Economy Measure Code Measure Currency Code Amount (Local) Amount (USD) Source Details
Afghanistan 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AFN
Afghanistan 03A 03A - Long-term lending AFN
Afghanistan 03B 03B - Forbearance AFN
Afghanistan 07 07 - Central bank financing government AFN
Afghanistan 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AFN
Afghanistan 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AFN
Afghanistan 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AFN IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#U (accessed 24 July 2020)

(i) The government has taken steps to replace wheat imports lost due to border closures with purchases from Central Asia; (ii) On 15 July 2020, trade with India through Wagah border post in Pakistan resumed.

Arab Republic of Egypt 03 03 - Direct long-term lending EGP 112,000,000,000 7,126,961,142
Arab Republic of Egypt 03A 03A - Long-term lending EGP 112,000,000,000 7,126,961,142 Arab News. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1787126/business-economy (accessed 7 January 2020); Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-18-June-2020-regarding-including-medium-start-ups-and-small-companies-related-to-large-groups-in-the-8-initi.aspx (accessed 19 June 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 6 August 2020).

(i) No amount/estimate: Loans with a two-year grace period will be made available to aviation sector firms; (ii) No amount/estimate: Central Bank introduced credit lines that can be paid over a maximum of two years with a six-month grace period, specifically for tourism enterprises to facilitate paying of salaries and financial dues for suppliers; (iii) 18 June 2020, EGP100 billion in funding accessible to all SMEs in the industrial, agricultural, and contracting sectors; (iv) 23 July 2020, A new consumer spending initiative has been announced by the government, as part of which, two-year low-interest installments will be made available to encourage spending. This is meant to complement the initiative on the same date in Measure 5B. As of 30 July 2020, this was announced to equal EGP10 billion; (v) 30 July 2020, A housing initiative has been announced to provide low cost financing for housing units. Further, a new lending initiative with soft loans at zero-to-low interest rates from banks is aimed at replacing old cars with natural gas-powered vehicles; (vi) 4 January 2020, Egypt has granted EgyptAir Holding Co. a loan of EGP2 billion to help the national flag carrier ride the devastating financial impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the sector. The interest subsidy provided by the government is reflected in Measure 5B4. [update]

Arab Republic of Egypt 03B 03B - Forbearance EGP World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) 24 March 2020, The government also introduced a six-month extension for credit repayments targeting all individuals and businesses, as well as the waiving of late fines for such repayments; (ii) 27 March 2020, Mortgage financing companies, factoring and leasing companies mandated to give a six-month grace period to any client who asks; (iii) New debt relief initiative for individuals at risk of default has also been announced, that will waive marginal interest on debt under EGP1 million if customers make a 50% payment; (iv) Microlenders have been instructed to also consider delays on a case-by-case basis, of up to 50% of the value of monthly installments for struggling clients.

Arab Republic of Egypt 07 07 - Central bank financing government EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EGP
Arab Republic of Egypt 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EGP 11,786,229,548 750,000,000 Central Bank of Egypt. https://www.cbe.org.eg/en/Pages/HighlightsPages/Circular-dated-6-August,-2020-regarding-allowing-banks-to-own-unlimited-shares-in-payment-service-providers-and-payment-sys.aspx (accessed 12 August 2020). Egypt Independent. https://egyptindependent.com/egypt-launches-first-green-bonds-in-middle-east-and-africa-worth-us750-mn/ (accessed 22 October 2020). Financial Regulatory Authority Egypt. http://www.fra.gov.eg/content/efsa_ar/efsa_news/efsa_921.htm (accessed 15 October 2020). World Bank. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/covid-19-finance-sector-related-policy-responses (accessed 7 May 2020); OECD. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/ (accessed 7 May 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 7 May 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) 20 March 2020, The limit for electronic payments via mobile phones has been raised to EGP30,000/day and EGP100,000/month for individuals, and to EGP40,000/day and EGP200,000/per week for corporations; (ii) 29 March 2020, The central bank set a daily limit on all ATM disbursement per card to be EGP5,000, and limits to cash withdrawal and deposits at a bank branch to be EGP10,000 per individual, and EGP50,000 per corporate; (iii) The cost of transactions in the EGX will be reduced from 0.15% to 0.125% and from 0.15% to 0.05% for non-residents and Egyptian residents, respectively, and all spot transactions on EGX will be exempt from stamp duty; (iv) The National Bank of Egypt and Bank Misr announced a one-year deposit program with a 15% interest rate; (v) 6 August 2020, Allowed banks to own unlimited shares in payment service providers and payment systems operators; (vi) 4 October 2020, The Financial Regulatory Authority reduced the fees for examination and study services owed to the authority by 50% for medium and small companies when they apply for the Authority’s approval when taking steps related to the Egyptian stock exchange (such as preparations for an IPO). The change was aimed at incentivizing SMEs to go to the stock exchange for funding; (vii) 20 October 2020, USD750 million in green bonds (first in Middle East and Africa) to finance expenditures related to green projects addressing the impacts of COVID-19 while also taking into account environmental standards.

Argentina 03 03 - Direct long-term lending ARS 40,620,000,000 647,330,677
Argentina 03A 03A - Long-term lending ARS 40,620,000,000 647,330,677 Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 15 May 2020). Government of Argentina. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/el-gobierno-anuncio-una-linea-de-creditos-para-pymes-turisticas-con-un-ano-de-gracia-y-tasa (accessed 30 October 2020).

(i) Offered ARS2.25 billion loans at a fixed rate of 12% and non-refundable contributions to companies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), cooperatives, and research and development instituions that contribute to the COVID-19 health emergency; (ii) Allocated ARS25 billion from the state-owned bank BNA for producers of food, personal hygiene and cleaning, and producers of medical supplie; (iii) Allocated ARS5 billion to support teleworking and ARS2.8 billion to develop infrastructure in industrial parks; (iv) granted a total of ARS70 million Non-Refundable Contributions (ANRs) for a maximum amount for high impact or associative projects; (v) increased the monthly non-remunerative financial to temporary workers in the agricultural and agro-industrial sector; (vi) No amount/estimate: 11 May 2020, launched the the Recuperar program, a sector-specific helpline with non-bank financing at an interest rate of 3% per year, for machines, tools or capital goods; (vii) 10 September 2020, ARS2.5 billion expansion of the National Program for the Development of Suppliers to to assist companies that provide industrial goods and services in strategic value chains; (vii) 13 October 2020, Announced a ARS3 billion credit line for tourism SMEs with a one-year grace period and zero rate in the first 12 installments and a 100% guarantee from FOGAR.

Argentina 03B 03B - Forbearance ARS Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 27 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: (i) Extended maturities for debt issued under the Debt Regulatization Regime of Law No. 27,541 to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and micro-SMEs until June 30, 2020; (ii) Required financial institutions to automatically refinance unpaid credit card balances with a one-year term with 3 months grace, 9 equal and consecutive monthly installments and an annual nominal rate of 43%; (iii) Suspended punitive interest charges on unpaid balances of credits granted by financial entities, whose installments were due between April 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020.

Argentina 07 07 - Central bank financing government ARS
Argentina 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown ARS
Argentina 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities ARS
Argentina 11 11 - Other Economic Measures ARS Yale. https://som.yale.edu/faculty-research-centers/centers-initiatives/program-on-financial-stability/covid-19-crisis (accessed 9 May 2020, 26 June 2020); IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19 (accessed 27 April 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/232522/20200724 (accesed 31 July 2020). Official Bulletin of Argentina. https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/230897/20200619 (accessed 2 October 2020).

(i) Capital Flow Management Measures (CFMs) that were already in place since August 2019 have largely protected Argentina so far from the impact of capital outflows; (ii) Adopted anti-price gouging policies, including price controls for food and medical supplies and ringfencing of essential supplies, including certain export restrictions on medical supplies and equipment and centralization of the sale of essential medical supplies.; (iii) 28 April 2020, Ordered that the Common Investment Funds (FCI) in pesos must invest at least 75% of their assets in financial instruments and negotiable securities issued in the Argentine Republic; (iv) Extended deadline of filing financial statements for small and medium-sized corporations; (v) 16 May 2020, extended validity of Maximum Prices until June 20; (vi) 18 May 2020, suspended price increases mobile and fixed telephony, Internet and pay TV services until August 31; June 18, extended until end of the year ; (v) 19 May 2020, set the domestic price of a barrel of oil at USD45 with the objective of reactivating the national hydrocarbon industry, guaranteeing the continuity of jobs and promoting self-sufficiency; (vi) 18 June 2020, extended the suspension of the closure and disabling of bank accounts until December 31, 2020, inclusive; (vii) 23 July 2020, extension of 15 days for presentation and payment of tax returns on earnings and personal and identity assets.

Armenia 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AMD
Armenia 03A 03A - Long-term lending AMD UNESCAP. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/Armenia_COVID%20Country%20profile%20041120.pdf (accessed 5 December 2020)

No amount/estimate: 27 March 2020, Preferential loans to SMEs in sectors including manufacturing, transportation and storage economy, tourism, other service sectors, and healthcare. The loans will be interest-free for the first 2 years and 12% for the third year.

Armenia 03B 03B - Forbearance AMD
Armenia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AMD
Armenia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AMD
Armenia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AMD
Armenia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AMD KPMG. https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2020/04/armenia-government-and-institution-measures-in-response-to-covid.html (accessed 14 May 2020)

14 May 2020, Temporary restrictions on the export of medical masks, gloves and goggles, biohazard suits, medical robes, antiviral medicines, gauze and other medical products.

Australia 03 03 - Direct long-term lending AUD
Australia 03A 03A - Long-term lending AUD Government of Australia. https://www.smartraveller.gov.au/COVID-19/covid-19-overseas-financial-assistance (accessed 3 September 2020).

No amount/estimate: 2 September 2020, Government announced interest-free loans to Australians who are stranded overseas and in financial distress.

Australia 03B 03B - Forbearance AUD
Australia 07 07 - Central bank financing government AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936
Australia 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown AUD
Australia 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities AUD 150,000,000,000 93,269,999,936 RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-13.html (accessed on 14 May 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/covid-19/ (accessed 3 June 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-17.html (accessed 8 July 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-20.html (accessed 01 September 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/media-releases/2020/mr-20-24.html (accessed 07 October 2020); RBA. https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2020/sp-gov-2020-11-03.html (accessed 04 November 2020).

(i) April 2020, The RBA has announced yield targeting on 3-year government bonds at 0.25% through purchases of government bonds in the secondary market. On 5 May 2020, RBA has purchased AUD50 billion of Australia Government securities (AGS) and semis in the secondary market. 5 May, 2 June, 7 July, 1 September, and 6 October 2020, the RBA announced that it will maintain the current policy setting. 3 November 2020, RBA announced that it will reduce the 3-year yield target rate from 0.25% to 0.10%; (ii) 3 November 2020, The RBA announced that it intends to purchase AUD100 billion of government bonds issued by the Australian Government as well as by the states and territories over the next six months.

Australia 11 11 - Other Economic Measures AUD
Austria 03 03 - Direct long-term lending EUR 150,000,000 165,929,204
Austria 03A 03A - Long-term lending EUR 150,000,000 165,929,204 European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_1275 (accessed 8 July 2020).

6 July 2020, EUR150 million subordinated loan from the Austrian government to support Austrian Airlines for damages suffered due to coronavirus outbreak. This loan is convertible into a grant depending on the full-year results of Austrian Airlines.

Austria 03B 03B - Forbearance EUR Bundesministerium Finanzen. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/kreditmoratorium-verlaengert.html (accessed 04 June 2020); OECD. http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/en/#country-tracker (accessed 15 April 2020).

No amount/estimate: Austrians are allowed to defer interest payments on bank loans. 2 June 2020, Extended the loan deferrals available for private and micro-enterprises by four months, which allows beneficiaries to defer repayment obligations for principal or interest payments without suffering legally.

Austria 07 07 - Central bank financing government EUR
Austria 07A 07A - Direct lending and reserve drawdown EUR
Austria 07B 07B - Secondary purchase: government securities EUR
Austria 11 11 - Other Economic Measures EUR BMF. https://www.bmf.gv.at/presse/pressemeldungen/2020/juni/regierungsklausur.html (accessed 17 June 2020). Austrian Financial Market Authority. https://www.fma.gv.at/fma-beendet-die-per-verordnung-erlassenen-einschraenkungen-fuer-leerverkaeufe-in-bestimmten-finanzinstrumenten-die-an-der-wiener-boerse-notieren/ (accessed 21 May 2020). IMF. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19#A (accessed 9 May 2020).

(i) On 18 March 2020, the Financial Market Authority prohibited short sales for one month following the massive drop in prices on the Vienna Stock Exchange due to betting on covered share price losses and and extended the prohibition to 18 May 2020 on 16 April 2020; (ii) No amount/estimate: 18 May 2020, Ended the restrictions on short sales beginning midnight of the same day; (iii) 16 June 2020, To incentivize companies to buy capital goods, added a degressive depreciation option for an unlimited period, up to 30% of an investment good should be written off in the first year.