020/06/20200609/20200609_161908_002.html?type=category&name=covid19 (accessed 11 June 2020).

June 9, HKG27.3 billion investment in Cathay Pacific Airways via government-owned Aviation 2020, comprising preference shares with detachable warrants of HKG19.5 billion and a bridging loan of HKG7.8 billion.

Hong Kong, China 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures HKD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 27 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/new-virus-cluster-spurs-hong-kong-to-extend-border-curbs-and-limit-on-gatherings-idUSKBN2390LS?il=0 (accessed 5 June 2020). SMCP. https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3087908/hong-kong-relax-quarantine-rules-largest-listed-firms-such (accessed 9 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-hongkong/hong-kong-tightens-social-distancing-again-as-coronavirus-cases-rise-idUSKCN24E1L5?il=0 (accessed 14 July 2020).

Authorities imposed strict containment measures including: (i) School closures; (ii) Remote work arrangement for civil servants; (iii) Ban on gatherings of more than four people in a public place; (iv) Compulsory quarantine for travelers from overseas countries for 14 days. On June 8, Authorities eased the 14-day quarantine rule for executives of the 480 largest companies listed in the city; (v) Temporary entry ban of nonresident from overseas countries from March 25; (vi) Reduction and partial suspension of cross-border transport and border control point services, including suspension of transit services at the Hong Kong International Airport. (vii) Closure of selected social gathering establishments and businesses until May 7, 2020. (viii) Remote work for civil servants was lifted on May 4th and the first phase of school reopening slated on May 27th. (ix) Religious gatherings of up to 50% of venue capacity were allowed starting May 18 and cultural and leisure facilities including libraries, swimming pools, and beaches reopened on May 21. (x) June 2, Authorities extended a ban on gatherings of more than 8 people by 2 weeks as well as restrictions on foreign visitors until mid-September. (xi) July 13, Authorities reimposed tighter social distancing measures including limiting gatherings to 4 people, a one-week shutdown of 12 types of establishments such as gyms and gaming centres, and limits on restaurant takeaway operations after 6 PM. [update]

Mongolia 04 04 - Equity support MNT