Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Australia 04 04 - Equity support AUD
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. (accessed 22 July 2020); Department of Health. (accessed 30 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. (accessed 19 October 2020); Government of Australia. (accessed 27 October 2020).

March: (i) Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (iv) Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (v) Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (vi) April 26, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (vii) May 8, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (viii) July 14, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (ix) July 30, the government published guidance on wearing face masks; (x) October 16, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months [update]; (xi) October 23, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19 [update].

Austria 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, the measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts. By March 16, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions. For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines. (ii) April 13, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May. By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, and the Bundesliga was allowed to restart. Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since June 1. The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from June 5; (iii) June 15, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) June 16, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) July 24, pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas. In September, this tightening extended to indoors and public institutions.

Belgium 04 04 - Equity support EUR 3,000,000 3,318,584 European Commission. (accessed 7 September 2020).

(i) August 21, European Commission approved the EUR3 million equity injection by the Government to SN Airholding and its sole subsidiary, Brussels Airlines in the context of the coronavirus outbreak.

Belgium 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The minority government-which has been granted enhanced executive powers-has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of the coronavirus, including school and retail shop closures, a ban on all gatherings, limiting movement to essential needs, ban of non-essential travel abroad; (ii) The government has announced a phased conditional on health outcomes. On this basis, manufacturing and business services sectors were reopened on May 4, to be followed by shops (May 11 and May 18). Schools will also start to gradually reopen from May 18. The reopening of other sectors and overseas travel will be assessed by June 8, while sporting events remain banned until July 31; (iii) June 11, Hospitality, cultural, and non-contact sports activities (without audience) as well as religious services were allowed to resume as of June 8. Domestic travel restrictions have been lifted; (iv) June 18, travel restrictions within the Schengen area have also been lifted; (v) July 23, Due to the recent rise in the number of new cases, the government decided to put the 5th phase of reopening on hold, imposed new preventive measures and further decentralized decision making regarding mask wearing to local authorities; (vi) August 20, the government decided to ease some restrictions, while keeping social distancing rules in place until at least end-September. For instance, shopping and events are now permitted; (vii) Schools, except universities, have fully reopened in September, with in-person classes.

Canada 04 04 - Equity support CAD 537,000,000 384,877,262 Department of Finance Canada. (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) CAD287 million to support rural businesses and communities by providing them with much-needed access to capital through the Community Futures Network. (ii) CAD250 million to assist innovative, early-stage companies that are unable to access other COVID-19 business supports through the Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP).

Canada 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CAD International Monetary Fund. (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) Travel restrictions; (ii) Social distancing measures; (iii) Declarations of states of emergency; (iv) Closures of non-essential businesses in some provinces; (v) Reopening the economy. On April 28, Prime Minister Trudeau released a joint statement with premiers across Canada on their shared public health approach to support restarting the economy; all provinces have begun to implement plans to reopen.

Denmark 04 04 - Equity support DKK 17,437,889,398 2,581,659,486 IMF. (accessed 8 July 2020). European Commission. (accessed 22 July 2020)

(i) April 18, DKK3.5 billion in loans and equity provided to entrepreneurs and venture firms. The state investment fund (Vaekstfonden) will provide risky capital to start-ups and venture firm, facing difficulties in financing as private investors withdraw from the market. Available in 2020 only; (ii) June 15, DKK10 billion from a new government-backed fund to act as an investor of last resort with the possibility of recapitalizing large and important firms at risk of bankruptcy; (iii) Together with Sweden, planned recapitalization of SAS (a Dutch airline) through an equity injection. Last August 17, the European Commission (EC) approved this measure. Denmark is expected to provide approximately EUR583 million of the recapitalization funds.

Denmark 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures DKK IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 21 May 2020). The Local Denmark. (accessed 8 September 2020)

(i) People returning from abroad are strongly encouraged to self-quarantine for two weeks. Borders have been closed and entry are only allowed for citizens and others with a critical reason to enter (e.g. work or visit sick family member). EU border restrictions apply as well. Borders remain fully open to transport of goods and capital flows. Air traffic is de facto shut down. All schools, childcare and education facilities were closed, but have gradually begun reopening as of May 20. Teaching continues through online distance learning platforms. The government has banned gatherings of more than 10 people (inside as well as outside), except in work places. Only food stores, pharmacies and stores allowing sufficient physical distance are allowed to remain open. All restaurants, bars and cultural premises as well personal services not allowing sufficient physical distance (e.g. hairdressers) are required to close; (ii) The authorities announced careful and gradual lift of some containment measures such as the opening of daycares, kindergartens and schools (up to 5th grade) by April 15 while others remain in place till May (e.g. no events with more than 10 people, closure of borders) and August (e.g. large gatherings). The gradual opening of the economy was extended to include additional health care sectors and liberal professions. The authorities adjusted the criteria for COVID-19 testing to enable a comprehensive testing of the population as part of the reopening strategy. As of October 8, all current restrictions will be in place until October 31. As of October 26, Denmark has reduced the maximum number of people who are allowed to gather in public from 50 to 10, subject to exemptions for essential activities, etc. This measure will be initially effective for 4 weeks. [update]

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group.

European Union 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 29 April 2020).

Most European countries have taken several containment measures ranging from lockdowns and travel restrictions to school closures and bans on large gatherings. Measures that favor teleworking were also widely implemented. The European Commission presented guidelines for exit strategies and called for a common framework across member states. The criteria include: (i) sustained reduction and stabilization of new cases, (ii) sufficient health system capacity such as adequate hospital beds, pharmaceutical products, and equipment, and (iii) appropriate monitoring capacity to quickly detect and isolate infected individuals as well as to trace contacts. The Commission invited Schengen Member States and Schengen Associated States to extend the temporary restriction on non-essential travel to the EU until 15 June and presented further guidance on a gradual lifting of border restrictions .

Finland 04 04 - Equity support EUR 710,500,000 785,951,327 MEE. (accessed 3 May 2020); (accessed 9 June 2020); European Sting. (accessed 15 June 2020); Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland. (accessed 19 June 2020).

(i) June 6, Further capital funding of EUR250 million is proposed for Tesi (Finnish Industry Investment Ltd), to increase equity financing for companies ; (ii) June 6, Capital funding of EUR 150 million is proposed for strengthening the balance sheet of Finnish Minerals Group ; (iii) June 10, The EU Commission approved Finland's plans to contribute to the recapitalisation of Finnair, amounting to EUR286 million through the subscription of new shares by the State in the rights issue launched by Finnair on 10 June 2020 in the context of the coronavirus outbreak ; (iv) June 15, EUR24.5 million of investment support for NordFuel Oy's Haapevesi biorefinery project for large renewable energy demo projects .

Finland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (1 May 2020); IMF. (acccessed 13 August 2020); IMF. (accessed 3 October 2020); (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. (accessed 31 October 2020).

March 16, the government invoked the Emergency Powers Act, which was used to close borders, restrict domestic movements, and expand service obligations of essential health-, social services-, and security personnel. Restrictions to and from the region of Helsinki were lifted on April 14. On May 4, the government announced a plan to lift broad restrictions in favor of more targeted containment measures, including: on May 14, resumption of primary and lower secondary school and cross-border movement of essential traffic; on June 1, reopening of restaurants and public facilities and limits on public gatherings increased from 10 to 50 people; on July 31, resumption of public events with more than 500 people. Effective June 16, the government repealed the use of powers under the Emergency Powers Act, declaring that the country is no longer in a state of emergency. Barring any significant setbacks, the restrictions on gatherings will be lifted altogether on October 1. On June 23, the government announced the lifting of internal border control and restrictions on traffic between Finland and countries with similar incidence of COVID-19 with a limit value of 8 new cases per 100,000 persons in the previous 14 days. As of July 13, travel between Finland and non-EU countries on the ‘green list’ approved by the Council of the European Union will be permitted subject to restrictions which depend on the incidence of COVID-19. On August 13, the government adopted resolutions on recommendations for wearing face coverings and face masks, and for remote work. On August 18, the government reinstated travel restrictions on traffic between Finland and several countries based on their 14-day incidence rates. This is in addition to entry restrictions for three countries introduced on August 6. The government adopted on September 11 a decision to continue internal border checks and restrictions on border traffic, which entered into force on September 19 and will continue through October 18. The government also adopted a resolution on a hybrid strategy for cross-border traffic and travel which requires a rapid increase in cross-border testing capacity and analysis by 10,000 tests/day. This would allow a more flexible approach to border restrictions. On September 24, the government reintroduced travel restrictions between Finland and several Schengen area countries. The government has imposed new restrictions starting October 22 on the opening and licensing hours of food and beverage service businesses [update].

France 04 04 - Equity support EUR 22,270,000,000 24,634,955,752 OECD. (update as of 14 May 2020); Economie. (accessed 4 July 2020).

(i) EUR20 billion for the temporary increase in state-ownership for some firms facing exceptional difficulties; (ii) June 5, EUR150 million worth of investment funds for companies developing sovereign technologies of the future whose risk associated with investment is high (quantum, health, cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, etc.) and of start-ups at any stage of development; (iii) EUR200 million equity support to SMEs in the aeronautics sector ; (iv) EUR1.3 billion equity investments in the tourism industry ; (v) EUR270 million to EUR620 million equity support under the Programme de soutien à l’innovation majeure PSIM (EUR120 million) & French Tech Souveraineté (EUR150 million, extendable up to a maximum of EUR500 million).

France 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 21 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 3 October 2020); Politico EU. (accessed 15 October 2020); Politico EU. (accessed 31 October 2020).

The government has implemented a range of measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19, including school closures, the ban of all non-essential outings and long-distance travel, and the introduction of night-time curfews in some cities. On May 11, France started to gradually ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Internal travel restrictions have also been relaxed and the use of masks is obligatory for public transport. As of May 11, France started to ease the containment measures, beginning with the reopening of primary schools, shops, and industry, on a differentiated regional basis. Most major domestic restrictions were lifted as of June 22. Internal and intra-European travel restrictions have also been lifted. In response to the recent uptick in infections, limits on large gatherings have been extended until the end of October, testing ramped up, and mask mandates tightened with the use of masks obligatory in most public spaces and indoor areas (including workplaces). A digital contact tracing application was launched by the government on June 2. In response to the recent uptick in infections, limits on large gatherings have been extended until the end of October, testing ramped up, and mask mandates tightened with the use of masks obligatory in most public spaces and indoor areas (including schools and workplaces). Selective regional restrictions have also been imposed in high-infection areas including Paris. October 14, announced a curfew in nine major urban centers starting 16 October as a new state of health emergency was declared to combat a second wave of coronavirus infections. A curfew will apply to the Paris region and eight major urban centers: Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Aix-Marseille, Rouen, Montpellier, St Etienne and Toulouse. October 28, announced a national lockdown starting 30 October, with many businesses, including restaurants and bars, to be closed. Schools, public services and some factories will remain open [update].

Germany 04 04 - Equity support EUR 112,000,000,000 123,893,805,310 Federal Ministry of Finance. (accessed 17 April 2020); Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. (accessed 17 April 2020); Bruegel. (accessed 16 April 2020); Deutsche Welle. (accessed 17 April 2020); Finance Yahoo. (accessed 25 May 2020); Federal Ministry of Finance. (accessed 31 May 2020).

(i) March 23, EUR100 billion under the WSF to directly acquire equity of larger affected companies and strengthen their capital position. May 25, Lufthansa gets a EUR9 billion support, of which EUR6 billion will be equity; (ii) April 1, EUR2 billion to expand venture capital financing to start-ups, new technology companies, and small businesses during the coronavirus crisis; and (iii) EUR10 billion fund by the state of Bavaria to buy stakes in struggling companies.

Germany 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. (accessed 11 April 2020, 15 May 2020, 21 May 2020, 16 July 2020) ; DW (accessed 8 May 2020); BBC. (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 4 June 2020); Reuters. (accessed 30 July 2020); Daily Sabah. (accessed 4 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 8 August 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 29 August 2020); Reuters. (accessed 15 October 2020); (accessed 23 October 2020); Die Bundesregierung. (accessed 23 October 2020).

(i) Contact ban for meetings of more than two individuals in public, with exemption for household members, have been decided on March 22 across the country, extended until at least May 4 on April 15. The Federal States of Bavaria, Saarland, and Saxony have introduced stricter lockdowns; (ii) Reintroduction of border controls at the internal Schengen borders to France, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Denmark, Italy, Spain, and Austria, with restriction on entry since March 16 and 19. Goods and commuters are allowed to cross the border. On April 2, the government agreed to exceptionally allow seasonal agricultural workers to enter the country under strict requirements after seasonal workers have generally been denied entry from March 25 onward. Travel warning for all countries in place until the end of April. In accordance with the decision at the European level, individuals from outside the EU, with few exceptions, cannot enter the country for at least 30 days starting March 18; (iii) Most schools and day care centers are closed until mid-April; (iv) Restaurants are closed. Nonessential stores, leisure, and cultural facilities have been closed since March 15 and 16. Larger events were cancelled until end-August; (v) May 10, The contact ban for meetings in public decided on March 22 has been extended until June 5 but eased such that multiple members of two households can meet in public; (vi) May 10, Travel warning for all countries initially in place until the end of April has been extended until at least mid-June; (vii) A gradual reopening of stores began on April 20. Some states have allowed reopening of restaurants from May 8 onwards. Other states will follow gradually over the course of May including the re-opening of hotels; (viii) May 6, Border controls to neighboring countries will be gradually lifted; (ix) May 28, Control of lifting the downlockdown lies on the federal states. Shops are allowed to reopen and schools have been partially reopened. Border controls were eased on May 15 with Austria, France and Switzerland and will be lifted on June 15. Big public events like festivals are banned until at least the end of August. Social distancing rules extended until June 29; (x) June 3, Germany will lift a travel ban for European Union member states plus Britain, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Switzerland from 15 June as long as there are no entry bans or large-scale lockdowns in those countries; (xi) June 16, The government launched a Corona-Warn app that allows users to trace potential contact with COVID-infected individuals. Its use is voluntary; (xii) June 17, Containment measures re-imposed in two municipalities in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia after a resurgence in new COVID-19 cases (“emergency brake"). Restrictions were eased on 6 July; (xiii) July, A general contact restriction of keeping distance and wearing masks in stores and public transport should continue until further notice; (xiv) July 29, Free and compulsory coronavirus testing begins at Berlin's Tegel airport. Other airports such as Frankfurt have been offering tests over the previous weeks, but additional preparations are being made to test passengers arriving from countries deemed high risk; (xv) August 3, New school year begins with children returning to school in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania region. Germany's 16 states had agreed that schools will reopen full-time after the summer break; (xvi) August 8, Mandatory corona tests for returnees from risk areas begins. Tests are free for the travelers; (xvii) August 27, Returnees from risk areas should be able to end their quarantine at the earliest with a test from the fifth day after their return. The federal states will set the minimum fine for violations of the mask requirement of at least EUR50. There is a ban on major events, where contact tracking and compliance with hygiene regulations, are not possible until at least the end of 2020; (xviii) October 9, The prime minister and mayors from 11 cities agreed to impose stricter measures if infections exceed a threshold of 50 cases per 100,000 population in a week; (xix) October 22, The Federal Foreign Office has issued travel warnings for other regions in Europe due to the increased number of COVID-19 cases. All of Poland and Switzerland as well as large parts of Italy and almost all of Austria are designated as risk areas, effective October 24 [update].

Ireland 04 04 - Equity support EUR 2,012,000,000 2,225,663,717 DBEI. (accessed 9 May 2020); DBEI. (accessed 26 July 2020); Government of Ireland. file:///C:/Users/m29/Downloads/81556_d4fa4cc4-7e9f-4431-8540-a9ecb7126505.pdf (accessed 26 July 2020).

(i) EUR2 billion Pandemic Stabilisation and Recovery Fund within the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF), which will make capital available to medium and large enterprises on commercial terms; (ii) July 7, Enterprise Ireland EUR2 million Competitive Start Fund will open to applications for two competitionswhich will approve up to forty investments – the ‘All Sectors’ competition and a ‘Women Entrepreneurs’ Competition. Each of the two EUR1,000,000 funds being launched will provide up to EUR50,000 in equity funding to successful projects ; (iii) EUR10 million in funding for the Seed and Venture Capital sector through Enterprise Ireland as a top-up to existing funds and leveraging a combined additional pool of investment of EUR55 million, as part of commitment to innovation driven enterprises.

Ireland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 10 October 2020); IMF. (accessed 31 October 2020).

The government has implemented a wide range of health and containment measures. On March 27, the government has issued strict restrictions on business activity, social distancing and travel - everyone is to stay at home wherever possible with only few exceptions i) to travel to or from work for those providing an essential service; ii) shop for food and medicines; iii) to carry out vital services like caring; iv) brief individual exercise within 2km; v) farming. These measures were extended until May 5th, additionally the government has announced that events with over 5,000 people will not be permitted until the end of August. The authorities have started a five-phase reopening on May 18. Phase (1) included the return of outdoor workers, and small groups of family and friends were permitted to meet in the open; in phase (2) effective as of June 8, small retail outlets and marts where social distancing is possible reopened. With declining infections and increased testing, the authorities have accelerated the initial reopening plan: in phase (3), which took effect on June 29, most businesses have reopened with social distancing measures put in place; in phase (4) effective as of July 20, envisages a continued phased return to work across all sectors. The final phase was delayed due to the rebound in community transmission. Recently government adapted a medium-term national framework for living with Covid-19. It consists of five levels depending on the pandemic indicators, with lower level having less social restriction. On October 5, the level of restrictions was raised from 2 to 3 due to a surge in new cases (infection incidence rate has tripled from 31 to 109 per 100,000 in the last two weeks), implying traveling restrictions outside county/region, a ban on indoor gatherings and sport events, additional restrictions on restaurants and bars . On October 19, the government made a decision to move to the highest level 5 restrictions from the level 3 introduced on October 5 due to a surge in new cases. This implies traveling restrictions within 5 km, closure of non-essential retail and personal services, a ban on indoor/outdoor gatherings, restaurants and bars can only offer take-away, construction and manufacturing will be allowed to operate, schools and childcare centers will remain open [update].

Italy 04 04 - Equity support EUR 45,000,000,000 49,778,761,062 MEF. (accessed 21 July 2020).

(i) May 15, EUR45 billion in equity support for companies under the Relaunch Decree.

Italy 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020); IMF. (accesssed 10 October 2020); Politico EU. (accessed 2 November 2020).

The nation-wide lockdown, announced in early March, was extended until May 3. Travel is restricted and public gathering are banned. All schools and universities remain shut. Non-essential productive activities are closed across the country, with exceptions for supermarket and grocery stores, pharmacies, banks, public transport and essential public services. The nation-wide lockdown expired on May 4. Since then, manufacturing and construction reopened under new safety rules (e.g., staggered shifts, spaced workstation, temperature checks, masks). The government moved forward some of the reopening plans. In addition to retail shops, restaurants, cafes and hairdressers reopened on May 18 (the initial reopening plan was June 1). Sports facilities reopened on May 25, followed by cinemas and theatres on June 15. Regional governments are allowed the discretion to adjust the dates in both direction. People can now travel within their own region, and mobility restrictions across regions has been lifted on June 3, when international borders also reopen without restriction to and from other EU countries. Following the increase in confirmed cases beginning in early August, the government reintroduced some containment measures, including closing night clubs, capacity limits at cultural sites. Mask wearing in public places (both in and outdoors) is required through end January 2021. Fines were raised for those who do not follow anti-contagion and quarantine rules. Rapid Covid tests are required for travelers coming back from a number of countries in Europe, and have been authorized for use in schools to identify and quarantine infected individuals, thereby avoiding the need to close entire schools. October 8, The Minister of Health, Roberto Speranza, has signed a new Ordinance, which provides for urgent measures to contain and manage the current health emergency. In particular, the Ordinance provides for the obligation of molecular or antigenic testing for those coming from or transiting in some European countries at greater risk for Covid-19 in the 14 days prior to entry into Italy, and the obligation to communicate entry into Italy to the Department of Prevention of the Local Health Authority; the extension to October 15 of the Ordinances of September 21 and September 25, 2020 . October 25, The Italian government on adopted a raft of new measures aimed at curbing a spike in new coronavirus cases, which have been doubling every week for three weeks. Under the new rules, bars and restaurants must close at 6 p.m., and can stay open later only for takeaway service. A maximum of four people can sit at a table together. Consuming food and drinks in public places will also be banned from 6 p.m. Cinemas, theaters, swimming pools, gyms have to close, although museums can remain open. Gatherings for weddings, baptisms and funerals are banned, as are all events and fairs. Distance learning will be applied in high schools for at least 75 percent of students. Working remotely is strongly encouraged. Home visits from people other than relatives are strongly discouraged, as is leaving home for reasons other than work, study, health and emergencies. The measures enter into place from Monday and will last until November 24 [update].

Japan 04 04 - Equity support JPY 12,180,000,000,000 113,521,070,501 IMF. (accessed 6 May 2020); OECD. (accessed 6 May 2020).

An increase in the annual pace of the Bank of Japan’s purchases of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) and Japan-Real Estate Investment Trusts (J-REITs) up to about JPY12 trillion (2.2% of GDP) and JPY180 billion (0.03% of GDP), respectively.

Japan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures JPY IMF. (accessed 6 May 2020). NHK. (accessed 15 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 21 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 25 May). Reuters. (accessed 2 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. (accessed 11 June 2020). Reuters. (accessed 18 June 2020). euters. (accessed 19 June 2020). Nikkei Asian Review. (accessed 1 September 2020). Nikkei Asia. (accessed 7 October 2020).

April 7: (i) Prime Minister Abe declared a state of emergency for seven key prefectures in Japan (including Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Osaka, Hyogo, and Fukuoka) effective from April 8 to May 6 (which, as of May 4, has since been extended until May 31); the declaration will enable prefectural governors in the designated areas to request people to stay at home, order closures of schools and public facilities, build temporary medical facilities, and adopt actions to support medical and food supplies. (ii) The 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games have been postponed to July 23–August 8, 2021. May 13: (iii) The Prime Minister has lifted the state of emergency ahead of schedule in 39 prefectures and kept it in place for 8 others including Tokyo (the lifting of which will be decided on May 21). May 21: (iv) The government lifted the state of emergency in Osaka, Kyoto, and Hyogo while keeping it in place for Tokyo and four other prefectures. (v) The government announced the lifting of the state of emergency for Tokyo and four remaining prefectures by June 1. May 25. (vi) June 2, Tokyo issued a stay-home alert after a jump in new virus infections. On June 11, the alert was lifted and authorities announced a lifting of all business restrictions on June 19. On June 19, all restrictions on domestic travel were also lifted and gatherings of up to 1,000 people in indoor/outdoor events were allowed; domestic travel was also encouraged to support the economy. (vii) June 18, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe announced that the country would ease travel restrictions for people coming from Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and Vietnam. On September 1, The government lifted the reentry ban for all foreign residents who left the country after travel bans were imposed. On October 7, Authorities announced the lifting of mandatory 14-day quarantine for reentering business travelers with residency status and action plans of travel.

Luxembourg 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Luxembourg 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. (accessed 19 April 2020); IMF. (accessed 30 September 2020). KPMG. (accessed 21 May 2020).

(i) People have been encouraged to self-isolate and should only leave the house for essential activities such as food shopping, going to work (note: working-from-home if possible), going to doctors and to help vulnerable people; (ii) All public gatherings are prohibited; (iii) All cultural and recreational events (incl. sport events) are suspended; (iv) All schools, universities and kindergartens have been closed since 16 March, until at least 4 May 2020; (v) On April 15, the government announced a multiphase lockdown exit strategy, with phases comprising activities/tentative opening dates as follows: phase 1-construction sites and selected activities-including craft, landscaping, and recycling services (April 20); Phase 2-secondary education (May 11); Phase 3: basic education and childcare facilities (May 25); later phases-commercial activities and the hospitality sector (dates to be determined); (vi) To achieve a well-sequenced lifting of the lockdown restrictions and avoid a second wave of Covid-19 infections, the government envisages to perform large-scale testing on a voluntary basis, including cross-border commuters; (vii) May 20, The Luxembourg Ministry for the Economy has set-up a hotline and website with information for enterprises, which includes a FAQ on existing measures for companies, including SMEs (financial support and partial employment); (viii) July 16, Mandatory face masks for both public and private gatherings of more than 20 people in case physical distance of 2 meters cannot be guaranteed; (ix) July 16, Fines for customers of bars and restaurants if they disregard the precautionary measures; (x) September 4, the government announced a plan for school reopening, including more autonomy for schools to implement specific measures depending on the local health situation; (xi) September 22, the government extended restrictive measures until year-end and introduced new measures that include: (a) reducing the isolation period for infected people with; (b) allowing the processing of personal data that will be kept for a period of three months and then anonymized; and (c) making it mandatory for airlines to automatically transfer to health authorities forms completed by passengers to facilitate contact tracing.

Netherlands 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Netherlands 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR IMF. (accessed 29 October 2020). OECD. (accessed 20 July 2020). Rijksoverheid. (accessed 13 August 2020)

(i) The authorities have taken measures to limit the spread of the virus, including ordering closure of schools and many catering businesses, and advising to avoid social contact and work from home to the extent possible; (ii) As the number of new infections and death continue to decline, the Dutch government is laying down a progressive easing of the lockdown measures; (iii) Starting on May 11, and under strict conditions, childcare services and primary schools will be allowed to reopen, as well as some businesses (including for example hairdressers and nail stylists). The authorities have stressed that further relaxation of the containment measures will follow only to the extent that the spread of virus remains contained; (iv) Starting on June 1, secondary schools and more businesses (e.g. restaurants and cafes, cultural institutions) will also reopen; (v) As of June 15, tourists from EU or Schengen countries can enter the Netherlands. However, tourists from Sweden and the United Kingdom should go into quarantine for 14 days. Tourists must reserve their holiday accommodation before they travel to the Netherlands; (vi) Starting July 1, gatherings of more than 100 people in a closed space will be allowed, and no limit on occupancy will be imposed on cinemas, cafés and restaurants. Social distancing requirements will remain in place, however. (vii) The Netherlands will reinstate the entry ban for Morocco from 13 August 2020; (viii) August 6, the Dutch government introduced new nationwide measures to curb the spread, including compulsory testing at Schiphol airport and mandatory temporary closing of entertainment businesses experiencing an outbreak; (ix) After initially loosening restrictions on September 25, the government reinstated a partial lockdown on October 14, mandating the closure of most businesses, a ban on mass gatherings, and encouraging work-from-home setups. [update]

New Zealand 04 04 - Equity support NZD
New Zealand 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NZD IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); RBNZ. (accessed on 14 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. (accessed 20 May 2020); NZ Government COVID-19 official website. (accessed 10 June 2020); Government of New Zealand. (accessed 16 July 2020); New Zealand Government. (accessed 24 August 2020); Department of the Treasury. (accessed 28 August 2020); Department of Education. (accessed 10 September 2020); New Zealand Government. (accessed 15 September 2020).

April: (i) Social distancing measures and closure of all non-essential businesses, cancellation of all events and gatherings, closure of schools, and cancellation of discretionary domestic air travel; (ii) Closing of the borders to all but New Zealand citizens, who must self-isolate for at least 14 days upon entry; and (iii) The government announced that New Zealand will move to Alert Level 3 starting April 27, 11:59pm, allowing many businesses to re-open, though without physical contact to customers, and schools to re-open with limited capacity; (iv) May 14, New Zealand moved to Alert Level 2; (iv) May 20, The Ministry of Health has released the NZ COVID Tracer app to support contact tracing in New Zealand; (v) June 9, The government announced that New Zealand has moved to Alert Level 1 starting June 8, where everyone can return without restriction to work, school, sports, and domestic travel, and can get together with as many people. Controls at the borders remain for those entering New Zealand, including health screening and testing for all arrivals, and mandatory 14-day managed quarantine or isolation; (vi) July 15, The government launched the “Stamp it Out” plan for responding to new cases, which includes several scenarios and their impacts on individuals, businesses, and other organizations such as schools; (vii) August 24, Due to new confirmed cases, the government announced that Auckland will stay at Alert Level 3 until 11:59pm on 30 August, while the rest of the country will remain at Alert Level 2; (viii) August 28, Auckland will join the rest of New Zealand at Alert Level 2 on 31 August, where the country will remain for at least another week; (ix) September 10, The Ministry of Education and the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA) are making changes to National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) this year, i.e. adjustments on the requirements and examination schedule, to help mitigate the impact of COVID-19; (x) September 14, The Government has announced that New Zealand will remain at Alert Level 2.

Norway 04 04 - Equity support NOK
Norway 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures NOK Source: OECD. (accessed 12 April 2020; 8 May 2020; 15 May 2020). Noway, (Accesssed 29 October 2020).

(i) Restrictions on stays outside resident municipality; (ii) 2. Border control measures included substantial restrictions on incoming foreigners; (iii) Schools and universities closed from 13 March to 13 April.; (iv) Curtailment of public events/gatherings; (iv) Reopening of daycare centres is scheduled progressively between the 20th and 27th April and reopening of primary schools and out-of-school programmes is scheduled for 27th April; (v) All schools and universities have reopened by May 8; (vi) October 26, new national restrictions on labour immigration. [update]

Portugal 04 04 - Equity support EUR 55,000,000 60,840,708 Government of Portugal. (accessed 04 July 2020)

July 2, EUR55 million, government will buy shares of TAP (airline) reaching 72.5% in its capital.

Portugal 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. (accessed 12 April 2020, 30 April 2020, 9 May 2020).

(i) Public containment has been implemented on the 19th of March after the announcement of the State of Emergency on the 18th of March; (ii) Border control with Spain through mutual agreement started on 17th of March. Suspended air, rail, and river connections; (iii) Suspension of all face-to-face school activities (teaching and non-teaching) from 16th of March to be reassessed on 9th of April; (iv) Closure of non-essential shops, and all national monuments and places of cultural activities (both public and private); (v) classes restarted on April 14 for high school, while TV schooling for primary education; (vi) From May 4, confinement measures have been eased. Small street shops, hairdressers, bookstores and car dealerships can reopen.

Spain 04 04 - Equity support EUR 10,000,000,000 11,061,946,903 La Moncloa. (accessed 12 July 2020); Ministerio de Hacienda. (accessed 30 July 2020); European Commission. (accessed 8 August 2020).

July 3, Creation of a Fund to Support the Solvency of Strategic Companies. This is a new instrument with a provision of EUR10 billion that seeks to provide temporary public support to enhance the solvency of non-financial companies affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, within the framework of the Agreement on Economic Reactivation and Employment. This Fund will be attached to the Ministry of the Treasury and will be managed by the State Company for Industrial Participations (SEPI). The Fund will be structured through different instruments, such as the concession of equity loans, the acquisition of subordinated debt and the subscription of shares and other capital instruments. The amount of the dividends, interest and capital gains from these investments will be paid in to the Public Treasury. July 21, The companies benefiting from the EUR10 billion solvency support may not distribute dividends and the members of the Board of Directors will be prohibited from collecting variable premiums or remuneration. July 31, The European Commission approves the EUR10 billion Solvency Support Fund to provide debt and capital support to companies affected by the coronavirus outbreak.

Spain 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR OECD. (accessed 12 April 2020; 14 May 2020; 21 May 2020; 2 July 2020, 16 July 2020); El Pais. (accessed 28 May 2020); El Pais. (accessed 28 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 1 June 2020); Murcia Today. (accessed 8 June 2020); Reuters. (accessed 15 June 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 20 July 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 17 August 2020); El Pais. (accessed 27 August 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 28 August 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 9 September 2020); GOV.UK. (accessed 14 September 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 1 October 2020); La Moncloa; La Moncloa. (accessed 14 October 2020); La Moncloa. (accessed 28 October 2020).

(i) Mandated nationwide quarantine for at least 15 days since March 15, gradually extended until May 9th; (ii) Suspension of all nonessential work from March 30 to April 9, inclusive; (iii) Land borders are closed except for Spanish citizens, residents and land transportation of goods (March 16); (iv) Mar 23, Airport and port border restrictions have been introduced for 30 days, extended to May 15 (April 21); (v) March 11, Ban on direct flights from Italy, except for flights transporting Spanish citizens or residents; (vi) Closure of schools nationwide since March 12; (vii) March 26, Closure of hotels, all retail spaces, except those selling food and essential items, closure of restaurant , which will only be able to maintain food delivery services, museums, libraries, public show venues. Sport events and local celebration events have been suspended; (viii) Mandated nation-wide lockdown until May 10th. State of emergency will continue until May 24th; (ix) Plan for gradual transition: (a) Phase 0 (from May 4): Preparation phase, ability to go outside for exercise and walks, individual training for professional sportsmen, reopen small businesses that can take bookings (restaurants that offer take-way food and places, and hardware stores) and hairdressers, (b) Phase 1 (from May 10): Interregional trips not allowed until end-June but mobility within regions allowed; gatherings of up to 10 people with social distancing rules, open up sidewalk cafes (30% of capacity limit) and hotels (except common areas) and religious sites (30% capacity limit). Public transport capacity will rise to 80%, (c) Phase 2 (at least 2 weeks after Phase 1): Open up bars and restaurants with inside seating, cinemas, theatres, monuments and exhibition centers (30% capacity limit), allow cultural events such as concerts (1/3 capacity), outdoor events up to 400 people, if seated. Visit to people in homes with disabilities, but not the elderly. Schools will not open fully until September, but schools will offer classes to children under the age of six if parents require it to be able to go to work and so that students can complete their university entrance exams. Open shopping centers (except recreational areas), (d) Phase 3 (at least 2 weeks after Phase 2, likely mid-June): Relaxation of mobility restrictions further, visit senior homes (under some yet to be set conditions), open bars, cinemas and theatres (50% capacity limit), allow shoppers to enter shops (with limits on capacity of 50%, 2 meter social distancing rules), and (e) Phase 4 (the new normality stage, likely end-June): End of social and economic restrictions. Mobility across regions, public transport capacity will rise to 100%; (x) According to the gradual deconfinement plan, announced on April 28, schools will not open fully until September, but in phase 2 of the plan, schools will offer classes to children under the age of six if parents require it to be able to go to work and so that students can complete their university entrance exams; (xi) Phase 1 (from May 10 in certain regions, around 51% of the Spanish population): Interregional trips not allowed until end-June but mobility within regions allowed; gatherings of up to 10 people with social distancing rules, open up hotels (except common areas), restaurant terraces (50% capacity), places of worship (30% capacity) and museums (30% capacity). Cultural events of under 30 people indoors (30% capacity) and cultural events less than 200 people outside. Isolation of people who are diagnosed or with symptoms and those in contact with someone diagnosed or with symptoms. Timetable for taking walks and other exercises (to be set by regions). Open up small businesses less than 400 square meters (30% capacity, 2-meter social distancing rules). Educational centers and universities open for disinfection and administrative functions. Scientific seminars of less than 30 people allowed. Active and nature tourism activities allowed up to 10 people; (xii) In line with the gradual deconfinement plan, some regions entering Phase 1 are slowly opening up some public places with limited capacity, while others are still in Phase 0 (May 11, 51% of population entered Phase 1) ; (xiii) Obligatory shut down of economic activities. In line with the gradual deconfinement plan, some regions entering Phase 1 are slowly opening up economic activities, while others are still in Phase 0 (May 11, 51% of population entered Phase 1); (xiv) May, Ban on entry from outside the Schengen area extended to June 15. Internal border controls to remain in place until June 15; (xv) May 24-27, All of Spain will be at least be in Phase 1, while some areas will be in Phase 2. The government also announced that it would reopen to international tourists and lift the two-week quarantine for overseas arrivals in July; (xvi) May 31, Lockdown extended until June 21; (xvii) June 8, 52% of Spain will be in phase 3 while 48% will be in phase 2 of the COVID de-escalation process; (xviii) June 14, Spain will reopen its borders on June 21 to visitors from the European Union and the open-border Schengen area; (xix) July 1, Opened borders with Portugal. Travelers from 15 countries allowed (EU level decision); (xx) Since July, some localized restrictions have been imposed on movements or activities.Social distancing requirements, capacity limitations, and hygiene measures at workplaces remain in place, including mandatory use of masks in closed spaces and on streets when a safety distance of 1.5 meters cannot be maintained; (xxi) July 7, The Royal Decree on the economic reactivation measures to face the impact of Covid-19 in the areas of transport and housing includes provisions to for airport managers and airlines to implement management measures for passengers and civil aviation personnel in the face of the pandemic, minimizing the risks of contagion both in airport facilities, as well as during the different stages of the trip, including limiting access to airport terminal buildings; (xxii) July 17, Ministry of Foreign Affairs launches campaign entitled #ViajaSeguro adapted to the limitations imposed by COVID-19 (; (xxiii) August 14, Health and the autonomous communities unanimously agree on coordinated actions to control the transmission of COVID-19 (; (xxiv) August 25, The Madrid region will delay start of classes, temporarily hire nearly 11,000 teachers, and do 100,000 coronavirus antibody tests for staff; (xxv) August 27, The government and autonomous communities have agreed that in general, the teaching activity will be face-to-face for all levels and stages of the education system. They reiterate the need to resume face-to-face educational activity, by adopting a series of prevention, hygiene and health promotion measures that guarantee safe return to classrooms; (xxvi) September 8, The Ministry of Health has launched the institutional campaign #EstoNoEsUnJuego aimed at reinforcing compliance with protection measures against COVID-19; (xxvii) September 14, New laws prohibiting social gatherings of more than six people come into effect; (xxviii) September 29, The Government has approved the Royal Decree-Law on urgent measures regarding teleworking in public administrations [update]; (xxix) September 30, The Government and the Autonomous Communities agree on coordinated actions in public health to control Covid-19 infections ( [update]; (xxx) October 9, The Council of Ministers decrees the state of alarm to control the pandemic in the most affected territories (; (xxix) October 25, The government decrees a state of alarm to give full constitutional protection to the necessary measures against the pandemic in the autonomous communities [update].

Sweden 04 04 - Equity support SEK 5,000,000,000 508,370,317 Ministry of Trade and Industry. (accessed 9 July 2020). European Commission. (accessed 22 August 2020).

June 30, The Government will participate in the recapitalization of SAS AB with an amount of no more than SEK5 billion. The government supports the submitted plan for a recapitalization of the company and the measures necessary to implement the plan. August 17, The measure to recaptalize SAS was approved by the European Commission.

Sweden 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures SEK OECD. (accessed 19 April, 25 June 2020); Ministry of Finance. (accessed 21 May 2020); Reuters. (accessed 19 June 2020); Ministry of Justice. (accessed 9 July 2020); The Local SE. (accessed 30 July 2020); Regeringskansliet. (accessed 13 August 2020); Reuters. (accessed 16 September 2020); Regeringskansliet. (accessed 29 October 2020); Regeringskansliet. (accessed 29 October 2020).

(i) March 14, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs advised against non-essential travel to all countries; (ii) Many secondary schools and universities have switched to distance learning; (iii) Relatives should avoid "unnecessary visits" to hospitals from April 1, and a ban on visiting elderly care institutions is imposed; (iv) Events with more than 50 persons are banned since March 27; (v) May 14, The temporary entry ban began to apply on March 19 and initially applied for 30 days. It was subsequently extended until May 15 in accordance with the recommendation of the Commission. The Government has now decided on a further extension of the entry ban until 15 June; (vi) June 13, Public transport where a place cannot be booked should be avoided; (vii) June 17, The Foreign Ministry announced that it will lift its advice against non-essential travel to 10 European countries (Greece, Croatia, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, France, Iceland, Belgium, Switzerland and Luxembourg) from June 30. For other European countries, the advice against non-essential travel will remain; (viii) July 2, Extension of temporary entry ban to Sweden until 31 August 2020 and easing of restrictions for more travellers; (ix) July 30, Sweden has lifted its advice against non-essential travel to four more countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark and Norway, and Switzerland. The ministry's recommendations against non-essential travel to other countries in the EU, EEA and Schengen area, as well as the UK, were extended until August 12; (x) August 13, The advice against unnecessary travel to Liechtenstein and Austria is lifted. Advice against non-essential travel to other countries within the EU, the EEA (European Economic Area) and the Schengen area as well as the United Kingdom is extended until August 26; (xi) September 15, Sweden will lift the ban on visits to care homes; (xii) October 22, The government has decided that public dance events for more than 50 people will again be banned [update]; (xiii) October 22, The temporary entry ban to the EU via Sweden will be extended until 22 December 2020 [update].

Switzerland 04 04 - Equity support CHF/CHE/CHW
Switzerland 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures CHF/CHE/CHW OECD. (accessed 13 April 2020); IMF. (accessed 19 April 2020, 14 May 2020, 25 June 2020). Federal Council. (accessed 22 October 2020). Federal Council. (accessed 29 October 2020)

(i) Gatherings in public spaces of more than five people are prohibited; (ii) The Federal Council has banned public and private events; (iii) Classroom teaching is banned at schools, universities and other training and educational institutions. The ban will apply until 19 April 2020; (iv) People from high-risk countries and areas will be refused entry into Switzerland; (v) On March 16, the government declared a ban on all private and public events and closing bars, restaurants, sports and cultural spaces; (vi) While protective and relief measures continue to be rolled out or amended, the authorities also announced a plan to gradually reopen the economy starting from the week of April 27; (vii) June 15, Covid-19 related entry restrictions were lifted for all EU/EFTA states and the United Kingdom: (viii) October 21, restrictions on private events, no gatherings in public of more than 15 people; masks mandatory in more areas and working from home recommended; [update] (ix) October 28, Further measures to contain the epidemic: (a) discos and nightclubs will have to shut, while bars and restaurants will close at 11pm; (b) all events with more than 50 people, and recreational sporting and cultural activities with more than 15 people will be prohibited; (c) requirement to wear masks will be extended to an additional range of situations. [update]