Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 04 04 - Equity support AUD
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (vi) April 26, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (vii) May 8, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (viii) July 14, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (ix) July 30, the government published guidance on wearing face masks.

Austria 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 16 July 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines. (ii) April 13, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May. By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, and the Bundesliga was allowed to restart. Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since June 1. The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from June 5; (iii) June 15, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 16 June, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) A pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas.

Bangladesh 04 04 - Equity support BDT
Bangladesh 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BDT Ministry of Public Administration. https://mopa.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mopa.gov.bd/notices/8b82fa43_9c1a_4269_bc9f_dcf378e47fdf/admin1-2020-347-r1.PDF (accsessed 29 June 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 May 2020).

(i) March 23, The government declared a general holiday from March 26 to April 4, which has been extended until May 5: government offices, private offices, and courts will be closed, commercial banks will operate shorter hours; (ii) Individuals have been requested not to leave their homes except to collect daily necessities and emergency supplies, and to wear masks when outside; and (iii) A lockdown has been imposed on 75 hotspots in Dhaka where cases have been identified, and a curfew is in operation from 6pm to 6am.

Belgium 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 03 September 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on May 4, to be followed by shops (May 11 and May 18). Schools will also start to gradually reopen from May 18. The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by June 8, while sporting events remain banned until July 31; (iii) June 11, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of June 8. Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iv) June 18, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (v) July 23, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (vi) August 20, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted. [update]

Bhutan 04 04 - Equity support BTN/INR
Bhutan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures BTN/INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); PMO. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/?p=1606 (accessed 20 July 2020); Royal Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/?p=1664 (accessed 11 August 2020); Royal Government of Bhutan. https://www.gov.bt/covid19/31-08-20-press-release-pmo/ (accessed 02 September 2020).

(i) Bhutan started imposing containment measures immediately after the first case was recorded on March 6, with restriction of entry of foreign tourists initially for two weeks but extended afterwards and closure of schools in three cities; (ii) March 22, Bhutan sealed off its land borders as a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19. For non-Bhutanese, exits are allowed. Incoming non-Bhutanese are scrutinized and quarantined where applicable; (iii) March 27, More containment measures were imposed on public gatherings, travel (within and outside Bhutan), business and entertainment, games and sports and civil service, corporate, private, and other agencies. The quarantine period has been extended to April 21; (iv) Healthcare measures include setting up dedicated hospitals and quarantine centers; (v) June 19, Easing of restrictions, which will be done in phases, in schools, institutes, and colleges, except pre-primary levels, low risk businesses, sports, trainings and workshops, religious and social functions, parks and public spaces, and public transport; (vi) June 19, All government, corporate, and allied agencies are called to discontinue "work from home" starting June 22; (vii) August 11, Government announces nationwide lockdown. On September 1, The government announced a phased easing of lockdown restrictions between September 1 and 10 [update].

Canada 04 04 - Equity support CAD 537,000,000 384,877,262 Department of Finance Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-finance/economic-response-plan.html (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) CAD287 million to support rural businesses and communities by providing them with much-needed access to capital through the Community Futures Network. (ii) CAD250 million to assist innovative, early-stage companies that are unable to access other COVID-19 business supports through the Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP).

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces; (v) Reopening the economy. On April 28, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 04 04 - Equity support DKK 17,437,889,398 2,581,659,486 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 8 July 2020). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1488 (accessed 22 July 2020)

(i) April 18, DKK3.5 billion in loans and equity provided to entrepreneurs and venture firms. The state investment fund (Vaekstfonden) will provide risky capital to start-ups and venture firm, facing difficulties in financing as private investors withdraw from the market. Available in 2020 only; (ii) June 15, DKK10 billion from a new government-backed fund to act as an investor of last resort with the possibility of recapitalizing large and important firms at risk of bankruptcy; (iii) Together with Sweden, planned recapitalization of SAS (a Dutch airline) through an equity injection. Last August 17, the European Commission (EC) approved this measure. Denmark is expected to provide approximately EUR583 million of the recapitalization funds.

Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. https://www.thelocal.dk/20200517/denmark-begins-next-stage-of-reopening-after-lockdown (accessed 21 May 2020)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down. All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of May 20. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by April 15 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions . The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy.

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1507 (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group [update].

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Finland 04 04 - Equity support EUR 710,500,000 785,951,327 MEE. https://tem.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/ensimmaiset-valtionavustukset-kunnille-yksinyrittajien-tukemiseksi (accessed 3 May 2020); https://vm.fi/en/article/-/asset_publisher/10616/hallitus-paatti-vuoden-2020-neljannesta-lisatalousarvioesityksesta (accessed 9 June 2020); European Sting. https://europeansting.com/2020/06/10/state-aid-commission-approves-e286-million-finnish-measure-to-recapitalise-finnair/ (accessed 15 June 2020); Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland. https://tem.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/nordfuel-oy-n-haapaveden-biojalostamohankkeelle-24-5-miljoonaa-euroa-uusiutuvan-energian-suurten-demohankkeiden-investointitukea (accessed 19 June 2020).

(i) June 6, Further capital funding of EUR250 million is proposed for Tesi (Finnish Industry Investment Ltd), to increase equity financing for companies ; (ii) June 6, Capital funding of EUR 150 million is proposed for strengthening the balance sheet of Finnish Minerals Group ; (iii) June 10, The EU Commission approved Finland's plans to contribute to the recapitalisation of Finnair, amounting to EUR286 million through the subscription of new shares by the State in the rights issue launched by Finnair on 10 June 2020 in the context of the coronavirus outbreak ; (iv) June 15, EUR24.5 million of investment support for NordFuel Oy's Haapevesi biorefinery project for large renewable energy demo projects .

Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (1 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#C (acccessed 13 August 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on April 14. On May 4, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on May 14, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on June 1, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on July 31, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective June 16, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on October 1. On June 23, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of July 13, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19.

France 04 04 - Equity support EUR 22,270,000,000 24,634,955,752 OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (update as of 14 May 2020); Economie. https://www.economie.gouv.fr/3-projet-loi-finances-rectificative-plfr-iii-2020# (accessed 4 July 2020).

(i) EUR20 billion for the temporary increase in state-ownership for some firms facing exceptional difficulties; (ii) June 5, EUR150 million worth of investment funds for companies developing sovereign technologies of the future whose risk associated with investment is high (quantum, health, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, etc.) and of start-ups at any stage of development; (iii) EUR200 million equity support to SMEs in the aeronautics sector ; (iv) EUR1.3 billion equity investments in the tourism industry ; (v) EUR270 million to EUR620 million equity support under the Programme de soutien à l’innovation majeure PSIM (EUR120 million) & French Tech Souveraineté (EUR150 million, extendable up to a maximum of EUR500 million) .

France 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 21 May 2020).

The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. As of May 11, France has started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. .

Germany 04 04 - Equity support EUR 112,000,000,000 123,893,805,310 Federal Ministry of Finance. https://bit.ly/3el63tR (accessed 17 April 2020); Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. https://bit.ly/3ehnpbi (accessed 17 April 2020); Bruegel. https://bit.ly/3eeLoYx (accessed 16 April 2020); Deutsche Welle. https://bit.ly/3hFEEFj (accessed 17 April 2020); Finance Yahoo. https://yhoo.it/3gjTIHQ (accessed 25 May 2020); Federal Ministry of Finance. https://bit.ly/2YPVHf6 (accessed 31 May 2020).

(i) March 23, EUR100 billion under the WSF to directly acquire equity of larger affected companies and strengthen their capital position. May 25, Lufthansa gets a EUR9 billion support, of which EUR6 billion will be equity; (ii) April 1, EUR2 billion to expand venture capital financing to start-ups, new technology companies, and small businesses during the coronavirus crisis; and (iii) EUR10 billion fund by the state of Bavaria to buy stakes in struggling companies.

Germany 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW https://bit.ly/2YiaGiT (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52575313 (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. https://reut.rs/37MQtVA (accessed 4 June 2020); Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-germany-tests/germany-begins-mass-coronavirus-testing-at-airports-idUSKCN24U2DG (accessed 30 July 2020); Daily Sabah. https://www.dailysabah.com/world/europe/german-children-start-new-school-year-amid-virus-fears?gallery_image=undefined#big (accessed 4 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/pflichtests-kommen-1774748 (accessed 8 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/aktuelles/bund-laender-beschluesse-1780542 (accessed 29 August 2020).

(i) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on March 22 across the country, extended until at least May 4 on April 15. The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since March 16 and 19. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On April 2, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from March 25 onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting March 18; (iii) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April; (iv) Restaurants are closed. Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since March 15 and 16. Larger events were cancelled until end-August; (v) May 10, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on March 22 has been extended until June 5 but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (vi) May 10, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (vii) A gradual reopening of stores began on April 20. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from May 8 onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (viii) May 6, border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (ix) May 28, Control of lifting the downlockdown lies on the federal states. Shops are allowed to reopen and schools have been partially reopened. Border controls were eased on May 15 with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on June 15. Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August. Social distancing rules extended until June 29; (x) June 3, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries; (xi) June 16, The government launched a Corona-Warn app that allows users to trace potential contact with COVID-infected individuals. Its use is voluntary; (xii) June 17, Containment measures re-imposed in two municipalities in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia after a resurgence in new COVID-19 cases (“emergency brake"). Restrictions were eased on 6 July; (xiii) July, A general contact restriction of keeping distance and wearing masks in stores and public transport should continue until further notice; (xiv) July 29, Free and compulsory coronavirus testing begins at Berlin's Tegel airport. Other airports such as Frankfurt have been offering tests over the previous weeks, but additional preparations are being made to test passengers arriving from countries deemed high risk; (xv) August 3, new school year begins with children returning to school in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania region. Germany's 16 states had agreed that schools will reopen full-time after the summer break; (xvi) August 8, Mandatory corona tests for returnees from risk areas begins. Tests are free for the travelers; (xvii) August 27, Returnees from risk areas should be able to end their quarantine at the earliest with a test from the fifth day after their return. The federal states will set the minimum fine for violations of the mask requirement of at least EUR50. There is a ban on major events, where contact tracking and compliance with hygiene regulations, are not possible until at least the end of 2020 [update].

India 04 04 - Equity support INR
India 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) March 21, A temporary ban for a week on international flights landing in the country for a week; (ii) March 26, Extended ban on all international flights till April 15th, excluding approved all-cargo operations and flights; (iii) March 5, Schools closed in some of the municipalities and states, including Delhi until the end of March, which was eventually expanded to all educational insttitutions in the country; (iv) March 12, Partial shutdowns was imposed on educational institutions, stadiums, cinema halls, and sports clubs and gathering of people were banned in some of the states, including Delhi; (v) March 24, The entire country was placed under lockdown for 21 days which, on April 14, was further extended to May 17; (vi) April 15, the government announced several relaxation measures in geographical areas designated as non-hotspot, with effect from April 20, 2020; (vii) May 30, the government issued ‘Unlock 1’ guidelines for a phased re-opening of most activities across the country and limiting the lockdown only to containment zones for a month until June 30. However, states have been empowered to prohibit certain activities if they deem it necessary.

Ireland 04 04 - Equity support EUR 2,012,000,000 2,225,663,717 DBEI. https://dbei.gov.ie/en/News-And-Events/Department-News/2020/May/02052020.html (accessed 9 May 2020); DBEI. https://dbei.gov.ie/en/News-And-Events/Department-News/2020/July/07072020.html (accessed 26 July 2020); Government of Ireland. file:///C:/Users/m29/Downloads/81556_d4fa4cc4-7e9f-4431-8540-a9ecb7126505.pdf (accessed 26 July 2020).

(i) EUR2 billion Pandemic Stabilisation and Recovery Fund within the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF), which will make capital available to medium and large enterprises on commercial terms; (ii) July 7, Enterprise Ireland EUR2 million Competitive Start Fund will open to applications for two competitionswhich will approve up to forty investments – the ‘All Sectors’ competition and a ‘Women Entrepreneurs’ Competition. Each of the two EUR1,000,000 funds being launched will provide up to EUR50,000 in equity funding to successful projects ; (iii) EUR10 million in funding for the Seed and Venture Capital sector through Enterprise Ireland as a top-up to existing funds and leveraging a combined additional pool of investment of EUR55 million, as part of commitment to innovation driven enterprises.

Ireland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020).

The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On March 27, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until May 5th, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August. The authorities announced a gradual reopening plan starting on May 18th. The “stay-at-home” order is eased in five phases three weeks apart: phase 1)has started last Monday includes return of outdoor workers and small groups of family and friends are permitted to meet in the open; in phase 2) small retail outlets and marts where social distancing is possible can reopen; 3) cafes and restaurants may reopen; (4) return to work for those who cannot work from home; phase 5) envisages return to work across all sectors. Schools and colleges will re-open at the beginning of the next academic year in September and October. These phases may have to be reversed back if the rate of the infection increases significantly as the lockdown is eased. Similarly, the government may speed up the plan if Covid cases continue to fall.

Italy 04 04 - Equity support EUR 45,000,000,000 49,778,761,062 MEF. https://www.mef.gov.it/focus/Decreto-rilancio-le-misure-per-rimettere-in-moto-il-Paese/ (accessed 21 July 2020).

May 15, EUR45 billion in equity support for companies under the Relaunch Decree .

Italy 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 9 May 2020).

The nation-wide lockdown, announced in early March, was extended until May 3. Travel is restricted and public gathering are banned. All schools and universities remain shut. Non-essential productive activities are closed across the country, with exceptions for supermarket and grocery stores, pharmacies, banks, public transport and essential public services. The nation-wide lockdown expired on May 4. Since then, manufacturing and construction have reopened under new safety rules (e.g., staggered shifts, spaced workstation, temperature checks, masks). The government has moved forward some of the reopening plans this week. In addition to retail shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers have reopened on May 18 (the initial reopening plan was June 1). Sports facilities will reopen on May 25, followed by cinemas and theatres on June 15. Regional governments are allowed the discretion to adjust the dates in both direction. People can now travel within their own region, and mobility restrictions across regions will be lifted on June 3, when international borders will also reopen without restriction to and from other EU countries.

Japan 04 04 - Equity support JPY 12,180,000,000,000 113,521,070,501 IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 6 May 2020).

An increase in the annual pace of the Bank of Japan’s purchases of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) and Japan-Real Estate Investment Trusts (J-REITs) up to about JPY12 trillion (2.2% of GDP) and JPY180 billion (0.03% of GDP), respectively.

Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 May 2020). NHK. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/news/20200514_33/ (accessed 15 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan/japan-to-lift-emergency-state-for-osaka-kyoto-hyogo-economy-minister-idUSKBN22X07J (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-stimulus/japan-to-end-tokyos-state-of-emergency-eyes-fresh-930-billion-stimulus-idUSKBN2300SW (accessed 25 May). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tokyo/city-of-tokyo-issues-stay-home-alert-after-jump-in-new-virus-infections-idUSKBN2391VK?il=0 (accessed 2 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/Tokyo-set-to-drop-all-coronavirus-business-restrictions-on-June-19?utm_campaign=RN%20Free%20newsletter&utm_medium=daily%20newsletter%20free&utm_source=NAR%20Newsletter&utm_content=article%20link&del_type=1&pub_date=20200611190000&seq_num=2&si=%%user_id%% (accessed 11 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-travel/japan-to-ease-entry-for-vietnam-thailand-australia-new-zealand-report-idUSKBN23P1BQ?il=0 (accessed 18 June 2020). euters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-tourism/japan-lifts-coronavirus-travel-curbs-to-help-economy-bounce-back-idUSKBN23Q0BM?il=0 (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Japan-immigration/Japan-finally-lifts-COVID-based-reentry-ban-for-foreign-residents (accessed 1 September 2020).

April 7: (i) Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency f'or seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from April 8 to May 6 (which, as of May 4, has since been extended until May 31); the declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies. (ii) The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to July 23–August 8, 2021. May 13: (iii) The Prime Minister has lifted the state of emergency ahead of schedule in 39 prefectures and kept it in place for 8 others including Tokyo (the lifting of which will be decided on May 21). May 21: (iv) The government lifted the state of emergency in Osaka, Kyoto, and Hyogo while keeping it in place for Tokyo and four other prefectures. (v) The government announced the lifting of the state of emergency for Tokyo and four remaining prefectures by June 1. May 25. (vi) June 2, Tokyo issued a stay-home alert after a jump in new virus infections. On June 11, the alert was lifted and authorities announced a lifting of all business restrictions on June 19. On June 19, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and gatherings of up to 1,000 people in indoor/outdoor events were allowed; domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy. (vii) June 18, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On September 1, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. [update]

Luxembourg 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Luxembourg 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 23 July 2020). KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/luxembourg-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 21 May 2020).

(i) People have been encouraged to self-isolate and should only leave the house for essential activities such as food shopping, going to work (note: working-from-home if possible), going to doctors and to help vulnerable people; (ii) All public gatherings are prohibited; (iii) All cultural and recreational events (incl. sport events) are suspended; (iv) All schools, universities and kindergartens have been closed since 16 March, until at least 4 May 2020; (v) On April 15, the government announced a multiphase lockdown exit strategy, with phases comprising activities/tentative opening dates as follows: phase 1-construction sites and selected activities-including craft, landscaping, and recycling services (April 20); Phase 2-secondary education (May 11); Phase 3: basic education and childcare facilities (May 25); later phases-commercial activities and the hospitality sector (dates to be determined); (vi) To achieve a well-sequenced lifting of the lockdown restrictions and avoid a second wave of Covid-19 infections, the government envisages to perform large-scale testing on a voluntary basis, including cross-border commuters; (vii) May 20, The Luxembourg Ministry for the Economy has set-up a hotline and website with information for enterprises, which includes a FAQ on existing measures for companies, including SMEs (financial support and partial employment); (viii) July 16, Mandatory face masks for both public and private gatherings of more than 20 people in case physical distance of 2 meters cannot be guaranteed; (ix) July 16, Fines for customers of bars and restaurants if they disregard the precautionary measures.

Maldives 04 04 - Equity support MVR
Maldives 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures MVR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 19 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 4 June 2020, 22 July 2020); The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/16934 (accessed 29 May 2020). The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/18190 (accessed 31 July 2020). The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/18275 (accessed 7 August 2020). The Edition. https://edition.mv/news/18890 (accessed 4 September 2020).

(i) March 12, The government declared a Public Health Emergency. There are several adopted containment measures, including (a) temporary suspension of on-arrival visa for all passengers arriving to Maldives by air and sea, (b) quarantine for all passengers traveling to Maldives by air except for tourists checking-in to resorts, (c) screening at ports of entry, (d) restrictions on travel between resorts and inhabited islands, (e) ban on all cruise ships from entering and docking; requirement on all guest houses and city hotels operating in the Maldives to temporally suspend all tourist check-ins since March 17, and (f) school closures; (ii) April 15, The greater Malé region was placed on lockdown; (iii) May 13, The lockdown was extended to May 28 (third extension since its implementation); (iv) May 28: (a) The state of Public Health Emergency was extended until June 29; and (b) Phase one of lockdown easing started, with a relaxation in temporary permissions for leaving homes as well as allowing certain commercial businesses to open and operate; (v) Since July 1, the country is in phase three of the lockdown ease plan. This phase permits movement in the Greater Malé Region from 5am to 11pm, and only gatherings of less than 30 people are to be allowed in public spaces; (vi) International flights as well as tourism island resorts reopened; (vii) While guesthouses in inhabited islands are opened since July for locals/residents in COVID-19 free islands, guesthouses will be opened for tourists in August; (vii) July 30, Authorities mandated wearing face masks in public spaces of the capital city of Malé in response to a surge in COVID-19 cases in Maldives. Individuals in public spaces without masks would be fined by MVR1,000 starting from August 1; (viii) August 4, The Health Protection Agency (HPA) implemented a curfew over the Greater Malé Region; (ix) September 3, The Ministry of Education extended the closure of schools in the Greater Malé Region by an additional two weeks in connection to the surge of COVID-19 cases in the area [update].

Nepal 04 04 - Equity support NPR
Nepal 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NPR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 2 September 2020). Business World. http://www.businessworld.in/article/Nepal-re-enforces-lockdown-as-COVID-19-cases-surge/05-08-2020-305469/ (accessed 6 August 2020); The Kathmandu Post. https://kathmandupost.com/politics/2020/08/12/nepal-braces-for-a-return-to-locked-down-life-as-rise-in-covid-19-cases-rings-alarm-bells (accessed 13 August 2020); Nepali Times. https://www.nepalitimes.com/latest/repatriation-regular-flights-to-nepal-to-resume/ (accessed 26 August 2020); Online Khabar. https://english.onlinekhabar.com/nepal-extends-suspension-on-long-route-transport-domestic-flights-until-sept-16.html (accessed 31 August 2020).

April: (i) Closure of cinema halls, stadiums, health clubs, museums, bars and other recreational places and public transportation until July 22; (ii) Closure of land-border crossings; June: (iii) Nationwide lockdown until July 22; (iv) Ban on domestic and international flights (except chartered flights) until July 22; (v) The government began easing the lockdown on June 12, allowing shops to open; (vi) Government, private offices, and banks have reopened from June 15, with government staff working in shifts; (vii) Private vehicles are allowed to operate on an alternating odd-even license-plate-number basis, corresponding to the calendar date; (viii) July 20, The government announced that the national lockdown will be lifted. Services, such as hotels and restaurants, will resume operations from July 30. All flights and transportation will be resumed from August 17. Tourism activities including travel, trekking, mountaineering will also resume operations from August 17. However, recreational activities including parties, seminars, and other public gatherings continue to be restricted. Educational institutions, recreational centers, religious centers, gyms, libraries, museums, and zoos will be closed until further notice; (ix) August 5, The Nepal government has enforced partial lockdown to full lockdown in various parts of the country as cases of coronavirus infection and fatalities continued to soar. The Home Ministry released a list of 14 districts: six districts will be facing a complete restriction in movement, while eight would remain under partial lockdown; (x) August 11, Other containment measures include restrictions on domestic and international passenger flights until August 31; long distance buses will now be allowed to ply from September 1; all educational institutions including schools, colleges, tuition centres and training centers will remain closed. No date for their opening has been announced; restaurants have been limited to takeaway services and all non-essential services like salons, shopping malls, theatres must remain closed; opening of hotels which was supposed to start on August 17, has been pushed back by 15 days; (xi) August 25, The government announced that it will resume flights to repatriate Nepali workers stranded abroad until August 31. After that, airlines will be allowed to operate limited regular international flights. The government has also reversed its earlier requirement that all passengers, even those with PCR reports, have to spend at least one week in a hotel quarantine in Kathmandu at their own expense. Passengers with PCR negative reports will now be allowed to go home for 14 day self-isolation [update]; (xii) August 31, The government has extended the suspension on long-route transportation and domestic flights until September 16. International flights will resume on September 1, but only for Nepalis and diplomats (no foreign tourists). The government also decided to continue the suspension on the operation of schools, colleges and academic institutions until September 16 [update].

Netherlands 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Netherlands 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 28 May 2020). OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/country-policy-tracker/ (accessed 20 July 2020). Rijksoverheid. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2020/08/12/nederland-stelt-inreisverbod-voor-marokko-weer-in (accessed 13 August 2020)

(i) The authorities have taken measures to limit the spread of the virus, including ordering closure of schools and many catering businesses, and advising to avoid social contact and work from home to the extent possible; (ii) As the number of new infections and death continue to decline, the Dutch government is laying down a progressive easing of the lockdown measures; (iii) Starting on May 11, and under strict conditions, childcare services and primary schools will be allowed to reopen, as well as some businesses (including for example hairdressers and nail stylists). The authorities have stressed that further relaxation of the containment measures will follow only to the extent that the spread of virus remains contained; (iv) Starting on June 1, secondary schools and more businesses (e.g. restaurants and cafes, cultural institutions) will also reopen; (v) As of June 15, tourists from EU or Schengen countries can enter the Netherlands. However, tourists from Sweden and the United Kingdom should go into quarantine for 14 days. Tourists must reserve their holiday accommodation before they travel to the Netherlands; (vi) Starting July 1, gatherings of more than 100 people in a closed space will be allowed, and no limit on occupancy will be imposed on cinemas, cafés and restaurants. Social distancing requirements will remain in place, however. (vii) The Netherlands will reinstate the entry ban for Morocco from 13 August 2020; (viii) August 6, the Dutch government introduced new nationwide measures to curb the spread, including compulsory testing at Schiphol airport and mandatory temporary closing of entertainment businesses experiencing an outbreak.

New Zealand 04 04 - Equity support NZD
New Zealand 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NZD IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 24 July 2020); RBNZ. https://www.rbnz.govt.nz/news/2020/05/financial-services-under-level-2 (accessed on 14 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. https://covid19.govt.nz/latest-updates/nz-covid-tracer-app-released/ (accessed 20 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. https://uniteforrecovery.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/new-zealand-moved-to-alert-level-1-on-tuesday-9-june/ (accessed 10 June 2020); Government of New Zealand. https://covid19.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/plan-to-respond-to-new-covid-19-cases-in-the-community/ (accessed 16 July 2020); New Zealand Government. https://covid19.govt.nz/updates-and-resources/latest-updates/new-zealand-will-remain-at-the-existing-alert-levels-until-sunday/ (accessed 24 August 2020); Department of the Treasury. https://treasury.govt.nz/publications/weu/weekly-economic-update-28-august-2020-html (accessed 28 August 2020).

April: (i) Social distancing measures and closure of all non-essential businesses, cancellation of all events and gatherings, closure of schools, and cancellation of discretionary domestic air travel; (ii) Closing of the borders to all but New Zealand citizens, who must self-isolate for at least 14 days upon entry; and (iii) The government announced that New Zealand will move to Alert Level 3 starting April 27, 11:59pm, allowing many businesses to re-open, though without physical contact to customers, and schools to re-open with limited capacity; (iv) May 14, New Zealand moved to Alert Level 2; (iv) May 20, The Ministry of Health has released the NZ COVID Tracer app to support contact tracing in New Zealand; (v) June 9, The government announced that New Zealand has moved to Alert Level 1 starting June 8, where everyone can return without restriction to work, school, sports, and domestic travel, and can get together with as many people. Controls at the borders remain for those entering New Zealand, including health screening and testing for all arrivals, and mandatory 14-day managed quarantine or isolation; (vi) July 15, The government launched the “Stamp it Out” plan for responding to new cases, which includes several scenarios and their impacts on individuals, businesses, and other organizations such as schools; (vii) August 24, Due to new confirmed cases, the government announced that Auckland will stay at Alert Level 3 until 11:59pm on 30 August, while the rest of the country will remain at Alert Level 2 [update]; (viii) August 28, Auckland will join the rest of New Zealand at Alert Level 2 on 31 August, where the country will remain for at least another week [update].