Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 04 04 - Equity support AFN
Afghanistan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AFN IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) The government has taken steps to replace wheat imports lost due to border closures with purchases from Central Asia; (ii) On 15 July 2020, trade with India through Wagah border post in Pakistan resumed.

Arab Republic of Egypt 04 04 - Equity support EGP 20,000,000,000 1,272,671,633 OECD. (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 7 May 2020).

EGP20 billion stock-purchase program has been launched by the Central Bank.

Arab Republic of Egypt 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EGP 11,786,229,548 750,000,000 Central Bank of Egypt.,-2020-regarding-allowing-banks-to-own-unlimited-shares-in-payment-service-providers-and-payment-sys.aspx (accessed 12 August 2020). Egypt Independent. (accessed 22 October 2020). Financial Regulatory Authority Egypt. (accessed 15 October 2020). World Bank. (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) 20 March 2020, The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP30,000/day and EGP100,000/month for individuals, and to EGP40,000/day and EGP200,000/per week for corporations; (ii) 29 March 2020, The central bank set a daily limit on all ATM disbursement per card to be EGP5,000, and limits to cash withdrawal and deposits at a bank branch to be EGP10,000 per individual, and EGP50,000 per corporate; (iii) The cost of transactions in the EGX will be reduced from 0.15% to 0.125% and from 0.15% to 0.05% for non-residents and Egyptian residents, respectively, and all spot transactions on EGX will be exempt from stamp duty; (iv) The National Bank of Egypt and Bank Misr announced a one-year deposit program with a 15% interest rate; (v) 6 August 2020, Allowed banks to own unlimited shares in payment service providers and payment systems operators; (vi) 4 October 2020, The Financial Regulatory Authority reduced the fees for examination and study services owed to the authority by 50% for medium and small companies when they apply for the Authority’s approval when taking steps related to the Egyptian stock exchange (such as preparations for an IPO). The change was aimed at incentivizing SMEs to go to the stock exchange for funding; (vii) 20 October 2020, USD750 million in green bonds (first in Middle East and Africa) to finance expenditures related to green projects addressing the impacts of COVID-19 while also taking into account environmental standards.

Argentina 04 04 - Equity support ARS
Argentina 11 11 - Other Economic Measures ARS Yale. (accessed 9 May 2020, 26 June 2020); IMF. (accessed 27 April 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. (accesed 31 July 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. (accessed 2 October 2020).

(i) Capital Flow Management Measures (CFMs) that were already in place since August 2019 have largely protected Argentina so far from the impact of capital outflows; (ii) Adopted anti-price gouging policies, including price controls for food and medical supplies and ringfencing of essential supplies, including certain export restrictions on medical supplies and equipment and centralization of the sale of essential medical supplies.; (iii) 28 April 2020, Ordered that the Common Investment Funds (FCI) in pesos must invest at least 75% of their assets in financial instruments and negotiable securities issued in the Argentine Republic; (iv) Extended deadline of filing financial statements for small and medium-sized corporations; (v) 16 May 2020, extended validity of Maximum Prices until June 20; (vi) 18 May 2020, suspended price increases mobile and fixed telephony, Internet and pay TV services until August 31; June 18, extended until end of the year ; (v) 19 May 2020, set the domestic price of a barrel of oil at USD45 with the objective of reactivating the national hydrocarbon industry, guaranteeing the continuity of jobs and promoting self-sufficiency; (vi) 18 June 2020, extended the suspension of the closure and disabling of bank accounts until December 31, 2020, inclusive; (vii) 23 July 2020, extension of 15 days for presentation and payment of tax returns on earnings and personal and identity assets.

Armenia 04 04 - Equity support AMD
Armenia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AMD KPMG. (accessed 14 May 2020)

14 May 2020, Temporary restrictions on the export of medical masks, gloves and goggles, biohazard suits, medical robes, antiviral medicines, gauze and other medical products.

Australia 04 04 - Equity support AUD
Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 04 04 - Equity support EUR
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On 18 March 2020, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to 18 May 2020 on 16 April 2020; (ii) No amount/estimate: 18 May 2020, Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day; (iii) 16 June 2020, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.

Azerbaijan 04 04 - Equity support AZN
Azerbaijan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AZN 114,147,378 67,145,516 IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); The Coronavirus Response Fund. (accessed 19 April 2020); Eurasianet. (accessed 19 April 2020); Coronavirus Response Fund. (accessed 23 July 2020).

(i) March 2020, Establishment of the Coronavirus Response Fund under the Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan of 19 March 2020. The government itself is asking for donations from citizens, organizations, and businesses to help it deal with the disease in Azerbaijan. According to President Ilham Aliyev, the basic goal of the fund is for the people of Azerbaijan to within the limits of their capability, demonstrate their civil solidarity and generosity which are foundations of their society. The fund has raised AZN114 million as of 20 July 2020; (ii) April, The CBA and commercial banks have shifted to a seven-day work week, including to allow individuals and businesses to convert their manat holdings into foreign currency; (iii) 23 April 2020, The CBA also announced that it will extend its guarantees on insurance premiums.

Bangladesh 04 04 - Equity support BDT
Bangladesh 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BDT Bangladesh Bank. (accessed 29 June 2020).

BB instructed banks to waive customers interest for the period from 1 April to 31 May based unclassified loan outstanding balance as at 30 March 2020. According to the instruction, loan balance upto BDT 0.1m, waiver the whole amount of interest; loan balance more than BDT 0.1m to BDT 1m interest, interest waiver @2% annually; loan balance more than BDT 1m; interest waiver @1%. Customer wise maximum amount of waiver is BDT 1.2m.

Belgium 04 04 - Equity support EUR 3,000,000 3,318,584 European Commission. (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) 21 August 2020, European Commission approved the EUR3 million equity injection by the Government to SN Airholding and its sole subsidiary, Brussels Airlines in the context of the coronavirus outbreak.

Belgium 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Federale Overheidsdienst Financiën. (accessed 2 June 2020). Financial Services and Market Authority. (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. (accessed 15 April 2020); OECD. (accessed 9 May 2020); Yale. (accessed 30 April 2020).

(i) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency issued a new syndicated EURO benchmark bond maturing 22 October 2027 (OLO 91) in the near future and increased the number of OLO auctions by also organizing auctions on the penultimate Monday of May, August and October; (ii) 30 March 2020, Belgian Debt Agency stops buying back OLOs maturing in 2022; (iii) 8 April 2020, The Federal Debt Agency announces that it has accepted the offers for the auction of Treasury certificates of today for a total amount of EUR 2.280 billion; (iv) Ban on short-selling stocks until 17 May 2020; (v) 12 May 2020, the Financial Services and Markets Authority agreed to not take action against companies that will not be able to comply with mandatory data provision on code of conduct risk models by 30 June 2020; (vi) 18 May 2020: Suspended the ban on short selling; (vii) 2 June 2020: Extended the agreement on taxation of cross-border workers with Germany and Netherlands until 30 June 2020.

Bhutan 04 04 - Equity support BTN/INR
Bhutan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BTN/INR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); Royal Monetary Authority. (accessed 01 October 2020).

(i) Office of Consumer Protection has published market price information of essential commodities as of 11 March 2020, to monitor and keep track of price movement in the market and provide information to consumers for informed purchase decision; (ii) 24 March 2020, A ban on select food product (e.g., betel leaf, betel nut) import from India has been imposed to curb the spread of COVID-19; (iii) 29 June 2020, Import of luxury motor vehicles and bikes have been suspended; (iv) 4 September 2020, The Royal Monetary Authority announced the issuance of a 3-year government bond of BTN3,000 million with an annual coupon rate of 6.5% to promote capital market development amid the pandemic.

Brazil 04 04 - Equity support BRL
Brazil 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BRL IMF. (Accessed 29 April 2020). AGB. (accessed 14 May 2020). Reuters. (accessed 14 May 2020). Ministry of Economy (accessed 20 July 2020)

(i) With congress declaring a state of “public calamity” on 20 March 2020, the government’s obligation to comply with the primary balance target in 2020 has been lifted. (ii) Proposed a bill creating a separate budget (“war-budget”) to expedite fiscal relief assistance and authorize the central bank to buy and sell government and corporate debt securities among other extraordinary measures. (iii) Pandemic leads 76% of Brazil’s industrial sector to cut production. (iv) Brazil’s government lowered its 2020 economic outlook on Wednesday, forecasting a gross domestic product contraction of 4.7%, which would signal the country’s biggest economic crash in more than a century; (v) 14 July 2020, the Ministry of Economy announced the extension of the proportional reduction of work and salary agreements and temporary suspension of the Benefit's employment contract via the Emergency Preservation of Employment and Income (BEm); (vi) 14 July 2020, the Ministry of Economy announced extension of the validity period of Negative Debt Certificates (CND) and Positive Certificates with Negative Effects (CNEND) for another 30 days, both relating to federal tax credits.

Brunei Darussalam 04 04 - Equity support BND
Brunei Darussalam 11 11 - Other Economic Measures BND
Cambodia 04 04 - Equity support KHR
Cambodia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures KHR IMF. (accessed 24 July 2020); RGC. (accessed 11 June 2020).

(i) April 2020, The government has ordered the suspension of white rice exports, to secure domestic supplies; (ii) 20 May 2020, suspension of white rice exports has been lifted.

Canada 04 04 - Equity support CAD 537,000,000 384,877,262 Department of Finance Canada. (accessed 10 June 2020).

(i) CAD287 million to support rural businesses and communities by providing them with much-needed access to capital through the Community Futures Network; (ii) CAD250 million to assist innovative, early-stage companies that are unable to access other COVID-19 business supports through the Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP).

Canada 11 11 - Other Economic Measures CAD
Cook Islands 04 04 - Equity support NZD
Cook Islands 11 11 - Other Economic Measures NZD
Denmark 04 04 - Equity support DKK 18,777,889,398 2,780,044,946 IMF. (accessed 8 July 2020). European Commission. (accessed 22 July 2020)

(i) 18 April 2020, DKK3.5 billion in loans and equity provided to entrepreneurs and venture firms. The state investment fund (Vaekstfonden) will provide risky capital to start-ups and venture firm, facing difficulties in financing as private investors withdraw from the market. Available in 2020 only; (ii) 15 June 2020, DKK10 billion from a new government-backed fund to act as an investor of last resort with the possibility of recapitalizing large and important firms at risk of bankruptcy; (iii) Together with Sweden, planned recapitalization of SAS (a Dutch airline) through an equity injection. On 17 August 2020, the European Commission (EC) approved this measure. Denmark is expected to provide approximately EUR583 million of the recapitalization funds; (iv) 20 November 2020, EUR1.34 billion approved by the EC as capital support to large companies affected by coronavirus outbreak.

Denmark 11 11 - Other Economic Measures DKK Denmark government. (accessed 13 August 2020). Denmark government. (accessed 27 July 2020)

(i) 11 August 2020, set up a Forum for restarting Danish exports, and eight Restart Teams from various industries to contribute their input; (ii) 21 August 2020, Gave entrepreneurs a better opportunity to re-register entrepreneurial companies as private limited companies. Also extended the deadline for re-registration to 15 October 2021.

European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR
European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) 8 April 2020, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) 24 April 2020, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) 8 June 2020, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June 2020, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group.

European Union 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR WTO. (accessed 20 April 2020); Yale. (accessed 20 April 2020); ESMA. (accessed 19 September 2020); ESMA. (accessed 19 September 2020); EBA. (accessed 1 October 2020); FT. (accessed 22 October 2020); EC. (accessed 29 October 2020); EC. ((accessed 19 January 2021)); EC. (accessed 19 January 2021).

(i) March to April 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), EU's securities and markets regulator, issued various statements to adjust compliance and reporting schedule, clarify accounting standard applications (e.g. IAS 8, IFRS 9, and IFRS 17), and ensure alignment of reporting requirements and supervisory practices in the EU; (ii) 26 April 2020, Export restriction of critical COVID-related products; (iii) 7 September 2020, ESMA provides for the option to apply the annual transparency calculations for non-equity instruments from 21 September 2020; (iv) 17 September 2020, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), the EU’s securities markets regulator, has renewed its decision to temporarily require the holders of net short positions in shares traded on a European Union (EU) regulated market to notify the relevant national competent authority (NCA) if the position reaches or exceeds 0.1% of the issued share capital. The measure applies from 18 September 2020 for a period of three months; (v) 25 September 2020, The European Banking Authority launched its 7th annual EU-wide transparency exercise, with the objective of providing market participants with updated information on the financial conditions of EU banks as of June 2020, thus assessing the preliminary impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the sector. The EBA expects to publish the results of this exercise at the beginning of December, along with the Risk Assessment Report; (vi) 13 October 2020, EC has decided to prolong and extend the scope of the State aid Temporary Framework adopted on 19 March 2020 to support the economy in the context of the coronavirus outbreak. All sections of the Temporary Framework are prolonged for six months until 30 June 2021, and the section to enable recapitalization support is prolonged for three months until 30 September 2021; (vii) 19 October 2020, EU hired banks to start selling new 10- and 20-year bonds under the SURE programme and under the EU EUR750 billion recovery fund; (viii) 21 October 2020, EC issued a EUR17 billion inaugural social bond under the EU SURE instrument to help protect jobs and keep people in work. The issuing consisted of two bonds, with EUR10 billion due for repayment in October 2030 and EUR7 billion due for repayment in 2040. So far, 17 Member States will receive financial support under the SURE instrument; financial support will be provided in the form of loans granted on favorable terms from the EU to Member States; (ix) 13 November 2020, The EC launched the New Consumer Agenda to empower European consumers to play an active role in the green and digital transitions, as well as how to increase consumer protection and resilience during and after the COVID-19 pandemic [update]; (x) 17 December 2020, EU institutions – EC, European Parliament and the European Council - signed the Joint Declaration on legislative priorities for 2021. The Declaration cements the three institutions' commitment to adopt swiftly the necessary legislative proposals to drive the EU's recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, while seizing the opportunities of the climate and digital transitions [update].

Federated States of Micronesia 04 04 - Equity support USD
Federated States of Micronesia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures USD IMF. (accessed 12 April 2020).

(i) No monetary policy response. With the U.S. dollar its legal tender, the FSM does not have a central bank; and (ii) No exchange rate policy response, given that U.S. dollar is the legal tender of the FSM.

Fiji 04 04 - Equity support FJD
Fiji 11 11 - Other Economic Measures FJD US Embassy in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga, and Tuvalu. (accessed 29 October 2020); IMF. (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) 16 October 2020, The Fijian Government and the United States signed Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), first of its kind with the United States to promote trade and investment ties between the two countries; (ii) 25 November 2020, Tourism Fiji held the first ever virtual Fijian Tourism Expo (FTE) to promote tourism and business activities in the country. The Expo is aimed at bringing together potential investors from Australia, New Zealand and leading industrialists in Fiji.

Finland 04 04 - Equity support EUR 710,500,000 785,951,327 MEE. (accessed 3 May 2020); (accessed 9 June 2020); European Sting. (accessed 15 June 2020); Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland. (accessed 19 June 2020).

(i) 6 June 2020, Further capital funding of EUR250 million is proposed for Tesi (Finnish Industry Investment Ltd), to increase equity financing for companies ; (ii) 6 June 2020, Capital funding of EUR 150 million is proposed for strengthening the balance sheet of Finnish Minerals Group; (iii) 10 June 2020, The EU Commission approved Finland's plans to contribute to the recapitalisation of Finnair, amounting to EUR286 million through the subscription of new shares by the State in the rights issue launched by Finnair on 10 June 2020 in the context of the coronavirus outbreak; (iv) 15 June 2020, EUR24.5 million of investment support for NordFuel Oy's Haapevesi biorefinery project for large renewable energy demo projects.

Finland 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR Finnish Government. (accessed 18 July 2020).

9 July 2020, Amendments to pharmaceutical legislation to allow Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the right to temporarily restrict or authorise the prescription and dispensing of medicines intended for treating infectious diseases.