Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Bangladesh 04 04 - Equity support BDT
Bangladesh 07 07 - Central bank financing government BDT IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accesed 14 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: The Bangladesh Bank has announced that it will buy treasury bonds and bills from banks.

Bangladesh 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown BDT
Bangladesh 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BDT
Bhutan 04 04 - Equity support BTN/INR
Bhutan 07 07 - Central bank financing government BTN/INR
Bhutan 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown BTN/INR
Bhutan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BTN/INR
Brunei Darussalam 04 04 - Equity support BND
Brunei Darussalam 07 07 - Central bank financing government BND
Brunei Darussalam 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown BND
Brunei Darussalam 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities BND
Cambodia 04 04 - Equity support KHR
Cambodia 07 07 - Central bank financing government KHR
Cambodia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown KHR
Cambodia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities KHR
European Central Bank 04 04 - Equity support EUR
European Central Bank 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
European Central Bank 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
European Central Bank 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 18 April 2020).

Purchases of government bonds are included in Measure 2 (Encourage Private Credit Creation). The amount could not be disaggregated from the EUR 750 billion PEPP program.

European Union 04 04 - Equity support EUR 549,000,000 607,300,885 EIB. https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2020-103-eib-backs-eur5-billion-investment-to-mitigate-economic-impact-of-coronavirus-and-support-medical-technology (accessed 29 April 2020); Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 29 April 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1007 (accessed 12 June 2020); EC. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1507 (accessed 27 August 2020).

(i) April 8, The Commission is launching ESCALAR, a new investment approach, developed together with the European Investment Fund (EIF), that will support venture capital and growth financing for promising companies. In its pilot phase, ESCALAR will provide up to EUR300 million backed by the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI); (ii) April 24, EIB also approved an equity investment worth EUR75 million for the German company Curevac, through the EIB's Infectious Disease Financing Facility; (iii) June 8, EUR174 million equity investments from the European Innovation Council (EIC) Accelerator Pilot funding to innovative startups and SMEs; (iv) June, EUR5.3 billion for the Solvency Support Instrument that will work via an EU guarantee provided to the European Investment Bank (EIB) Group under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). Solvency support will form a separate window under the EFSI to mobilise private capital. The EIB Group will use this guarantee to provide financing directly or invest, fund or guarantee equity funds, special purpose vehicles, investment platforms or national promotional banks. These intermediary funds or vehicles must be established and operate in the EU. The Solvency Support Instrument should predominantly channel solvency support through financial market intermediaries and only to a lesser degree facilitate direct support to companies by the EIB Group [update].

European Union 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
European Union 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
European Union 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
India 04 04 - Equity support INR
India 07 07 - Central bank financing government INR 400,000,000,000 5,382,406,909
India 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown INR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 5 May 2020).

April 20, The RBI increased the limit for ways and means advances for the Central Government (a short-term liquidity facility) for the remaining part of the first half of the FY 2020/21 from INR 1.2 trillion to INR2.0 trillion. The WMA is a temporary liquidity facility offered by the RBI to the government that acts as a credit line that the government may call upon to help them reconcile short-term mismatches in cash flows of their receipts and expenditures.

India 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities INR 400,000,000,000 5,382,406,909 RBI. https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=50252 (accessed 27 August 2020). https://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=50012, https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/BS_PressReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=49712 (both accessed as of 2 July 2020).

(i) April 27, INR100 billion purchase of government securities under Open Market Operations (OMO); (ii) June 29, another INR100 billion purchase of government securities under Open Market Operations (OMO). These two operations, totalling INR200 billion, have long-term maturities ranging from 6 years to 10 years and are meant to replace the concurrent sale of short-term government securities maturing within the next year; (iii) August 26, Decided to again conduct simultaneous purchase and sale of government securities under Open Market Operation (OMO) for an aggregate amount of INR200 billion in two tranches of INR100 billion each. The auctions would be conducted on August 27, 2020 and September 03, 2020. [update]

Indonesia 04 04 - Equity support IDR
Indonesia 07 07 - Central bank financing government IDR 783,770,000,000,000 51,582,229,935
Indonesia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown IDR 617,560,000,000,000 40,643,456,522 The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/04/23/bank-indonesia-buys-108m-of-government-bonds-at-auction-first-time-since-rule-change.html (accessed 27 April 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-28-Mei-2020.aspx (accessed 2 June 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/Perkembangan-Terkini-Perekonomian-dan-Langkah-BI-dalam-Hadapi-COVID-19-5-Juni-2020.aspx (accessed 10 June 2020). Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-economy/indonesia-unveils-40-billion-bond-scheme-to-fund-recovery-from-pandemic-idUSKBN2471AZ?il=0 (accessed 6 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_225220.aspx (accessed 16 July 2020). BI. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_226420.aspx (accessed 19 August 2020).

(i) April 21, BI directly purchased IDR1.7 trillion (USD108 million) worth of sharia sovereign bonds during an auction held by the government for the first time. As of August 18, BI has purchased IDR42.96 trillion in the primary market through auction schemes, greenshoe options and private placements under the April 16 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance. ii) No amount/estimate: In line with BI's expanded financial stability mandate as mentioned in (v) of Measure 1A, BI is authorized to finance the deposit insurance agency (LPS) for bank solvency problems. (vi) July 6, BI agreed to directly purchase IDR397.6 trillion worth of government bonds at 0% interest and be a standby buyer for IDR177 trillion in auctions at 1 percentage point below the benchmark rate to help finance the central government's pandemic response efforts under the July 7 Joint Decree with the Ministry of Finance. As of August 18, BI has made IDR82.1 trillion in primary market purchases through private placements under this agreement.

Indonesia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities IDR 166,210,000,000,000 10,938,773,412 Bank Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/en/ruang-media/siaran-pers/Pages/sp_223020.aspx; https://www.bi.go.id/id/ruang-media/info-terbaru/Pages/BI-Terbitkan-Ketentuan-Pelaksanaan-Lelang-SUN-dan-atau-SBSN-Jangka-Panjang-di-Pasar-Perdana.aspx (accessed 27 April 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#P (accessed 5 May 2020).

(i) From January to April, IDR166.21 trillion purchases of government securities (SBN) in the secondary market by BI.

Lao PDR 04 04 - Equity support LAK
Lao PDR 07 07 - Central bank financing government LAK
Lao PDR 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown LAK
Lao PDR 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities LAK
Malaysia 04 04 - Equity support MYR 1,200,000,000 279,342,614 Ministry of Finance. https://penjana.treasury.gov.my/pdf/PENJANA-Booklet-En-v3.pdf (accessed 26 June 2020).

June 5 in Short-term National Economic Recovery Plan or PENJANA, An investment fund, amounting to MYR1.2 billion, will be established, which will match institutional private capital investment with selected venture capital and early stage tech fund managers.

Malaysia 07 07 - Central bank financing government MYR 8,885,332,075 2,068,376,571
Malaysia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown MYR
Malaysia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities MYR 8,885,332,075 2,068,376,571 Bank Negara Malaysia. https://www.bnm.gov.my/web/guest/bnmstatement/-/tag/bnmstats-2020 (accessed 4 September 2020).

28 August 2020, The Malaysian Government Papers purchased by the Bank Negara Malaysia amounted to MYR10.86 billion. This is equal to an increase of MYR8.89 billion from 31 December 2019 (total of MYR1.98 billion) [update].

Maldives 04 04 - Equity support MVR
Maldives 07 07 - Central bank financing government MVR