Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AFN
Afghanistan 03A 03A - Long-term lending AFN
Afghanistan 03B 03B - Forbearance AFN
Afghanistan 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AFN
Afghanistan 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) Between March and April 2020, Border closures and suspension of international and domestic flights; As of November, both domestic and international travel has resumed. However, passengers will still need to carry a COVID-19 negative certificate.

Afghanistan 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown that had been in place since late March/early April for 3 more months. All public places are to remain closed, while public transportation facilities carrying more than 4 passengers are not allowed to travel. Restaurants and coffee shops are only allowed to carry out deliveries and take-outs. As of November 2020, this 6-month lockdown has been lifted.

Afghanistan 12C 12C - Others AFN UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Afghanistan_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) March 26, The government released over 10,000 prisoners to reduce the risk of mass infections in penitentiaries; (ii) Social distancing measures, including a three-week lockdown of Kabul (28 March 2020) and Ghazni (1 April 2020) and restricting daily movements to those deemed essential; (iii) Lockdowns in over 20 provinces, including Kabul and other cities, were extended for 3 weeks on 17 April; (iv) 6 June 2020, The government extended the nationwide lockdown for 3 more months, as well as mandating additional health precautions. As of November, the lockdown has been lifted. Public gatherings are now allowed, and educational institutions have reopened.

Arab Republic of Egypt 03 03 - Direct long-term lending EGP 112,000,000,000 7,126,961,142
Arab Republic of Egypt 03A 03A - Long-term lending EGP 112,000,000,000 7,126,961,142 Arab News. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1787126/business-economy (accessed 7 January 2020); Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-18-June-2020-regarding-including-medium-start-ups-and-small-companies-related-to-large-groups-in-the-8-initi.aspx (accessed 19 June 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 August 2020).

(i) No amount/estimate: Loans with a two-year grace period will be made available to aviation sector firms; (ii) No amount/estimate: Central Bank introduced credit lines that can be paid over a maximum of two years with a six-month grace period, specifically for tourism enterprises to facilitate paying of salaries and financial dues for suppliers; (iii) 18 June 2020, EGP100 billion in funding accessible to all SMEs in the industrial, agricultural, and contracting sectors; (iv) 23 July 2020, A new consumer spending initiative has been announced by the government, as part of which, two-year low-interest installments will be made available to encourage spending. This is meant to complement the initiative on the same date in Measure 5B. As of 30 July 2020, this was announced to equal EGP10 billion; (v) 30 July 2020, A housing initiative has been announced to provide low cost financing for housing units. Further, a new lending initiative with soft loans at zero-to-low interest rates from banks is aimed at replacing old cars with natural gas-powered vehicles; (vi) 4 January 2020, Egypt has granted EgyptAir Holding Co. a loan of EGP2 billion to help the national flag carrier ride the devastating financial impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the sector. The interest subsidy provided by the government is reflected in Measure 5B4.

Arab Republic of Egypt 03B 03B - Forbearance EGP World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) 24 March 2020, The government also introduced a six-month extension for credit repayments targeting all individuals and businesses, as well as the waiving of late fines for such repayments; (ii) 27 March 2020, Mortgage financing companies, factoring and leasing companies mandated to give a six-month grace period to any client who asks; (iii) New debt relief initiative for individuals at risk of default has also been announced, that will waive marginal interest on debt under EGP1 million if customers make a 50% payment; (iv) Microlenders have been instructed to also consider delays on a case-by-case basis, of up to 50% of the value of monthly installments for struggling clients.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020).

(i) Temporarily halting all air travel; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – air travel will resume and public transportation will operate between 4 am and midnight; (iii) As of December 2020, International flights have resumed, and tourists are arriving in small numbers.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) Encouraging civil servants to work from home in non-essential sectors, and closing all malls, gyms, sporting clubs, in-dining restaurants and cafes; (ii) Starting July 2020, there will be a gradual re-opening of the economy – restaurants and cafes will open with 25 percent capacity, stores will close at 9 pm while restaurants and cafes will close at 10 pm, public parks and beaches will remain closed until further notice, places of worship will be open for daily prayers but main prayers like Friday prayers and masses will not be allowed, cinemas, theaters, and entertainment venues will operate with 25 percent capacity.

Arab Republic of Egypt 12C 12C - Others EGP IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020); Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/egypt-starts-covid-19-vaccination/2121613 (accessed 28 January 2021).

(i) 28 April 2020, A Presidential decree published in the Official Gazette declared the state of emergency across the country for three months; (ii) The authorities have taken a host of precautionary measures to improve testing as well as to limit the community spread of the virus, including (a) setting up testing centers, (b) imposing a nighttime curfew, (c) temporarily closing places of worship; (iii) Authorities have also suspended the export of all types of legumes for a period of 3 months and plan to start increasing strategic food reserves to meet domestic demand; (iv) All parks and specialized gardens around Cairo will open to the public starting on 26 August 2020, with a maximum capacity of 50%. Starting 21 September 2020, funeral prayers and wedding ceremonies held in open-air venues have been allowed, for a maximum limit of 300 people; (v) Egypt’s Health Ministry released a 3-stage plan outlining required procedures in preparation for the gradual easing of restrictions within the country; (vi) 25 January 2021, Egypt started its COVID-19 vaccination plan [update].

Argentina 03 03 - Direct long-term lending ARS 40,620,000,000 647,330,677
Argentina 03A 03A - Long-term lending ARS 40,620,000,000 647,330,677 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 15 May 2020). Government of Argentina. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/el-gobierno-anuncio-una-linea-de-creditos-para-pymes-turisticas-con-un-ano-de-gracia-y-tasa (accessed 30 October 2020).

(i) Offered ARS2.25 billion loans at a fixed rate of 12% and non-refundable contributions to companies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), cooperatives, and research and development instituions that contribute to the COVID-19 health emergency; (ii) Allocated ARS25 billion from the state-owned bank BNA for producers of food, personal hygiene and cleaning, and producers of medical supplie; (iii) Allocated ARS5 billion to support teleworking and ARS2.8 billion to develop infrastructure in industrial parks; (iv) granted a total of ARS70 million Non-Refundable Contributions (ANRs) for a maximum amount for high impact or associative projects; (v) increased the monthly non-remunerative financial to temporary workers in the agricultural and agro-industrial sector; (vi) No amount/estimate: 11 May 2020, launched the the Recuperar program, a sector-specific helpline with non-bank financing at an interest rate of 3% per year, for machines, tools or capital goods; (vii) 10 September 2020, ARS2.5 billion expansion of the National Program for the Development of Suppliers to to assist companies that provide industrial goods and services in strategic value chains; (vii) 13 October 2020, Announced a ARS3 billion credit line for tourism SMEs with a one-year grace period and zero rate in the first 12 installments and a 100% guarantee from FOGAR.

Argentina 03B 03B - Forbearance ARS Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 27 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) Extended maturities for debt issued under the Debt Regulatization Regime of Law No. 27,541 to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and micro-SMEs until June 30, 2020; (ii) Required financial institutions to automatically refinance unpaid credit card balances with a one-year term with 3 months grace, 9 equal and consecutive monthly installments and an annual nominal rate of 43%; (iii) Suspended punitive interest charges on unpaid balances of credits granted by financial entities, whose installments were due between April 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020.

Argentina 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures ARS
Argentina 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) ARS IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020).

(i) The country has adopted full closure of borders and a nation-wide quarantine, beginning on 20 March 2020 and lasting until at least 26 April 2020, including closed borders.

Argentina 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace ARS Republic World. https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/south-america/argentina-malls-back-in-business-as-lockdown-eases.html (accessed 16 October 2020).

(i) 11 October 2020, schools and other education activities can be resumed, if certain epidemiological criteria are fulfilled. (ii) 15 October 2020, almost 8 months after lockdown, reopening of large shopping centers and the return of regular internal flights and public transport.

Argentina 12C 12C - Others ARS
Armenia 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AMD
Armenia 03A 03A - Long-term lending AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

No amount/estimate: 27 March 2020, Preferential loans to SMEs in sectors including manufacturing, transportation and storage economy, tourism, other service sectors, and healthcare. The loans will be interest-free for the first 2 years and 12% for the third year.

Armenia 03B 03B - Forbearance AMD
Armenia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AMD
Armenia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020). Tass News Agency. https://tass.com/economy/1244483 (accessed 14 January 2021)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government declared a national state of emergency, first until 14 April, but subsequently extended to 14 May, 13 June, 13 July, and finally being lifted on 11 September. During the state of emergency, travel bans were imposed on citizens from high-risk countries. Public transportation and other domestic travel was reopened earlier, on 18 May; (ii) 13 January 2021, Entry restrictions for foreigners in Armenia are withdrawn; all foreigners now can enter both by air and via ground checkpoints, as long as they have a negative PCR test result made within last 72 hours.

Armenia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

16 March 2020, As part of the state of emergency, the government implemented closures of public spaces. Retail businesses and restaurants were allowed to reopen earlier, on 18 May.

Armenia 12C 12C - Others AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

(i) 16 March 2020, The government declared a national state of emergency, first until 14 April, but subsequently extended to 14 May, 13 June, 13 July, and finally being lifted on 11 September. As part of the state of emergency, the government implemented lockdowns as well as social distancing protocols and other health precautions; (ii) Quarantine is still in effect until 11 January 2021, which bans large gatherings and requires 14-day self-isolation and testing for people entering the country.

Australia 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AUD
Australia 03A 03A - Long-term lending AUD Government of Australia. https://www.smartraveller.gov.au/COVID-19/covid-19-overseas-financial-assistance (accessed 3 September 2020).

No amount/estimate: 2 September 2020, Government announced interest-free loans to Australians who are stranded overseas and in financial distress.

Australia 03B 03B - Forbearance AUD
Australia 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures AUD
Australia 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/state-quarantine-requirements-for-interstate-travel (accessed 22 July 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/more-flights-helping-australians-return (accessed 19 October 2020); Prime Minister's Office. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/statement-national-cabinet (accessed 12 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Travel restrictions, screening travelers who arrive in Australia and ensuring they self-isolate on arrival, continuing with border surveillance; (ii) 14 July 2020, State and territory governments have imposed a range of interstate travel restrictions, including the closure of certain state borders and 14-day quarantine period upon arrival of travellers; (iii) 16 October 2020, The Australian Government is facilitating additional commercial flights from the United Kingdom, India, and South Africa to help more Australians return amid the unprecedented travel disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This arrangement will create the capacity for more than 5,000 Australians to return over the next six months; (iv) 8 January 2021, Returning Australians and other travellers to Australia must have a negative COVID-19 test prior to departure; (v) 8 January 2021, All passengers and air crew are required to wear masks on flights and in airports; (vi) 8 January 2021, International passenger caps in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia will be temporarily halved from no later than 15 January 2021 to manage the flow of returning Australians and other travellers who have been potentially exposed to the new variants.

Australia 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace AUD
Australia 12C 12C - Others AUD Department of Health, Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/government-response-to-the-covid-19-outbreak (accessed on 05 May 2020); Government of Australia COVID19 official website. https://www.australia.gov.au/coronavirus-updates (accessed 3 June 2020); Department of Health. https://www.health.gov.au/news/should-i-wear-a-face-mask-in-public-0 (accessed 30 July 2020); Government of Australia. https://www.australia.gov.au/framework-national-reopening (accessed 27 October 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/tasmania-help-more-australians-return-home (accessed on 09 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.australia.gov.au/content/dam/australia/news-and-updates/framework-national-reopening-nov2020.pdf (accessed 16 November 2020); Australian Government. https://www.covid-19.sa.gov.au/emergency-declarations/public-activities (accessed 24 November 2020); Office of the Prime Minister. https://www.pm.gov.au/media/pfizer-vaccine-approved (accessed 26 January 2021).

(i) March 2020, Enforcing social distancing measures, testing people suspected of the disease, and isolating people with the virus and their close contacts; (iii) Increasing of health system capacity; (ii) March 2020, Delivering support to Australians experiencing domestic, family, and sexual violence due to the fallout of coronavirus; (iii) March 2020, Putting limits on some prescription and over the counter medications, to make sure those who need them can access them; (iv) 26 April 2020, The COVIDSafe app is available for voluntary download to speed up contacting people exposed to coronavirus; (v) 8 May 2020, The National Cabinet will consider the first phase of easing COVID-19 restrictions. Some states and territories have begun easing selected regional restrictions; (vi) 30 July 2020, The government published guidance on wearing face masks; (vii) 23 October 2020, National Cabinet agreed in-principle to the Framework for National Reopening, designed to reopen Australia to a state of ‘COVID Normal’, wherever it is safe to do so, by December 2020 while managing the health impacts and severity of COVID-19; (viii) 7 November 2020, The Australian and Tasmanian Governments have agreed to provide an additional 450 spaces in quarantine facilities to help more Australians return home from abroad; (ix) 13 November 2020, The Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory agreed to a new ‘Framework for National Reopening Australia by Christmas’ subject to local health advice; (x) 22 November 2020, The Emergency Management (Stay at Home No.3) Direction 2020 has been released by the government to update rules on public activities and management of places where these activities occur; (xi) 25 January 2021, Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has provisionally approved the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for use in Australia [update].

Austria 03 03 - Direct long-term lending EUR 150,000,000 165,929,204
Austria 03A 03A - Long-term lending EUR 150,000,000 165,929,204 European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1275 (accessed 8 July 2020).

6 July 2020, EUR150 million subordinated loan from the Austrian government to support Austrian Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak. This loan is convertible into a grant depending on the full-year results of Austrian Airlines.

Austria 03B 03B - Forbearance EUR Bundesministerium Finanzen. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/kreditmoratorium-verlaengert.html (accessed 04 June 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: Austrians are allowed to defer interest payments on bank loans. 2 June 2020, Extended the loan deferrals available for private and micro-enterprises by four months, which allows beneficiaries to defer repayment obligations for principal or interest payments without suffering legally.

Austria 12 12 - Non-Economic Measures EUR
Austria 12A 12A - Measures affecting travel and transport (local and international) EUR The Local, Austria. https://www.thelocal.at/20210112/here-is-the-form-you-need-to-register-to-come-to-austria(accessed 14 January 2021); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 1 October 2020).

(i) The authorities have progressively tightened containment measures between mid-March and mid-April. Initially targeted to travel to and from Italy and self-quarantine for people with symptoms, lockdowns became stricter and stricter and covering more countries as the situation developed; (ii) By 16 March 2020, leaving home was banned by law with limited exceptions; (iii) The re-opening process is expected to last through June though some steps were accelerated recently due to low infection rates, such as the reopening of the borders with Germany, Switzerland, Lichtenstein, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary from 5 June 2020; (iv) 16 June 2020, travelling restrictions were lifted for most European countries; (v) 12 January 2021, To facilitate contract tracing, authorities at the border entering Austria will require online registration for everyone, including for Austrian citizens and residents, before crossing.

Austria 12B 12B - Measures affecting business and workplace EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 11 November 2020).

(i) For all judicial and administrative procedures, the clock was put on hold to avoid hardship due to missed deadlines; (ii) 13 April 2020, gradual re-opening of the economy has started, from small shops, construction and garden centers, while other stores and hairdressers were allowed to open at the beginning of May; (iii) Open air markets and business premises are exempted from the mandate on mouth and nose protective masks since 1 June 2020; (iv) The authorities eventually announced a 4-week partial lockdown effective on 3 November 2020. Compared to the first lockdown, the second lockdown is relatively more lenient. While restaurants and bar are ordered to be closed, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools remain open.

Austria 12C 12C - Others EUR IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 14 December 2020); The Local Austria. https://www.thelocal.at/20210117/austria-extends-coronavirus-lockdown-until-february-7th (accessed 21 January 2021).

(i) Anti-COVID19 measures progressed to bans on large gathering in public spaces, replacing schools, and university classes with home learnings, and isolation of several ski resorts; (ii) By mid-May when religious services, outdoor sports, museums, libraries, and archives reopened, the Bundesliga was allowed to restart; (iii) 15 June 2020, the standing obligation for all persons to wear a face mask was limited to public transportation, pharmacies and services when a 1-meter distance cannot be maintained, or no other protective measures are available; (iv) 24 July 2020, pickup in the infection rate in some areas has prompted the authorities to tighten previously relaxed containment measures such as mandatory mask wearing in some areas; (v) In September 2020, this tightening extended to indoors and public institutions; (vi) The authorities eventually announced a partial second lockdown between 3 November and 6 December 2020. Industry and manufacturing continue to open while restaurants, bars, non-essential shops, hairdressers, and schools are closed. This lockdown was subsequently tightened from 17 November 2020; (vii) 17 January 2021, Austria extended the coronavirus lockdown until 7 February 2021 and tightened existing measures.